Skip to main content

Full text of "British Burma Gazetteer Vol.2"

See other formats


GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

CENTRAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
LIBRARY 


-jslo 30^-51 



D.G.A. 79. 




THE 


BRITISH BHRIA GAZETTEER 


IN TWO VOLUMES. 


VOIj. II. 


Coinpilcb bj) JluthoritB- 


30 


.? K'i 



-gjn.30 757/^ . 

' h ' B ■ S ■ / 



'LibrarfRegr .^o 


I 


Rangoon : 

PBINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS, 




central arcmaeologiga^ 
library, Ni^W ^LRHI. 

A«*U ^ OT 

Drtfc 




T^‘'5‘G'|^euvv 



V 


\ - 



Mr- 




BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


AGWON. — A revenue circle on the sea-coast of the Thanlyeng (%nam) 
township, Rangoon district, north-east of the mouth of the Rangoon river. 
The southern part of the coast-line is formed by a sandy beach fringed by a 
belt of tree and grass jungle whilst further to the north-east the sand gives 
place to mud ; the rest of the country is an open plain undulating slightly 
towards the north with, here and there, depressed and marshy spots which 
form the principal inland fisheries. The inhabitants are engaged in agricul- 
true, in fishing, and in salt-making. The population in 1876 numbered 11,568 
and the gross Revenue amounted to Rs. 1,04,178 of which Rs. 87,020 were 
derived from the land.* 

A-HLAT. — A village of about 600 inhabitants, in the extreme south-west- 
ern portion of the Martaban township, Amherst district. 

A- HP YOU K. — A village, or rather group of three villages, in the Hen- 
zada district, on the left bank of the Irrawaddy, some miles south of 
the latitude of Zalwon. In 1875 the group contained a population of 2,150 
souls. 

A-HPYOUK. — A revenue circle in the south-eastern portion of the 
Zalwon township of the Hen zada district, with much rice cultivation in its 
southern part and along the bank of the Irrawaddy. This circle contains 
numerous lakes and fi.sheries of which the largest are the Gnyee-re-gyee nearly 
three miles long and half a mile broad and from fifteen to twenty feet deep in 
the dry weather and, further east, the Biendaw from two to two and 
a half miles long but narrow and about ten feet deep. 

In 1876 the circle had a population of 6,606 souls and produced a gross 
Revenue of Es. 16,245 of which Rs. 9,623 were from the land, Rs. 5,133 from 
the capitation tax, Rs. 939 from fishery and net tax, and Rs. 530 from other 
sources. 

AING-GYEE. — A large village in the Henzada district, a little to the 
north of the great Doora lake and on the edge of an extensive rice plain 
the cultivation of which forms the principal occupation of the inhabitants. 

AING-KA-LOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Hlaing township, Rangoon 
district, on the right bank of the Hlaing river and adjoining the Henzada dis- 




*Notb. — This circle has since been divided into two, distinguished as North Agwon and 
Boiah Agwon ; the statistics given above are for the two. 


2 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


trict. The surface of the country is flat and parts of the circle are pnhjcct lo 
inundation during the rains. The principal products are rice, cotton and 
tobacco. The inhabitants of some of the villages are largely employed in 
the fisheries. Population in 1876, 3^623 land Revenue Rs, 6,91G and gross 
Revenue ; Rs. 20,598. 

AING-THA-BYOO. — A village in the Myenoo township, Bassein district, 
on the Bassein river, a short distance below Le-myet-hna, containing a popula- 
tion of over 600 souls. 

AING-TOON. — A small river in the Shwe-gyeen district, which rises 
in a spur of the Pegu Yomas and after a generally easterly course througli 
the Anan-baw circle falls into the Tsittoung near the village of Doungmo. 

AKOUK-TOUNG. — The name given to the eastern extremity of a 
spur running down from the Arakan Yoma mountains which abuts on the 
Irrawaddy, less than a mile south of the boundary between the Henzada and 
Prome districts, in an abruptly scarped cliff some 300 feet high, artificially 
honeycombed with caves containing images of Gaudama Boodha and 
of Rahans : here the Irrawaddy enters the delta and gradually spreads out into 
numerous anastomosing creeks and rivers. This hill was the scene of two 
or three engagements between the English and the Burmese during the 
second Burmese war and it was here that Major Gardner was surprised and 
killed {vide Henzada district : — History). The spur which terminates at 
Akouktoung formed the northern limit of the ancient Talaing kingdom of 
Pegu, west of the Irrawaddy, and before the formation of the delta was a 
Customs station, whence the name Customs Revenue 

AKYAB. — A town on the coast of Arakan, in 20° 8' N. and 92° 57' E., 
at the mouth of the Kooladan river, the head -quarters of the Arakan division 
and of the Akyab district. Originally a Mug fishing village it was chosen 
as the chief station of the province of Arakan soon after the close of the first 
Anglo-Burmese war when the extreme unhealthiness of Mrohoung or old 
Arakan, the last capital of the ancient Arakanese kingdom and subsequently 
the seat of the Burmese governor of Rakhaing, rendered the removal of the 
troops and civil establishments a matter of necessity. The site, only fifteen 
feet above the level of the sea at half tide and with places below high-water 
mark, was laid out with broad raised roads, forming causeways, with deep 
ditches on either side. Owing principally to its situation, easily accessible 
by bqats from the rich rice land in the interior and with a fine harbour 
formed by the mouth of the river, it soon became an emporium of trade 
and was resorted to by numerous ships seeking rice cargoes. A large influx 
of population took place from Chittagong, Ramoo and Cox’s Bazaar in the 
Chittagong division of Bengal, and from Mrohoung, and the town rapidly 
increased in wealth and in importance. Though well laid out at starting and 
at first rapidly and then more gradually increasing in population and in size 
the want of labourers was a bar to any very great improvement, and the 
raising and metalling of the roads, digging ditches and tanks, filling up 
swamps, and planting trees had to he carried on almost entirely by convict 
labour. In 1836 the shops were found ^^well supplied with the different 
varieties of grain which are in use amongst the inhabitants of Bengal, from 
whence they are imported; and British cloths, consisting of piece-goods, 
muslins and broad-cloths, cutlery, crockery, glass-ware and native manu- 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


3 


factures^^ were exposed for sale. A few years later the troops were withdrawn 
and the cantonment abandoned except by the European civil odicers. As 
years roiled on and commerce increased the town progressed and substantial 
houses were constructed. The population which m 1868 numbered 15,636 
souls had increased in 1872 to 19/230, who at the census taken that year 
were found to consist of : — 


Hindoos. | 

vIahomedans. 

Boodhists. 

Cheistians. 

j Othees. 

1 Total. 

c$ 

'oa 

s 

Female. 

Male. 

<o 

' 

2 i 

^ 1 

Male. 

CD 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 


Female. 

1,884 

27 

3,516 

1,602 

5,892 

5,627 

216 

109 

387 

70 

11,895 

7,335 


These figures include the floating population, the bond fide residents 
numbered 15,775 who in 1876 had increased to 18,306. 

To a great extent the disproportion in the sexes amongst the Mahomedaus 
and Hindoos is caused by the number of mou who come for the rice season to 
work either in conveying the uuhusked rice from the interior (in the boats they 
bring with them from Chittagong and Cox s Bazaar), or as coolies in the rice 
godowns. 

The principal public buildings are the Court-house, Gaol, Custom-house, 
Hospital and Markets. The Court-house, containing the Courts and offices 
of the Commissioner of the division, of the Deputy Commissioner of the dis- 
trict, of the Assistant Commissioner, of the Town Magistrate and of the Super- 
intendent of Police, is of masonry and \yas completed in 1872 at a cost of 
Bs. 1,30,680. The custom-house, a fine building on the bank of the river 
at the shore end of the main wooden wharf, was finished in 1869. The gaol 
has been in existence for a considerable period and is now being improved, a 
wall being raised round the work yard within which new buildings will be 
constructed the site of the existing prison being utilized for work sheds. The 
hospital and dispensary consist of two buildings joined by a covered way, one 
for Europeans and one for Asiatics ; a new hospital is now in course of con- 
struction : the income in 1874 was Rs. 9,763 of which Es. 2,040 was given 
by the State and Rs. 1,640 by the Port Fund, and the expenditure was 
5,360 : the number of persons treated was 2,450 of whom 1,890 were 
out-patients and 560 in-patients. The town contains three markets one of 
which was till lately private property \ of the other two one has been in 
existence for many years, and the other, in the Shwe-bya quarter, was com- 
pleted in 1870 at a cost of Rs. 6,500. There are two churches, one of 
masonry and one (the Roman Catholic) of wood and a new school-house 
besides a travellers^ bungalow and a circuit-house. The school, which 
is now of the higher class, was established by the State in 1846, and 
in 1875 the average daily attendance of pupils was 224 of whom 
nearly all were Arakanese. The other public offices are the post 
office, telegraph office and Master Attendant’s office. There are also several 













4 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


merchants' offices and five steam rice^husking- mills. At the mouth of the 
harbour is Savage Island light-house. 

The gross municipal revenue derived from port dues^ market rents and 
other municipal sources^ the rent and sale of town lands, the dispensary fund, 
and a five per cent, cess on certain imperial taxes was in 1871-72 Rs. 47,650 and 
in 1872-73, Rs. 70,290. In 1874 Akyab was constituted a Municipal town and 
a Municipal Committee, with the Town Magistrate as President, was appointed. 
The revenue administered by this body inl876-77 was Rs. 90,662. 

There are no returns available shewing the value of the trade during 
the first year or two but, according to Pemberton, the value of the ex- 
ports carried by square-rigged vessels during seven months of 1833 was 
Bs. 93,800. 


The value of the trade in 1863-64, 1873-74, 1875-76 and 1876-77 was — 


1863-64 

1873-74 

1875- 76 

1876- 77 


Imports. Exports. 


Total. 


Rs. Rs. 

57,72,140 64,13,310 

91,14,210 91,03,470 

40,48,000 59,83,860 

66,71,325 71,62,137 


Rs. 

1,21,85,450 

1,82,17,680 

1,00,31,860 

1,38,83,462 


The exports consist almost entirely of rice, of which large quantities are 
sent to Europe, and the imports of machine and machinery — ^for which 
however there will not be a steady demand— *coal> vegetable oils, canes and 
tobacco from foreign ; and tobacco, vegetable oils, cotton piece-goods and twist 
with silk and wool goods from Indian ports, some of which are of Indian but the 
larger quantity of foreign manufacture. A comparatively large amount of 
specie is imported annually for the rice trade the unexpended balance being 
returned at the end of the season. In 1873 the imports and exports of specie 
were Rs. 54,73,710 and Rs. 8,89,750 respectively. 

The name of the town is supposed to be a corruption of Ahliyaidaw, the 
title of a pagoda in the neighbourhood which was, probably, a good land-mark 
for ships in former times. By the Burmese-speaking inhabitants it is called Tsit^ 
twe, because the British army encamped there in 1825. 

AKYAB, — A district in the Arakan division, lying on the sea-coast in the 
north of the province, 5,337 square miles in extent,* separated on the west 
from Chittagong by the Naaf estuary and the Thooloo hills and on the south 
from the Kyouk-bpyoo district by a spur of the Arakan Yoma mountains and 
towards the sea-coast by straits and tidal creeks : on the east are the Arakan 
Yomas, inhabited by wild tribes, with Upper Burma lying beyond and 
on the north a country of tangled forest and mountains taken from the 
district in 1868 and formed into the Hill Tracts of Northern Arakan^^ (q. v.). 
Working their way out from the sea of mountains in the north are three main 
ranges forming the water partings of the Naaf and the three principal rivers, 
the Mayoo, the Kooladan and the Lemro, and gradually sinking into broad 
and fertile plains which even at some distance from the coast are intersected 
by anastomosing streams whilst the lower portion is a network of tidal creeks 
in many places dry at low water but all navigable by boats at the flood. 


* Not*. — In 1871 several sqnare miles of the Mengbra towz^hip were transferred to the 
Kyook-bpyoo district, reducing Ahyab to the area given above. 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


5 


The principal range of mountains is the Arakan Yoma (the eastern 
Mountains boundary of the district) which here has a general south- 

easterly direction and throws out innumerable spurs com- 
pletely filling the country east of the Lemro river, A pass leads up the 
valley of the Tseng and across this range to Upper Burma. In the west, form- 
ing the water parting between the Naaf and the Mayoo, are the Mayoo 
hills which terminate at Agnoo-hmaw near the mouth of the latter river the 
southern part of their length being nearly parallel to, and not far from, 
the sea-coast. This range is steep and can be crossed only by regular passes ; 
the most northern is now but little used but is the easiest and in the 
Burmese time was protected by a fort of which traces still remain. The 
next two are the Gnet-khyeng-douk and the Alai-khyoung; in both the 
ascents are steep and practicable only for foot passengers : the latter was the 
one crossed by the Burmese force which retreated before General Morrison’s 
division during the first Burmese war. South of these are others used only 
by the inhabitants of the neighbouring country. 

The principal rivers are the Mayoo, the Kooladan and the Lemro. The 
Mayoo rises in the mountains which form the northern 
boundary of this part of the district and has a generally south- 
south-easterly course to the sea which it reaches a few miles north-west of 
Akyab. The Kooladan rises in the main range in the neighbourhood of the 
Blue mountain and falls into the sea at Akyab its mouth forming a spacious 
harbour but with a bar running across it rendering the entry difficult. In 
the rainy season it is navigable by boats of 400 tons burden for 70 miles 
above Akyab and for boats of 40 tons 50 miles beyond to Dalekmai 
in the Hill Tracts. The Lemro rises far in the north and falls into the sea 
in Hunters^ Bay. All these streams, traversing as they do in the upper 
portion of their course a highly mountainous country, are formed by the 
junction of numerous torrents but as soon as they escape from the hills their 
character changes and they expand into broad creeks and vast estuaries com- 
municating with each other and the sea and spreading over the country at high 
water like the threads of an enormous net to form the main — and indeed 
almost the only — channels of communication. 

The forests of this district have never been completely explored but 
in 1869-70 Dr. Schlich was especially deputed by the Local 
Government to report on the Pyengkado forests of Arakan 
and was able to make a partial examination of the tracts east of the Koola- 
dan river. On the low ground near the coast subject to tidal influence 
mangrove jungle covers the face of the country ; above this are the rice 
tracts, the forests here consisting of low jungle with a few trees ; the most 
important are Tsit fAlbizzia proceraj^ Pyengma {Lagerstroemia Regin<zJ, 
Ka-gnyeng f^Dipterocarpus alataj, Khaboung fStrychnos Nux Vomica J and 
Lekpan fBombax MalabaricimJ. On slightly hilly ground still further 
inland are the dry forests forming a belt along the lower slopes of the 
Arakan Yoma and its spurs, where Pyengkado f Xylia dolahriformisj furnishes 
the most valuable timber ; it occurs in patches of which many were discovered in 
that part of the country which was examined ; wherever it is found it forms 
on an average about one- third of all the trees. A considerable quantity 
of the wood has been exported for sleepers : from 1864 to 1868 inclusive the 
East Indian Railway Company received 70,677 sleepers, costing Ks. 3,87,660, 



c 


BiUTlSII BURMA GAZETTEER. 


tbe greater portion cut in this district iu the neighbourhood of the bamboo 
forest. No dehuite experience has been gained as to how long Pyengkado sleep- 
ers will endure but au opinion exists that they will last over lifteeu years. 
Locally the timber is used for house-posts^ bridges and for many other pur- 
poses. With Pyengkado are found Pyengma {Lagerstroimia liegbue), which 
furnishes a wood used for boats and house-posts and which might possibly 
answer for railway sleepers^ Tsengbwon {Dtllenia pentagijna) and; in the south 
only, Myouk-khyaw {Homaliurn tomentosum)^ not of much value as it 
is not very durable. Thit-pouk {Dalbergia sp.), which yields a wood 
used for canoes and boats said to last two or three years in fresh and 
seven years in salt water, and several other kinds which belong to the green 
forests such as Ka-gnyeng {Dipterocarpus alata) are met with. These green 
forests extend further inland still into the Arakan Yomas and contain several 
useful trees, as Dipterocarpus tiirhinatiis and Thenggan (Hopea odorata)^ 
the best of all for boats. Up the Mrothit khyoiingj in the Naaf town- 
ship, oil trees of vast size are used for building the larger kind of boats 
but the timber is becoming scarce. Bamboo forests cover by far the greater 
area, iu many places containing no trees and in others with both green forest 
and dry forest timber intermixed. Teak plantations have been made in the 
upper portions of the tiacts drained by the Kooladan and the Lemro rivers 
and though too young yet to warrant any positive opinion as to the success 
of the experiment they promise well. 

The early history of the country is involved in mist ; the existing records. 
History. compiled by Arakanese, are filled with impossible stories 

invented in many eases in others based upon tradition but 
so embellished as almost to conceal their foundation and all made to shew forth 
the glories of the race and of the Booddhist religion. Kama-waddee, near the 
present Sandoway in the south of the Arakan division, was, the chroniclers relate, 
the capital ofa kingdomover whichreigned Thamooddee-dewa who was tributary 
to the king of Baranathee {Benares). Many ages later Tsekkyawaddee, who 
in a future life was to become the Boodh Gaudama, reigned iu Baranathee and 
to his fourth son, Kanmyeng, he allotted all the countries inhabited by the 
Burman, Shan and Malay races^’ from Manipur to the borders of China. 
Kanmyeng came to lUma-waddee and, dispossessing the descendants of Tha- 
mooddee-dewa, married a princess of that race named Thoo-won-na-ga-hlya, 
while Maha-radza-gnya, a male descendant of Thamoodde-dewa, was°sent to 
govern the city of Wethalee, iu Arakan Proper.* King Kanmyeng peopled 
his dominions with various tribes and amongst the rest appear the progeni- 
tors of the Arakanese as being now brought to the country for the first time.^*' 
The names of these tribes are Thek, Khyeng (a tribe living amongst the 
Yoma mountains), Myo (the Mroos, now nearly extinct, inhabiting the hills), 
Kyip (a small tribe near Manipur), Shandoo (a tribe in the northern hills), 
Moodoo, Proo (a name by which a portion of the Burmese nation was formerly 
d^inguished), Mekhalee (a Shan tribe), Dzengme, Leng, Tantengthaye (a 
tribe said to live on the borders of China), Atsim (the Malays), Lengkhe (a 
tribe m the hills north-west of Arakan Proper), Pyanloung (a Shun tribe), 


* Note. Sir Phayre calls the country known to Bormans as Jlahhaina-puee which 
^mpnsedthe Akyab district and part of Khyouk.hpyoo, - Ai*akan Proper.’’ 

portion of Bassein which lies west of the Arakan Yomas, was 
known as Makhainij^pyee^oyee, or ** tho great Arakan country,” that ia the Arakanese dominions. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


7 


Kaihc (Mauipurifi), Kaiivan (said to he the present E-akliaing' race or a ]wtIon 
ot them called Khyoimgthas), Thodoon, Talaing, Kanteekamyoou, Lawaik and 
Lag won* (said to be the ancestors of the Siamese.) The dynasty thus 
established reigned for an indefinite period^ which the chroniclers describe as 
lasting a term indicated by a unit followed by one hundred and forty cyphers : 
even up to a comparatively late period the palm leaf histories are filled with 
equally incredible statements, continual wars and rebellions in which one 
side or the other was miraculously aided fill up the accounts and it is not till 
the end of the eighth century that any approach to accuracy seems to be made. 
About 788 A. D. Maha-laing Tsandaya ascended the throne, founded a new 
city on the site of the old Rama-waddee and died after a reign of 22 years. 
In his reign several ships were wrecked on Ramree Island and the crews, 
said to have been Mahomedans, were sent to Arakan Proper and settled in 
villages. The ninth king, who lived during the tenth century, made an expe- 
dition into Bengal and set up a pillar at Chittagong which according to 
the Arakan ese is a corruption of the Burmese Tsit-ta-goung/^ and was so 
named from the king abandoning his conquest saying, somewhat late, that 
to make war was improper. Towards the end of the tenth century the Proo 
king of Prorae invaded the kingdom but was unable to bring his army 
across the Yoma mountains and a few years later the capital was removed 
to Arakan (or Mrohoung). In 976 A. D. a Shan prince conquered the country 
and took the capital, withdrawing with much spoil after eighteen years’ 
occupation. Just about this time the king of Pagan invaded Arakan hut was 
forced to retreat. In 904 a son of the king who had advanced into Bengal 
ascended the throne and removed the capital to Tsamhhawet on the Lemro 
river but was killed during a second invasion by the king of Pagan after 
reigning for twenty-four years ; he was succeeded in 1018 A. D. by Khetta- 
theng, of the same family, who established his capital at Pengtsa. 

The further history of the country up to 1404 A. D. may be related in 
the words of Sir Arthur Phayre. Khettatheng reigned for ten years and 
was succeeded in 1028 by his brother Tsandatheng. “ Four of his descend- 
reigned in succession. In the reign of the fifth, named Mengphyugyi, 
a noble usurped the throne ; another noble deposed him, but in the year 423 
(1061 A.D.), the son of Mengphyugyi, named Mengnanthu, ascended the 
throne and reigned five years. The third in descent from him, named 
Menghhilu, was slain by a rebellious noble named Thengkhaya, who 
usurped the throne in the year 440 (1078 A. D.) The heir apparent, 
Meng-re-bhaya, escaped to the court of Kyan-tsit-tha king of Puggan 
“ (Pagan). The usurper reigned 14 years; his son Mengthan succeeded him 
in 454 (1092 A. D.) and reigned eight years ; on his death his sou Meng 
** Padi ascended the throne. During this period the rightful heir to the 
throne, Meng-re-bhaya, was residing unnoticed at Puggan [Pagan) ; he had 
“ married his own sister Tsu-pouk-ngyo, and there was born to them a son 
named Letya-meug-nan. The exiled king died without being able to pro- 
cure assistance from the Puggan (Pagan) Court for the recovery of his 
throne. At length the king of that country Alaung-tsi-thu, the grand- 
‘‘ son of Kyan-tsit-tha, sent an army of 100,000 Pyus and 100,000 Talaings 
to place Letya-meng-nan upon the throne. This army inarched in the 


^^Note, — T here is a tract of this name in Zengmai east of the Salween. 



8 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


year 464 (1102 A. D.), aiKl after one repulse the usurper Mon ^ Pad i was 
slain and Letya-meng-nan restored to the throne of his ancestors in 465. 
A Burmese inscription on a stone discovered at Buddhagaya serves to con- 
firm the account given in this history of the restoration of Letya-ineng- 
nan, or, as he is called in the stone inscription Pyu-ta-thin-meng, i. e., 
" Lord of a hundred tliousand Pyus. It is evident, from the tenor both of 
the history and of the inscription, that the Arakan prince was regarded as 
a dependant of the Puggan {Pagan) ting, to whom he had from his birth 
been a supplicant for aid : in return for the assistance granted him for the 
recovery of his grand fa fcher^s throne he was to aid in rebuilding the temple 
at Buddhagaya, in the name of the Puggan (Pagan) sovereign. The 
royal capital was established at Loung-kyet, but that site proving un- 
healthy, the city of Marim was built in the year 468 (1106 A. D.) Pour 
kings followed in quick succession, after whom Gan-laya ascended the 
^Hhrone in 495 (1133 A. D.) He is described as a prince of great power, 
to whom the kings of Bengal, P^g^u? (Pagan) j and Siam did hom- 

age, but his chief claim to distinction lies in his having built the temple 
of Mahati, a few miles south of the present town of Arakan, the idol in 
which was, in sanctity, inferior only to that of Mahamuni. This temple 
and image were destroyed during the late war (tke first Burmese war) ^ the 
height on which they stood being occupied as a post by the Burmese forces. 
This king died after a reign of twenty years, in 515 (1153 A. D.) He was 
'‘succeed^ by his son Hatha Radza, who upheld his fatheris fame, and 
repaired Mahamuni temple, which, since its partial destruction by the Pyu 
‘'army in Letya-meng-nan^s time, had remained neglected; the idol which 
"had been mutilated was also restored, the tributary kings being employed 
" upon the work. This king died after a reign of twelve years in 527 (1165 
" A. D.) He was succeeded by his son Anan-thi-ri, a prince who grievously 
“ oppressed his people, and, neglecting the affairs of government, passed his 
" days in riot and debauchery. He lost the extensive empire possessed by 
" his father and grandfather, neglected religious duties, and extorted large 
" sums of money from the people, till the whole country, says the historian, 
" cursing him in their hearts, a general rising occurred : he was deposed and 
" killed, and his younger brother, Mengphuntsa, reigned in his stead. In 
"the year 529 (1167 A. D.), this prince established his capital at Khyit, on 
" the river Lemyo. A Shan army attempting to invade the kingdom was 
defeated in the Yoma mountains, and a number were taken prisoners and 
"settled in two villages in the tract of country in Arakan Proper now 
" known as Toungbhek. This king died after a prosperous reign of seven years.^^ 
" In the reign of his grandson, Gana-yu-bau, a noble named Tsa-leng- 
" kabo usnrped the t^one, but, proving oppressive, was murdered in the first 
" year of his usurpation/^ 

" MidzU'theng, the younger brother of Gana-yu-bau, was now raised 
‘'to the throne; he removed the capital to Pingtsa, close to the present 
town of Arakan. The oldest Arakanese coins extant, having the emblems 
" of royalty engraved upon them, bat without any date or inscription, are 
" traditionally said to have been struck during this reign. This prince was 
" Surnamed Taingkhyit, or ‘ country beloved.’ With characteristic extrava- 
“gance he is said to have reigned over the present Burmese dominions, and a 
*' great part of India as far as the river Narindgana, and to the borders of 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


9 


Nipal. The succeeding ten kings pass like shadows, without anything 
worthy of notice except their short reigns. The five last of them reigned 
only for one year each, and by their oppression and neglect of religious 
duties the people were dissatisfied, while sickness and famine desolated the 
country. The nats or spirits of the seasons withheld their aid : the earth 
no longer yielded her fruits, and general misery prevailed. The last of 
these wdcked kings was deposed, and his son, Letya-gyi, ascended the throne 
in 572 (1210 A. D.), and by his mild government restored the prosperity 
of the country. In the year 599 (1237 A. D.), Alau-ma-phyu succeeded 
to the throne, and removed the capital to Loungkyet in 601. This king 
made war upon the Puggan (Fagan) sovereign, and received tribute from 
the king of Bengal, He died after a reign of six years. His son, Badza- 
thugyi succeeded. In this reign the Talaings invaded the southern portion 
of the kingdom, but were repulsed by the Arakanese general, Ananthugyi. 
‘^Nothing worthy of notice occurs until the reign of Nan-kyagyi, who 
ascended the throne in the year 630 (1268 A. D.) This king oppressed 
“ the people with heavy taxes, and levied contributions of goods which he 
stot^ up in his palace. By various acts of tyranny he incurred the hatred 
of many influential men ; and even the priests, whose religion forbids them 
to notice worldly affairs, are represented as inimical to him. Eventually 
he was killed in the fourth year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son, 
Mengbhilu, who married the daughter of the Tsi-tha-beng, or commander 
the body-guard, the conspirator against the former sovereign. This 
^‘prince is described as being, if possible, more hateful than his father. 
“ Being jealous of the supposed high destinies of his infant son, Mengdi, he 
ordered him to be cast into the river, but the child was miraculously pre- 
served, rescued by some fishermen, and was sent to a remote part of the 
kingdom. These and other similar acts inflaming the mind of the people 
against the king, he was slain in a conspiracy headed by the Tsi-tha-beng 
after a reign of four years. Tsi-tha-beng, the king-maker, now usurped 
the throne, but was himself killed in the third year of his reign. The son 
of Mengbhilu, named Mengdi, was then raised to the throne, but he was 
only seven years of age. This king gave general satisfaction, and enjoyed 
a long and prosperous reign. In the year 656 (1294 A.D.), the Shans 
invaded the kingdom, but were repulsed. The king of Thooratan,* or 
(Eastern) Bengal, named Nga-pu-kheng (Bahadar Kha/n ?J, courted his 
alliance and sent presents of elephants and horses. After this his dominions 
again being attacked in various quarters by the Shans, the Burmese, the 
Talaings and the Thek tribe in the north, the king went to the Mahamuni 
** temple, and, depositing his rosary before the idol, vowed to rid the country 
of its enemies. In pursuance of this vow, he marched in person in the 
^'year 674 (1312 A. D.) to repel the Talaings, who had possessed themselves 
of the country south of the town of Thandwai (Sandotvay). His uncle, 
“ IJdzdza-na-gyee, was sent with an army to attack Puggan (Pagan), Tsa- 
‘‘ lenggathu, his brother-in-law, advanced into Pegu, and the general, Radza- 
theng-kyan was sent against the Thek tribe. The city of Puggan (Pagan) 
was taken, the Talaings were overawed, and the expedition against the Thek, 


* Rote. — S onargaon, called Pamam. the capital of the eaatem district of Bengal when 

it first revolted from the Dehli empire, A. D. 1279. 



10 


BElTISn BTJKMA GAZETTEER. 


after being once repulsed, was eventually crowned with success. After this, 
the general Eadza-theng-kyan subdued the country along the sea-coast as 
far as the Brahmaputra river. In the year 689 (1327 A.D.), the Puggan 
{Pagan) sovereign made an attack upon the island of Eanbyi {Raniree), and 
carried away a number of the inhabitants who were planted upon the 
Manipur frontier. After this, the Thandwai {Sandoway) viceroy haying 
gained possession of a relic of Gaudama brought from Ceylon, by virtue 
of which he expected to obtain sovereignty, rose in rebellion, but was finally 
reduced to obedience. Soon after this, Mengdi died, after a reign of 106 
'' years, at the age of 113. Nothing worthy of notice occurred until 756 
(1394 A.D.), when the reigning sovereign ruarched to attack the Puggan 
{Pagan) empire, the capital of which was established at Engwa, or Ava. 
During his absence the governor of Thandwai {Sandoway) revolted, and 
seizing the boats which had conveyed the king’s army along the seacoast, 
and were now left on the shore for his return, made the best of his way to 
Loungkyet, the capital, where he set up the king’s infant son, Eadza-thu. 
The king returned without delay, but his army deserting him he was slain 
and his son proclaimed. The Tsi-tha-beng, as the rebellious goveraor was 
called, not long after sent the young king to the southern extremity, of the 
kingdom, and governed in his name ; but, becoming unpopular, he was, 
after two years, deposed and killed by a noble named Mying-tsaing-gyi, 
who in his turn, became disliked and had to fly to the Burmese dominions, 
when the lawful king Radza-thu was restored. He was succeeded by his 
ganger brother, Thing-gathu. This prince, after a reign of three years, was 
murdered by the chief priest of the country in a monastery, with the con- 
nivance of his nephew, Meng-tsaw-mwon, who then succeeded to the 
** throne in the year 766 (1404 A.D).” 

Worn-out by his cruelties the people rose against him and called in 
the aid of Meng-tshwai, king of Ava, who despatched a force of 30,000 men 
under his son. Meng-tsaw-mwon fled to Bengal and found refuge with the 
ruler of Thooratan who, being himself engaged in war, could render no assist- 
ance. At this period the empire of Dehli was tom to pieces by an ambitious 
aristocracy and many of the subordinate governors had declared themselves 
independent. The Arakanese histories state that when Meng-tsaw-mwon was 
in Bengal the king of Dehli came to attack the chief or king of Thooratan who 
was greatly assisted by the fugitive ; this most probably refers to the invasion 
of Bengal by Sultan Ibrahim of Joanpur. 

The King of Ava had no intention of resigning his grasp on Arakan 
whilst the Arakanese had no intention of allowing him to retain possession of 
the country ; aided by the Talaings they made constant endeavours to drive 
out the Burmese and in 1426 A.D, they were completely successful- In the 
meanwhile Meng-tsaw-mwon by his crafty devices had, as noticed above, 
greatly agisted the ruler of Thooratan and in gratitude an army was sent to 
restore him to his kingdom. After some reverses it was successful and in 
1430 A.D., Meng-tsaw-mwon re-ascended the throne of his fathers amidst 
the acclamalions of his subjects who, with the usual fickleness of eastern 
nations, rejoiced that a descendant of their ancient line of kings^ whom they 
themselves had expelled for his cruelty, was restored to them. 

After his return Meng-tsaw-mwon determined on changing the site of 
his capital and was, the native histories state, miraculously guided to Myoukoo, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


11 


now called old Arakan or Mrohoung : the real cause of the selection of the situa- 
tion may more reasonably be found in the strength of the position and the facility 
with which its natural advantages for defence could be added to. When Meng- 
tsaw-mwon found his end approaching, as his sons were infants, he appointed 
his brother, Meng Khari, heir to the throne, and closed his chequered career in 
the fourth year of his restoration, aged fifty- three years.” From this time the 
Arakan kingdom, undisturbed by its eastern neighbours who were at conti- 
nual war with each other, continued to flourish. In 1531 A.D. the twelfth 
king, Mengba, worried by the aggressiveness of the Burmese and fearing the 
Portuguese adventurers who had settled on the coast, surrounded his capital 
with a stone wall eighteen feet high with six gates, and a devout Booddhist 
erected therein a pagoda, the remains of which still exist, called Shit-Thoung 
Bhoora, from the 80,000 images (cut out of soft stone) which he is supposed 
to have placed in and around it : very many, but all more or less injured, are 
still in existence and vary in height from an inch to six feet. During 
the next few yeai*S the kings of Arakan extended their conquests west- 
ward and between 1560 and 1570 made themselves masters of Chittagong. 
In 1571 Meng Thaloung excavated lakes round old Arakan, building raised 
causeways across them, to protect his capital from surprise by the Burmese 
and by the hill tribes who made incursions into the country plundering vil- 
lages and carrying off their inhabitants as slaves. His son, Mengnala, was 
governor of Chittagong, The turbulent conduct of the Portuguese adven- 
turers, who were independent of the Portuguese viceroy at Goa, led Meng 
Radza-gyee, the son and successor of Meng Thaloung, to drive them from his 
dominions and in 1609 he resumed the land which had been granted to them 
and attacked them in force. Many were killed but some succeeded in escap- 
ing and took possession of the islands in the mouth of the Ganges, living by 
piracy. Sebastian Gonzales was elected as their chief and in a short time he 
collected a formidable force and established a regular government on Sundeep 
Island. In the same year a brother of the king, having been guilty of some 
offence, escaped to Gonzales and persuaded him to attempt an attack on Arakan 
which failed. The following year the Arakanese, who were now aided by the 
Portuguese, took possession of the country in the neighbourhood of Luckim- 
poor but were eventually driven off with great slaughter the king effecting 
his escape with considerable difficulty. Gonzales immediately turned upon 
him, seized his boats and, proceeding down the coast, took and plundered the 
towns and villages and even advanced on the capital but was defeated and 
forced to retire. He then sent to the Portuguese viceroy of Goa, Don 
Hierome de Azvedo, suggesting an attack on Arakan and promising an 
annual tribute. An expedition was fitted out and the command given to 
Don Francis de Meneses who proceeded to the mouth of the Kooladan. Here 
he was unsuccessfully attacked by the king aided by the Dutch and held his 
own for a month, till November, when he was joined by Gonzales who bitterly 
reproached him for not waiting for him. The two commanders proceeded up 
the river and were signally defeated ; Don Meneses was killed in the action 
which took place and Gonzales, retiring to Sundeep, was abandoned by a 
large number of his followers. In the following year the King of Arakan 
took possession of Sundeep and for some years the Arakanese regularly 
invad^ and plundered the lower parts of Bengal, carrying off numerous 
captives. 



12 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER* 


In the meanwhile the country was in great disorder. Meng Radza* 
gyee was succeeded by his son Meng Kauoung who^ after a reign of 
thirteen years, was poisoned by his queen and her paramour, Moung Koot-tha, 
the governor of Loungkyet. Moung Koot-tha was imprisoned and Meng-tsa- 
gnay, the son of the murdered sovereign, proclaimed king but only to be poi- 
soned within seven days by his mother who by her intrigues succeeded in 
effecting the release of Moung Koot-tha, whom she married, and who ascended 
the throne and reigned for seven years. 

In 1661, Shah Shuja having been utterly defeated by his brother 
Aurungzeb was driven to seek refuge in Arakan. On the frontier he was re- 
ceived by an envoy who assured him of welcome and on nearing the capital he 
and his family and followers were met by an escort which conducted them to 
quarters set apart for them. At first he was well treated hut in a short time 
the king, either instigated by Aurungzeb^s Lieutenant in Bengal or excited 
by reports of the beauty of Shah Shuja’s daughter, demanded her in mar- 
riage. That a Mussulmani, a descendant of kings, should be asked for by a 
Kafir was intolerable and Shah Shuja sent back a haughty refusal. His 
destruction was then determined on, his party was attacked, he himself made 
captive and drowned and the ladies of his household carried prisoners to the 
palace. The princess, the cause of her father^s death, stabbed herself sooner 
than submit to the embraces of the king ; her brothers, one a lad of sixteen 
and the other an infant, were killed ; two of her sisters poisoned themselves ; 
and a third, forced to wed the Arakanese monarch, died of grief; not one 
of Shah Shuja^s family remained and when the news was brought to his 
father, the dethroned Shah Jehan, he exclaimed “Could not the cursed 
infidel have left one son alive to avenge the wrongs of his grand- 
father ? 

From the death of the usurper Koot-tha twelve kings reigned till 
circa 1701 A.D. For some years before this the kingdom had been in a very 
disturbed state and Kyet-tseng near the mouth of the Lemro, Lemro and 
other places were seized by robber chiefs whose gangs devastated the country. 
Twon-gnyo, a man of low origin but of strong will, having, more by good luck 
than by anything else, defeated one of these gangs and gained over the 
inhabitants of the capital, declared himself king and justified his authority by 
clearing the country of the dacoits who infested it. He repaired Mahamoonee, 
Maha-htee and the walls of the city, built himself a new palace, and ravaged 
the lower part of Bengal with his armies, taking advantage of the disturbances 
which arose on the accession of Jehandar Shah, He died in 1731 and was 
succeeded by ten kings all of whom except Narapaya had short reigns. The 
country was gradually falling into anarchy. In 1775 A.D, one Eng-tswon, 
a native of B*^ree, dethroned the reigning Sovereign Waimala Badza and 
proclaimed himself king, and, having put down a rebellion which shortly 
broke out, was succeeded, in 1783 A.D., by his son-in-law Thamada Badza, 
the last independent Sovereign of Arakan. 

The following year, when Bhodaw Bhoora was king of Burma, the 
disconten^d Arakanese who bated their Bamree ruler invited the Barmans to 
md them in dethroning him. A large Barman Force assembled at Prome 
under three royal Princes and invaded Arakan by three different routes. 
After some severe fighting the Arakanese army was defeated near Kyouk-hpyoo 
and the Barmans advanced on the capital and took possession, meeting with 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


13 


hardly any resistance; the country was annexed and Thamada Eadza was 
carried prisoner to Ava where he shortly afterwards died. 

This acquisition brought the Burmese into contact with the British 
and disputes soon arose. Large numbers of the inhabitants escaped from the 
cruelties of the Burmese and settled in Chittagong and other parts of Lower 
Bengal, Khyeng-byan — who is usually styled King Berring in the official 
accounts of this period — ^the son of the man who had invited the Burmese 
into Arakan, twice raised a revolt and his standard was joined by most of 
the respectable Arakanese families ; but the rising was finally suppressed and 
those who could do so escaped to Chittagong, Here Khyeng-byan continued 
his intrigues till he died in 1815 and the differences which arose in conse- 
quence between the two Governments and the retaliatory irruptions of the 
Burmese, who attacked and carried off the East India Company's elephant- 
hunters, together with the attitude assumed and the demands made by the 
Burmese Court not only regarding this part of the country but also in con- 
nection with the northern frontier in Manipur, led eventually to an open 
rupture. In 1824 war was declared and the Burmese dominions were invaded ; 
a force under General Morrison moved on Arakan and another under Sir 
Archibald Campbell operated by way of the valley of the Irrawaddy. On 
the 2nd February 1825 the first detachment of British troops crossed the 
Naaf from Chittagong and after a tedious but unopposed march arrived in 
front of Arakan town on the 28th of the same month, supported by the Flo- 
tilla under Commodore Hayes which, not altogether without resistance on 
the part of the Burmese, had proceeded up the Kooladan and through the 
creeks. The town was found to be strongly fortified, the Burman Comman- 
der having taken advantage of and added to the old Arakanese entrenchments 
and erected along the hills a line of stockades. 

The only pass through the hills to the town was at the northern 
extremity of the line of defence and this was protected by several guns and 
four thousand muskets : the total garrison was nine thousand men. The 
ground in front was clear and open and the only cover was a belt of jungle 
which ran along the base of the hills whilst beyond this again the ground was 
fully exposed to the enemy’s fire. On the morning of the 29th March the 
storming party, under Brigadier-General McBean, advanced to attack the 
pass. It consisted of the light company of the 54th Eegiment, four com- 
panies of the 2nd Eegiment L. I,, the light companies of the lOth and 16th 
M. N. I., and the rifle company of the Mag levy, and was supported by six 
companies of the 16th Eegiment, M. N. I. Under the well-directed and 
steady fire of the Burmese and the avalanche of stones which they poured 
down upon the heads of the troops the British were repulsed, and at last, 
when Captain French of the 16th Regiment, M. N. I., had been killed and 
all the remaining officers wounded, the storming party retreated. The plan 
of attack was then changed and it was determined to attempt to turn the 
right flank of the Burmese whilst their attention was occupied by an attack 
on their front. On the 30th March a hafctery was erected to play upon the 
works commanding the pass and on the 31st it opened fire. At about eight 
in the evening a force under Brigadier Eichards left the camp: it consisted 
of six companies of the 44th Regiment, three of the 26th and three of the 
49th Native Infantry, thirty seamen under Lieutenant Armstrong of the 
Research and thirty dismounted troopers of Gardener^s Horse, The hill was 



14 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


nearly five hundred feet high and the ascent steep and winding. All remained 
quiet till shortly after eleven when a shot from the hill shewed that the enemy 
had discovered the approach of Brigadier Richards^ party. This single shot 
was followed by a short but sharp fire when the Burmans turned and the hill 
was in the possession of the British. The next day a six-pounder was dragged 
up the hill and fire was opened on the heights commanding the pass whilst 
at the same time Brigadier Richards moved against it from the position 
which he had taken the night before and Brigadier McBean along his original 
line of advance ; the Burmese, after a feeble defence, abandoned all the works 
and the town. The capture of Arakan ended the war as far as the Arakan 
Province was concerned; the Burmese troops at once abandoned Eamree and 
Sandoway and retreated across the mountains into Pegu ; and the steady 
advance of Sir Archibald Campbell up the valley of the Irrawaddy, driving 
the Burmese forces before him, prevented any attempt on their part to disturb 
our possession. This advance ended at Yandaboo where a treaty was signed 
on the 24fth February 1826 by which Arakan and Tenasserim became British 
territory. 

When, shortly afterwards, the main body of the British troops was 
withdrawn one regiment was left in Arakan and a local battalion was raised, 
partly to keep order and partly to repel the incursions of the wild tribes 
occupying the hills. For several years the country was more or less in a dis- 
turbed state and within two years the establishment of a native dynasty 
was plotted for. The leaders were three men named Gang Gyaw-rhee a 
brother-in-law of Khyeng-byan, Oung Gyaw-tsan, his nephew, both of 
whom had rendered assistance to the British army and had received 
appointments under the British Government and Shwe-pan, also a British 
official^ who had escaped or been allowed to return from Ava whither his 
father had been carried captive. In 1827 attempts were made to tamper with 
the men of the local battalion; the flame was smothered for a time, Oung 
Gyaw-rhee and Oung Gyaw-tsan were dismissed for cruelty and malpractices 
and the latter was sentenced to seven years’ rigorous imprisonment for seriously 
wounding a Police daroga. In 1836 the rebellion broke out but was sup- 
pressed l^fore it had developed into anything further than a series of dacoities : 
the instigators believed that the British Government would retire and accept 
a yearly tribute in lieu of full occupation. Since then the country has 
remained undisturbed. 

The only town is Akyab, built on low ground at the mouth of the 
Kooladan river, which in 1826 was an insignificant village, 

. “ ' ^d in 1876 contained a population of 18,306 souls. It 

is the head-qnariets of the Arakan division as well as of the district and con- 
tains numerous public buildings. The streets are raised, well drained, and 
except in the native portion of the town, lined with trees. 

Arakan town, now called Mrohoung or *^old town,^’ the head-quar- 
ters of the to\^ship of the same name, with about 3,000 inhabitants, is worthy 
of note as having been at one time the capital of the Arakanese kingdom and 
strongly fortified. 

Besides these two, Akyab and Mrohoung, the district contains, 
a^rdmg to the cemus of 1872, only one town with 1,000 inhabitants, 70 
vill^es with 500 to 1,000, 840 with 200 to 500, and 890 with less than 200, 
making in all 1,803 towns and villages. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


15 


In 1S31, when the district included the present Hill Tracts and a 


Population, 


part of what is now the Myaiboon township of Kyouk- 
hpyoo, the inhabitants numbered 95,098 souls j the follow- 


ing year the number had risen to 109^045, and thenceforward till 1854 the 


increase was rapid. 


Years. 

Population. 

1832 

109,045 

1842 

130,034 

1852 

201,677 

1862 1 

227,231 

1872 

271,099 

1875 

283,160 

1876 

284,119 


The special census taken in 1872 shows a population of 
276,071, but this includes the floating labouring population, 
sailors in the port of Akyah, travellers, &c. The figures 
given for that year are those of the annual population re- 
turns which include only bond fide inhabitants. 


When Arakan was first ceded it was found to be almost depopulated 
but immigrants soon flocked in, composed mainly of persons who had been 
driven out by the Burmese or who had escaped during the war and who came 
back to their homes from Chittagong and other neighbouring districts, and 
as the country became more settled the immigration increased. About 1838 
rumours prevailed of an impending attack by the Burmese which somewhat 
checked the flow, hut these soon subsided and in 1840 Lieutenant (now Sir 
Arthur) Phayre was able to write : — Numbers of the descendants of those 
who fled in troublous times from their country and settled in the southern 
part of Chittagong, the islands off the coast, and even the Sunderbuns of Ben- 
gal are gradually returning ; and during the north-east monsoon boats filled 
with men, women, and children, with all their worldly goods, may be seen 
steering south along the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal to return to the 
land their fathers abandoned thirty or forty years before. They have told me 
that in their exile the old men used to speak with regret for its loss of 
the beauty of their country, the fertility of the land, which returned a hun- 
dredfold, the heavy ears of rice, the glory of their kings, the former splendour 
of the capital, the pagodas, and the famous image of Gaudama,* now carried 
away, with which the fortunes of the country were indissolubly united.*^ 

After the second Burmese war, when Pegu fell into cur hands, the 
stream was again slightly checked but since 1862, when Arakan, Pegu and 
Tenasserim were formed into one Government, the population has consider- 
ably increased. It is clear that those who came were not to any great extent 
Burmans for the whole number of that people in 1872 was only 4,632, whilst 
there is not a single Taking, and that, therefore, there was no drain on the 
indigenous population of the delta of the Irrawaddy or of Upper Burma. 


^Note.—A gigantic image of brass carried off by the Burmese to Ava, where it now is, from 
the sacred Mahamnui temple near old Arakan, the former capital. 



16 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The races represented in the district and their numbers in 187*2 were, 
according to the census : — 


1. Europeans and Americans . . • . . . 150 

2. Eurasians and Indo-Portuguese .. .« .. 184 

5. Chinese • . . . , . . . 204 

4 , Afghans .* .. «. .. 8 

$. Hindoos .. .. .. .. 2,655 

6. Mahomedans of pure and mixed hlood . « . . 58,255 

7. Burmese . . . . . . , , 4,632 

8. Shans ,, .. 334 

9. Arakanese . . , , , . . , 171,612 

10. Hill Tribes — Khyoungtha, Khwemee, Mro, &c., . , 38,577 


Total •, 276,671 


The Arakanese, who form the major part of the inhabitants, are a 
section of the Eurman nation separated from the parent stock by mountains, 
which, except towards the southern extremity of the Yoma range^ admit of 
little intercourse from one side to the other ; hence those living in this dis- 
trict, which adjoins Bengal, have some peculiarities in dialect and manners/^ 
Subjects of an independent monarch conquered by the Burmese towards the 
close of the last century, they have remained distinct from their conquerors, 
who are represented by only 4,682 souls. They appear to have gradually 
imbibed some of the physical as well as the moral and social characteristics 
of the natives of India, with whom they have been for at least centuries much 
intermixed. They are darker than the Talaings, and perhaps rather 
darker than Burmans, and the type of countenance is as much Aryan as Mon- 
golian. Morally, too, they are I think (wiites Colonel Stevenson), more like 
natives of India than Burmans are, and they appear to be sliding into Indian 
habits and social usages. They are a coarser, more violent-tempered people 
than the Burmans, and have more of the pride of race and concomitant indo- 
lence " To some extent, more especially among the higher classes, the Indian 
custom of secluding the females has been adopted and early marriages of girls 
are now by no means uncommon. 

Of the 58,255 Mahomedans many are men who come down for the 
working season only from Chittagong and were included in the census returns, 
but are not, properly speaking, inhabitants of the country. Those who are 
hondjide residents, though recruited by immigrants from Bengal, are for the 
most part descendants of slaves captured by the Arakan^e and Burmese in their 
wars with their neighbours. The Arakan kings in former times had possessions 
all alcmg the coast as far as Chittagong and Dacca and many Mahomedans were 
sent to Arakan as slaves. Large numbers are said to have been brought by 
Meng Bad^-gyee uRxst his first expedition to Sundeep and the local histories 
relate that in the ninth century several ships were wrecked on Ramree Island 
and the M^sulman crews sent to Arakan and placed in villages there. They 
differ but littie from the Arakanese except in their religion and in the social 
customs, which their religion directs f in writing they use Burmese but 
employ colloquially the language of their ancestors. 

The Hindoos, that is those who are permanent residents, whose num- 
pers are to some very slight extent increased yearly by immigration, have been 
m the c<mnt^ for many generations ; some of them are Manipuri Brahmans 
brought by the Burmese as astrologers and others, also Brahmans, are descend- 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


17 


ants of colonists from Bengal brought by the Arakan kings. Amongst them 
are a few ‘ Doms^* whose history is thus related by Sir Arthur Phayre : 

The Dorns it would appear^ were brought from Bengal to act as Phra 
Kyioon (Bhoora Kywon) or pagoda slaves. It is a strange anomaly in the 
Booddhist religion (as it prevails in Burma) that the servitors of the temples 
are invariably outcasts, with whom the rest of the community will hold no 
intercourse. In Burma Proper pagoda slaves are pardoned convicts or persons 
condemned to the employment on account of crimes. The kings of Arakan, 
finding in Bengal a number of degraded castes ready made to their hands, 
imported them and their families as perpetual and hereditary pagoda slaves. 
These people, of course, are now released from their compulsory servitude, and 
have become cultivators, but, in consequence of their former condition, they 
are regarded by the people with as much disgust as they would be from their 
low caste by Hindoos/' 

One noticeable difference between Hindoo and Mussulman immigrants 
is that the latter intermarry freely with the women of the country who, 
nominally at least, become Mussulmanis, whilst the former rarely do, as they 
could not associate and eat with their wives and children without losing caste : 
one of the results is shown in the paucity of Hindoo children. 

The hill tribes are fully described in the account of the Hill Tracts 
and under their tribal names. The Khyoungtha are of the same race as the 
Arakanese, the name being given to those who inhabit the banks of mountain 
streams. How they came to be separated so markedly from their country- 
men does not appear and it is curious that they should remain so and should 
so steadily prefer the hills where it is so difficult to procure a livelihood to the 
plains where, comparatively speaking, it is so easy. 

There is a greater disproportion between the sexes in this district 
than in any other, the males being 53*56 and the females 46*44 per cent, of 
the population. The difference is greatest amongst the Hindoos, who form 
0*96 of the whole population, 0*07 only being females and 0*89 males. 

According to ages, there were found to be at the census in 1872 — 








Males. 

Females. 

Not exceeding 1 year 






6,847 

6,473 

Above 1 year and under 6 

years 




19,504 

19,302 

»* ® jf »» i» 

12 





22,068 

20,813 


20 





23,116 

22,775 

M 20 „ „ 

so 





27,411 

21,203 

»» t» >» M 

40 





22,707 

16,316 

1 > M > » M 

60 

)» 




1 14,103 

1 10,542 

I* ^ M l> 

60 

?» 




i 7,115 

6,417 

^ }» J> »» 

* • 





5,309 

! 

4,660 





Total 

•• 

148,180 

i 128,491 


• Not*.— The Doms are a very low caste of Hindoos, utterly despised, and supposed to have 
sprung from a Tior father and Baiti mother : in India they are basket-mtAers. 


3 



18 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


At every age^ therefore^ from birth to death the males predominate but it is 
between the ages of 20 and 50 that the difference in the number of males and 
of females is greatest and it is accounted for partly by immigration but mainly 
by the influx of workers for the rice season who bring few or no women with 
them. To confirm this view it is only necessary to look at the figures shew- 
ing the proportion between the sexes of Booddhists, Hindoos and Mahomedans 
at different ages : — 



Males. 

Females, 

Total. 

Indigenous population other than Mahomedan, as 
Booddhist, &c. • , 

113,114 

102,305 

215,419 

Mahomedans .. .. •« .. i 

32,387 

! 

25,876 

58,263 

Hindoos .. •• 

2,457 

198 

2,655 


Taken by races^ however, the males do not always exceed the females : — 


Natives of India — Mahomedans 
Arakanese — ^Booddhists .. 

Europeans— ChiistianB .. 

Others 

The following table gives the distribution of infirmities as affecting the 
population by sexes ; the percentages are calculated on the total number of 
each sex : — 



Males from 1 to 6, 

there 

are 

3,691 


Females „ 




3,74G 


Males „ 
Females „ 




13,119 

•• 




13,250 

J 

Males „ 




8 

-1 

[Females „ 

1 * 9 ) fi 

99 


12 

1 

I Males „ 
[Females „ 

6 to 20 

99 


29 

• * 1 

1 

»> »» >» 

9 J 

*> 

33 


Sex. 

1 

Insanes. " 

f 

Deaf and dumb. 

Blind. 

Lepers. 



No. 

Percent, j 

No. 

Per cent. 

No. 

Per cent. 

No. 

Per cent. 

Males .. 


220 

0*15 

296 

0*19 

232 

016 

44 

0*03 

Females 

•• ; 

98 

0-85 ; 

j 

145 

i 

0*11 

121 

0*09 

35 

0*03 


j.iie numDer oi persons empioyea in service or performing personal offices 
was found to be 97,295 (a far larger number than in any other district in the 
province), in agriculture and cattle-dealing 44,830, and in mechanical arts, 
xnannfactnres, 10,111. Of the ^riculturists, who form 16-20 per cent, of 
the whole population, 89,573 were over 20 years old. 

Of manufactures the district has none of any importance. A little salt is 
Hannfaetiiieg. near the Naaf by a mixed process, of solar evapora- 

. ,, , boiling but year by year the outturn is decreas- 

ing owing to the cheaper rate at which foreign salt can he sold. Earthen 
pots are made m A^ah, K^ailet, Menghra and Rathai-doung and the process 
f = the clay is exposed to the weather for one 

season and m the dry weather pulverized and mixed with water, a small 









BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


19 


proportion of sand being added ; the pots are moulded by hand, exposed to the 
sun till dry and then burned, the whole process lasting about twelve days. 
The manufacture gives employment during the working season to some 700 
persons all told. 

The staple product of the district is rice and for this the rich and extensive 
plains (the average produce per acre is ll>s. 1,300) 
Agriculture, stretching from the foot of the northern hills towards 

the sea-coast are admirably adapted whilst the facilities for reaching Akyab 
through the numerous anastomosing creeks and the demand for export have 
greatly encouraged its growth by the ever-increasing population. During the 
nine years ending with 1875 the acreage under cultivation, excluding toungyas, 
has been : — 



Bice. 

Oil-seed. 

Sugar. 

Indigo. 

Tobacco. 

Tea. 

Cocoonnts. 

Betel-nuts. 

Dhanee. 

tc 

.3 

'd 

■la 

1 

s 

Pan vine. 

Vegetables. 

Hemp, 

Mixed fruit-trees. 



Mixed products, | 

1867 

268,014 

35 

20 

3 

4 

100 

403 

769 

7,443 

1,858 

423 

♦10.297 

99 



1868 

238,438 

34 

44 

2 

1 

100 

37G 

746 

7,468 

1,701 

416 

2,447 

148 

7,044 

m 

1869 

244,190 

30 

77 

2 

6 

:^ot 

367 

759 

7,581 

1,623 

443 

2,068 

113 

8,046 

1,125 

1870 

248,975 

27 

153 


1 

do. 

335 

771 

7,471 

1,528 

392 

2,195 

101 

7,311 

i,ia3 

1871 

258,444 

143 

130 

42 

38 

50 

293 

816 

7,398 

1,410 

362 

2, Of)! 

109 

7,406 

l/XfQ 

1872 

263,375 

53 

113 

73 

17 

50 

310 

816 

7,470 

1,275 

395 

2,130 

100 

7,422 

1,352 

1873 

260,486 

78 

82 

2 

18 

110 

321 

822 

7,431 

i 1,385 

477 

3,695 

84 

3,201 

328 

1874 

270,342 

14 

87 

1 

1 

110 

285 

335 

7,500 

1,367 


3,814 


7,729 


1875 

272,902 

13 

30 



no 

283 

824 

7,625 

1,355 

4^ 

2,259 

74 

9,238 

8,918 


^ Includes Mixed products. 


The most noticeable feature in this statement is the sudden decrease 
in 1868 in the area of rice land, a decrease so ffreat that even in 1871 the 
recovery was not complete. The causes may Be stated in the words of the 
Commissioner : — Loss of cattle from widely spread and persistent cattle 
disease during the two previous years has doubtless impoverished a number 
of people who now cannot afford to cultivate much ; the cyclone of the 
13th November last (1867) injured much good rice land and added not 
a little to other losses of the community; and the cholera finally, which 
prevailed' throughout the town and district, has not only carried off many who 
could and would work, but has put it out of the power of those who can but 
will not work to obtain the labour necessary to till their lands. This has 
hitherto been drawn from Chittagong, but its annual swarms of labourers 
have not arrived this year for the cultivating season. Large numbers of them 
fled the country during the prevalence of the epidemic.^’ Thus to cattle disease 
on the one hand and to the sudden loss of hired labour on the other supple- 
mented by the serious damage done by the cyclone may be attributed a check 
to cultivation which it took six years to overcome. The high price 
realized for rice in 1873-74} on account of the scarcity in Bengal so stimulated 
cultivation that the total area under rice during the following year, including 
rent-free grants and hill clearings, was 286,588 acres whilst the whole culti- 
vated area was 308,814 acres. The holding of each cultivator averages 8*42. 
acres. 




20 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


The toungya or hill system of cultivation was formerly followed to a con- 
siderable extent even in the plains but is giving place to the better plan of 
ploughing and harrowing. The toungyas are not, as a rule, measured but the 
area is estimated at two acres for each cutter. In 1855 the number of workers 
was 5,355, in 1864, 4,414, and during the nine years ending with 1875 : — 


1867 






. . 3,428 

1868 






. , 3,293 

1869 






.. 3,124 

1870 






.. 3,718 

1871 






. . 3,919 

1872 






.. 3,341 

1873 






. . 3,051 

1874 






.. 3,122 

1875 






. . 2,983 


The district is rich in agricultural stock which, notwithstanding the mur- 
rain that carried off so many head of cattle in 1865, 1866 and 1867, has 
increased very considerably. In 1867 and 1875 the published official returns 
give the numbers as follows : — 


Year. 

Buffaloes. 

Cows, bulls, and 
bullocks. 

Ponies. 

Sheep and goats. 

QQ 

to 

Ploughs, 

Boats, 

CO 

1 

Q 

Remarks. 

1 

1867 . . 




* 1 

* i 

36,391 

14,159 

3,327 

* Not given. In 
1869«70, the num< 
hers were — sheep 

1875 .. 






55,353 

14,370 

4,712 

and goats 1,981, 
pigs 5,928. 


The large proportion of boats in comparison with carts is due to the nature 
of the country the tidal creef s which traverse it forming the principal channels 
of communication. The increase in ploughs and in plough-cattle is remarkable 
and notably so when compared with the small increase in the number of boats 
and carts. The carriage of the grain from the interior to Akyab for export is 
largely in the hands of Chittagonians who bring down their boats after the 
mins and take them back when the season is over and before the enumeration 
is made. The rate of wages is on the whole higher than anywhere else 
nnskilled labourers receiving about Es. 5 a week and skilled labourers Es. 14. 

With the increasing population the agriculture and the revenue have 
Berenuefl. more than kept pace. In 1828 Mr. Paton, the Civil 

Officer in charge, calculated that for the ensuing five 
years the revenue which would be derived from the whole of Arakan would 
not exce^ Es. 2,20,000 per annum whereas in 1831 the assessment in this 
district alone yielded Rs. 2,40,190 : this was at the rate of two rupees twelve 
ani^ per head of population. During the following nine years the amounts 
realized were : — 


1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 
1830 


Rs. 


2,48,670 

1837 

2,80,300 

1838 

3.10,170 

1839 

2,87,020 

1840 

3,26,290 



Bs. 

3,35,730 

3,80.290 

3,79,810 

3,79.700 














BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


21 


In 1837 the taxes on forest produce, huts, boats, houses, sugar-presses, 
handicraftsmen &c. which prevailed as part of the ancient revenue system in 
force when we took the country were abolished and Rs. 97,350 thus lost ; 
the figures given above show how little the revenue suffered. In 1856 the 
amount derived from this district was Rs. 10,06,570, in 1862 Rs.l4, 20,430, 
in 1872 Rs. 19,24,627 and in 1875 Rs. 20,83,693. 








xa i 






1 

.H 8Ԥ 

B 1 












g 


1 


1 ^ 



1 


a> 

1 <D 

'C 1 

<D ^ .2 

1 © ' 

.d ! 



ns 

^ 1 
ca 

1 

xn 

’S 

1 ® 

-a 

1 CQ 

S “S 
g.9« 

o 

S 1 

3 

"o 





S 





Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 1 

Rs. ! 

Rs. 

1862 . . . . ' 

5,73,350 

^ 2,73,260 

96,920 

.. 

4,04,490 

1 

73,410 ' 

14,20,430 

1875 

5,94,656 

1 2,83,594 

1 

1,57,734 

6,822 

7,00,062 ' 

1,63,669 

10,06,537 

Increase 

21,306 

i 

j 10,334 

61,814 

5,822 

i 

4,04,490 

73,410 

4,86,107 


The amount received by the State as land revenue and the area worked, 
divided into their main heads, were : — 



Rice. 

Garden. 

Miscellane- 

ous. 

Special 

grants. 

Total. 

Toungyas. 

Total. 


Acres. 

Rev. 1 

Acres. 

Rev. 

Acres. ! 

Rev. 

Acres. 

Rev. 

Acres. 

Revenue. 

Revenue. 



Rs. 


Bs. , 


Rs. 

1 

Rs. 

1 

Be. 

Rs. 

1862 

2,43,037 

5,19,080! 

15,259 

40,450 

3,800 


1 j 

“■ j 


4,280 

5,73,350 

1875 

2,72,902 

5,34,837 

17,984 

36,994 

1 4,493 

9,140 

1 8,389 1 

j 

10,362 

3,03,768 

3,313 

5,91,646 


the decrease in toungyas being due to the Hill Tracts having been separated 
from the district and to a gradual cessation of that system of cultivation the 
cultivators taking up land in the plains instead. 

The capitation tax, which is paid by all males between 18 and 60 years 
of age except those living in Akyab town who pay an assessment on their 
houses in lieu and persons specially exempted such as immigrants or persons 
engaged in education or devoted to the performance of religious duties, &c., 
was in 1875 assessed on 70,040 souls and yielded Rs. 2,83,594 or a little 
over four rupees a head of those assessed. 

The excise revenue, which is derived from licenses to sell intoxicating 
liquor and drugs, is to some extent fluctuating, depending necessarily upon 
the consumption of these articles and upon the method in which it is raised 
not only here but in the neighbouring Chittagong district of Bengal. 









22 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The tax on fisheries and fishing nets was first imposed in 1864-G5 and in 
that year yielded Rs. 6j820. 

The increase in receipts from Customs is entirely due to increased trade. 
In the following table are shewn, year by year, the receipts for the last 21 
years : — 


Year. 

■ 

Year. 

Amount. 

Year. 

Amount. 


Bs. 


Bs. 


Rs. 

1855-56 . . 

1,81,590 

1862-63 . . 

4,04,490 

1869-70 . . 

2,97,860 

1856-57 . . 

86,470 

1863-64 . . 

4,92,080 

1870-71 . . 

6,78,030 

1857-58 . . 

1,46,850 

1864-65 . . 

4,09,220 

1871-72 . . 

5,26,530 

1858-59 . . 

1,25,090 

1865-66 . . 

3,77,850 

1872-73 . . 

8,81,610 

1859-60 . . 

2,30,830 

1866-67 .. 

2,93,370 

1873-74 .. 

7,05,940 

1860-61 . . 

4,31,650 

1867-68 ,. 

4.42,720 

1874-75 .. 

6,34,946 

1861-62 .. 

1 3,60,120 

1868-69 . . 

5,49,560 

1876-76 .. 

7,00,062 


The fluctuations are considerable and are due partly to changes in the rates of 
duty and partly to the state of trade and not unfrequent ly to the shipments 
falling mainly before or after the close of the financial year. The rapid 
falling-off from 1863 to 1866, when the tide turned, was due to the 
state of the rice trade. In 1863-64 there was a sudden inflation owing 
to an increased demand for rice in the ports to the eastward of the province 
the result of scarcity in China; in the following year the exports fell, in 1865 
they fell still lower, and in 1866 fell very considerably but rose again with 
great rapidity in 1867. During this period there had not only been great 
stagnation in the home markets but the Siamese ports had been thrown 
open and in 1866 the returns were made up for 11 months only owing to a 
change in the financial year — a change which took place during the rice 
shipping season. The next great fluctuation was in 1869 and this was 
by shippers holding back in expectation of a reduction in, if not the 
total abolition of, the export duty on rice (which was eventually lowered by 
about 33 per cent.) ; the result of this holding back is seen in the increased 
duty realized in the following year notwithstanding the great reduction in 
the duty. 

The ^oss revenue collected in the district, exclusive of mimicipal and local 
funds, daring each of the last nine years was : — 


1867 

.. Bs. 

14,89,312 

1872 

1868 

• • »i 

15,70,464 

1873 

1869 

• • i» 

13,10,233 

1874 

1870 

• • i» 

17,00,770 

1875 

1871 

• * >> 

15,36,717 


Bs. 19,24,647 
„ 18,18,769 
„ 17,87,858 
„ 20,83,693. 




BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER- 


23 


Deducting from these figures the Customs dues which have been shewn to 
fluctuate greatly the revenues were — 


1867 

.. Rs. 10,46,592 

1872 

Rs. 10,43,037 

1868 

.. „ 10,20,904 

1873 

.. „ 11,12,829 

1869 

.. „ 10,12,373 

1874 

. . „ 11,42,922 

1870 

, , „ 10,22,740 

1875 

.. „ 13,83,631 

1871 

.. „ 10,10,187 



Deducting from the gross revenues the expenditure on administration — 
that is the cost of civil offices of all kinds (and the establishment for the 
control of the whole of the Arakan Division is included) — the balances avail- 
able for the general purposes of the State were 


Year. 

Gross revenue. 

Cost of 

Administration. 

Balance. 





Rs. 

Bs. 

Rs. 


1867 



14,89,312 

4,28,817 

10,60,495 


1868 



15,70,464 

3,00,869 

12,69,595 


1869 



13,10,233 

2,82,393 

11,27,841 


1870 



17,00,770 

3,01,355 

13,99,415 


1871 



15,35,717 

2,47,697 

12,88,020 


1872 



19,24,647 

2,09,356 

17,15,291 


1873 



18,18,769 

3,21,828 1 

14,96,941 


1874 



17,87,358 

3,20,813 

14,67,045 

Average per annum, 

1875 



20,83,693 

3,21,459 1 

17,62,134 

Bs. 13,73,732. 


The local revenues increased with the Imperial. In 1857 the Feriy Fund 
alone had a balance of Rs. 157,860 ; this was amalgamated with the general 
Bengal Ferry Fund allotments being made to the district according to its 
stated requirements but on the formation of the province in 1862 Bengal no 
longer received any contributions from Arakan and did not return the balance, 
if there was any. In 1873-74, 1874-75 and 1875-76, the revenues derived 
from local sources were — 





1873-74, 

1874-75. 

1876-76. 

Port Fund . . 

Municipal Fond • • 

Bazaar Fund . . 

Dispensary Fund 

Land Sale and Rent Fund 
Five per Cent. Cess Fund 
District Fund 


.. Rs. 

• • 91 

* * 91 

46.313 
22,849 

3,480 

1,287 

194 

43.314 
7,391 

43,212 

i ’235 

1,640 

159 

33,974 

7,859 

47,013 

2,007 

1,899 

176 

64,639 

10,097 

Total 

Add Revenue collected by the Municipality 

.. Bs. 

• • »» 

1,24,828 

88,079 

26,172 

1,16,931 

44,480 

Gkamd Total 

• • »» 

1,24,828 

1,14,261 

1,60,411 








24 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The trade of the district is mainly confined to Akyab. Before the British 
occupation large sea-going boats from Mrohoung 
visited the ports of Bengal and brought away numer- 
ous articles of British manufacture such as muslins, woollens, cutlery, piece-goods, 
glass and crockery with which every town and village was fairly supplied, whilst 
a small trade was carried on with the other Burman ports to the eastward. The 
establishment of the British Government, resulting in the removal of the 
vexatious restrictions on trade imposed by the Burmese, was the signal for 
English ships to visit Akyab for the rice which the surrounding country pro- 
duced in larger quantities year by year, bringing in return piece-goods, 
tobacco and other articles. To rice was subsequently added timber for sleepers 
for the Indian railways (but for a short period only) hides, horns and but 
little else, the rice trade occupying by far the larger number of ships frequent- 
ing the port. 

From October 1830 to April 1831 — that is during the shipping season — 
140 square-rigged vessels cleared out carrying cargoes valued at 73,780. 
In 1833 the number of such vessels had increased to 178 and the value of 
their cargoes to Es. 93,810. The trade from 1855-56 to 1875-76 is shewn 
in the following table, that of each of the first ten and of the last three years 
l^^ing given separately : — 


Year, 

Value of grain exports. 

Value of timher exports. 

H A 

9 <9 

:i 

oS 

•M 

O ^ 

qQ • 

^ Pi QQ 
> 

Imports including trea- 
sure. 

Tonnage of vessels 
cleared out. 





Rs. 

Bs. 

Bs. 

Es. 

Tons. 

1855-56 

•• 



1,06,76,040 

2,910 

3,00,010 

77,88,450 

1,93,512 

1856-57 

*• 



29,88,580 

6,210 

13,07,770 

47,65,470 

91,472 

1857-58 

•• 



61,08,930 

2,000 

21,34,340 

51,39,580 

1,7,0635 

1858-59 

-• 



28.19,710 

•470 

11,24,800 

34,76,650 

1,17,528 

185940 

• • 



27,93,570 

3,220 

12,60,110 

48,33,670 

69,878 

1860-61 

• • 



45,54,350 

150 

4,46,650 

29,16,670 

1,21,719 

1861-63 

• ft 



35,12,850 

4,900 

10,83,780 

56,27,490 

1,14,696 

1862-63 




89,61,660 

2,790 

10,64,180 

51,72,340 

1,15,975 

1868-64 




48,37,240 

19,820 

15,56,260 

57,72,140 

1,56,973 

1873-74 

•• 



72,76,010 i 

6,920 

28,31,280 

91,04,970 

1,93,444 

1874-76 




59,46,850 

20,430 

23,05,970 

64,20,090 

1,79,260 

1876-76 




45,53,920 

16,120 

17,43,200 

41,01,810 

1,94,470 








BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


25 


The lice is exported to India and to foreign countries. In the calendar 
year 1871 the exports to Europe were 113,047 tons; in 1872 they were 
141,634 tons ; in 1873, when there was a great demand for Bengal and the 
Madras coast 123,452 ; in 1874 141,280 tons; and in 1876 136,247 tons. 
The timber, which consists of iron wood, goes to Chittagong for house 
posts and to Bengal for railway sleepers. Cutch goes mainly to Chittagong 
and is brought into the country across the Arakan Romas from Upper Burma 
and the hill districts. Gunnybags come in from Calcutta empty to be re- 
exported filled with rice when their numbers and value are not entered in 
the returns. The trade in piecegoods is with the Indian and provincial ports 
and is carried on almost exclusively by native merchants. Tobacco was and 
indeed still is imported in quantities but the trade is falling off and little 
found in the market outside Akyab. It is a branch of trade which may 
very possibly become largely developed as the tobacco grown in the Hill 
Tracts has been favourably reported on and is found to contain important 
constituents in amount closely resembling those in the most favourite 
tobaccos of European smokers— the Havanna and Manilla tobaccos of the 
English market, A small quantity of very fair cotton, the produce of the 
Hill Tracts, is exported to Chittagong but the native looms are chiefly 
supplied with Manchester thread. 

The number and gross tonnage of the ships which cleared out during each 
of the last three years were : — 


Class. 

1 1873-74. 1 

1874-75. 

1875-76. 

Number 

Tonnage. 

Number. 

Tonnage, 

Number. 

Tonnage. 

British 


, , 

158 

110,998 

166 

112,810 

173 

108,731 

Foreign 

• • 

• • 

95 

61,024 

62 

43,317 

94 

63,362 

Asiatic 

• • 

• • 

316 

21,422 

347 

23,127 

318 

22,376 


Total 

•• 

569 

193,444 

575 

179,263 

585 

194,469 


When Arakan was ceded to the British in 1826 by the treaty of Yandaboo 
. it was found that the Burmese Government had divided 

the country into governorships of which Akyab formed 
one with its head -quarters at Arakan to wn, the capital of the former Arakan king- 
dom which had b^n conquered and annexed to the Burmese dominions towards 
the end of the eighteenth century. The system adopted by the English Gov- 
ernment for the management of the country is thus described by Lieutenant 
(now Sir Arthur) Phayre, who was for inanjf years in civil employ in Arakan 
and subsequently Chief Commissioner of the province : — Arakan (that is the 
Akyab district to which this name is, properly speaking, restricted) is divided 
into 160 circles, of which 148 are denominated kywn [kywoii] or islands, being 
situated in the lowlands, and 12 arc called khyouny or streams being in the hill 
districts. They contain a total of 960 villages. Each of these circles is 


4 







26 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


placed under an officer designated Kywn-aop [K^jxvon-oopl (this is pronounced as 
one syllable, Kyok); or Kliyonng-aop, according to the locality of his 
charge. The dnties oi sl Kyivn-aop [Kywon-oop'] are to collect the revenue, to 
preserve order in his circle, and to assist the police in the apprehension of 
criminals ; through him are made all statistical inquiries, and to him are 
referred many disputes concerning land; he is paid 15 per cent, upon his col- 
lections. In each circle there are from three or four to 15 or 20 villages ; the 
revenue collected by the different i5L2/u;n-aops [Kywon-oop] varies from Rs. 200 
to Rs. 10,000. This great difference results from the rapid increase within a 
few years of some circles compared with others, consequent on superiority or 
fertility of soil, more convenient locality for exporting grain, and other causes. 
The office of Kywn-^aop \Kywon^op'\ is not hereditary, but the son of any man 
who has rendered essential services generally succeeds on his father^s demise. 
Next toi\ieKywn-aop [Kywon-oop] is the Eaiva-goung [Rwa-goung], or village 
head. This officer is elected by the villagers themselves ; if there are two or 
more candidates for the appointment, the villagers meet and sign their names 
to a document containing the name of him whom they vote for ; these lists 
are then forwarded by the Kywn~aop [Kywon-oop] to the officer in charge of 
the district (called Myo-won), who appoints him that has a majority of votes, 
unless, indeed, there be some good reason for rejecting him, . . The Eawa- 
goung [EwOr-goung^ collects the revenue of his village and delivers it to the 
Kywn^op \Kywon-oop']y who carries it to the Government treasury. He is 
paid four per cent, on las collections. A village of 80 houses is entitled to a 
Rawa-goung [^Rwa-goung^, that is, to a stipendiary one. If a village has less 
than that number of houses they pay their tax to a neighbouring Goimg ; but 
if the villagers, as frequently happens, dislike this arrangement and elect a 
Goung of their own, the proceeding is confirmed, but they must pay him them- 
selves. Their object then is to induce settlers to come among them, whereby 
their village may be raised to the privileged standard of 30 houses. Under 
the orders of the Emva-goung \Rwa-goung] is the Rawa-tsare [Rwa-tsare], 
or village scribe. He is paid two per cent, on the village collections. The 
appointment is usually held by the son or by some relation of the Rawa~ 
goung [Rwa-goung]. His duties are to prepare, under the orders of the Goung^ 
the village Sarang (Tsareng), or register, containing the name of each house- 
holder in the village, with the amount of tax demandable from him upon each 
item. 

^^There are no agents of police in the village, the village officers being 
hdd responsible for the preservation of order and the seizure of criminals. 

^rooghout the. district there are six police stations, at which the police 
ordinarily remain until information being given by a village officer or other 
person of any occnnence requiring their presence, they proceed to the spot : 
nearly all eommnnication in the district is carried on by water. 

The European functionary in charge is styled a Senior Assistant to the 
Commisdoner of Arakan (by the people, Myowon), To conduct all revenue 
affairs there is an officer styled Myo-thoogyee, whose office under the Arakan 
and Barman Governments was considered the .most important in the eountiy. 
He then apportioned to each the amount of revenue demanded by the Govern- 
ment ; ms duty now is, under the orders of the Senior Assistant, to superintend 
all the Kpwn~aop$ \Kywon~oo]^, and to inspect and report npon the annual 
registers of their circles : the office still carries with it a great deal of impor- 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


27 


* 

tance in the minds of the people. This officer is paid a fixed salary, and 
resides at the chief town of the district/^ 

The existing system of administration is but a development of that first 
adopted. The office of Kywon-oop (now called Thoogyees) still exists but the 
incumbents have no longer regular police duties and are paid by a much smaller 
percentage on their collections, the Goungs are village police officers appointed 
by tbe Government who receive a fixed salary and have little or nothing to do 
with the Revenue, and a regular police force has been established. The district 
has been divided into townships over each of which, except Akyab which is 
undera European Magistrate, is placed a Native Extra Assistant Commissioner 
with revenue, civil and criminal powers. Of these townships there are eight. 
The Kooladan in the valley of the river of the same name is the most 
northern and adjoins the Hill Tracts. It is divided into eight revenue 
circles and contains no large towns and but little cultivation : the 
Extra Assistant Commissioner in charge holds his Court at a village on 
the right bank of the river not far from the celebrated Mahamoonee temple. 
South and east of the Kooladan township is the Old Arakan or Mrohoung 
township which is divided into 21 revenue circles with the head-quarters 
at Arakan : in this township is situated the temple of Maha-htee. On the 
other or western side of the Kooladan is the .Ooreetoung West ^township 
extending down nearly to Akyab, divided into 19 revenue circles. The 
Raithaidoung township adjoins Chittagong on the north and Ooreetoung 
West on the east whilst on the south it touches the coast and occupies the 
country on both banks of the Mayoo ; it is divided into 21 circles and the 
head-quarters are at Rathaidoung on the Mayoo rivet*. The Naaf, known to 
the Arakanese as Anouk-gnay^ occupies the country between the Mayoo hills 
and the Naaf from the sea-coast northwards and is divided into 11 circles. The 
Ooreetoung East township is south of Mrohoung and extends along the sea- 
coast below Akyab : it is divided into 1 7 circles and includes the Borongo 
islands. Mengbra extends from the Ooreetoung East township to Kyouk-hpyoo 
and the Arakan Roma mountains and is bounded on the south by the sea ; it is 
divided into 19 circles. Lastly Kyailet, containing 18 circles, occupies the 
small tract of country round the town of Akyab. 

The officers now entrusted with the administration of the country 
in all its branches, exclusive of Thoogyees or Kywon-oop and the Goungs 
and Kyedangyees (who hold much the same position that the Goungs formerly 
held but in lieu of salary are excused tbe payment of capitation-tax) are a 
Deputy Commissioner, an Assistant Commissioner, a Magistrate for the 
island and town of Akyab, eight Extra Assistant Commissioners, an 
Akhwonwon who holds the place of the Myo-thoogyee alluded to above, 
a Superintendent of Police, a Civil Surgeon who is in charge of tbe Gaol, an 
Executive Engineer, a Collector of Customs, a Master Attendant, a Deputy 
Inspector of Schools, a Superintendent of the Telegraph Department and 
a Post Master. The Deputy Commissioner and the Assistant and Extra 
Assistant Commissioners are the Judges, Magistrates and Revenue officials 
for the whole of the district each within his own territorial limits, the 
jurisdiction of the Magistrate extending over Akyab Island within which 
the other officers have no criminal judicial authority. The Tarama-thoo- 
gyee/^ now called an Extra Assistant Commissioner and stationed in Akyab, 
civil jurisdiction over Akyab Island and is Judge of the Court of Small 



28 


BBITISH BURMA OAZETTEKR. 


Causes with final jurisdiction up to Rs. 100. The town of Akyab was formed 
into a Municipality in 1874, and a Municipal Committee was appointed 
which deals with the local revenues and expenditure. 

The police force, which was raised in 1861, is a portion of the general 
police force of the province under the Inspector-General in Rangoon and, as 
far as this district is concerned, replaces the old local police and the local 
battalion. The strength has varied at different times: in 1875 it consisted 
of a District Superintendent, 32 subordinate officers and 419 men, who cost 
Rs. 93,799. For several years the Police were to a large extent engaged 
in repelling attacks of, and in following up, marauding parties from amongst 
the hill tribes in the north but since the Hill Tracts have been separated from 
this district their duties have lain more entirely in preventing and detecting 
local crime, amongst which murders and gang robberies at one time filled an 
important place. 

The Gaol in Akyab is under the charge of the Civil Surgeon and consists of 
wooden buildings raised from the ground and surrounded by a wall. A new 
wall is being built round what has hitherto been the work-yard, and new Gaol 
buildings will be constructed within it, the site of the existing prison being 
used for work-sheds. The difficulty in obtaining and the expense of employ- 
ing hired labour, together with the absolute necessity for making roads and 
drains, filling up swamps, and, generally, laying out and keeping in order the 
town of Akyab led to the prisoners confined in this Gaol being to a very great 
extent employed in out-door labour, but gradually in-door labour has been 
introduced with, as regards the prison, very satisfactory results. In 1855 the 
avenge cost of each prisoner was Rs. 111-12; in 1857 it had fallen to 
Rs. 79-12 and in 1859 to Es. 60-8. In 1875 the gross cost was Rs. 52-14 and 
owing to the value of the Gaol labour the nett cost was only Rs. 24-9, exclud- 
ing the cost of the new buildings. The works on which the prisoners are 
employed are stone-breaking, coir-pounding, spinning jute and weaving the 
twist into bags, cotton-spinning and hand-weaving, pounding bricks, making 
coir-mats, rugs and ropes, and carpentry and smiths^ work ; timber- sawing was 
introduced in 1875. The gross earnings during 1875 were Rs. 14,298 
and the cost of materials having been Rs. 5,630 the nett amount paid into 
the Government treasury was Rs. 8,668. The whole cost of the Gaol was 
Rs. 1 6,77 0 so that more than a third was defrayed from profits. In 
1873 Carolina rice-seed was sown in the garden and produced lbs. 115 for 
every pound of seed sown. The average number of prisoners in confinement — 
some of whom were transferred from Kyouk-hpyoo and Sandoway, as this prison 
is a divisional one, daring each of the last nine years was : — 


1867 .. 295 

1868 367 

1869 •. 471 

1870 490 

1871 361 


1872 .. 332 

<1873 ,. 369 

^ 1874 334 

1876 .. 330 


The hospital and charitable dispensary in Akyab consist of two laige blocks 
of buildings raised from the ground on piles, with a covered way running 
between them, one for Europeans and the other for natives, the latter built 
many years ago. ^ -An entirely new building is in course of erection. The num- 
ber of paUe^iferireated during the last seven years was : — 



BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


29 


Years. 

Patients. 

In. 

Out. 

Total. 

1869 

• * 


• . 

.« 

2,012 

1870 

% • 


579 

1,564 

2,143 

1871 

• » 

• • 

298 

1,389 

1,687 

1872 

• • 

* . 

398 

1,893 

2,291 

1873 

• • 

• » 

461 

2,280 

2,741 

1874 

• « 

• • 

660 

1,890 

2,450 

1876 

• • 

« • 

! 

374 

1 

1,993 

2,367 


In 1871 a lock hospital was completed. 

For many years education in this district was left very much to itself, as it 
had been left in the Burman time ; in 1846 a Government school was established 
in Akyab and placed under the Director of Public Instruction in Bengal ; but 
in 1857 it was withdrawn from him and placed under the control of the local 
authorities. Of late years, since the formation of an Education Department 
in the province, this school has had more attention paid to it : a new school- 
house has been built for it, and in 1875 it was raised to the position of a 
High School : the average number of pupils who attended daily in that year 
was 224. In 1873 a cess school, that is one the cost of which is defrayed 
from the five per cent, local cess fund, was opened at Moungdoo, in the Naaf 
township, which at the end of the year had 20 pupils on its rolls, and at the 
end of 1875, 43. This school affords a good example of the craving of parents 
for the instruction of their children in English to enable them to obtain 
employment as clerks in the Government service and in merchants’ o65ces and 
of their disregard of education for its own sake. The Director of Public In- 
struction in his report for 1876 quotes the following extract from the remm*ks 
of the Deputy Inspector of Schools : — “ This school tinder Moung Tha Doon 
Gang, the vernacular teacher, made a very good commencement but after- 
wards dwindled away — ^parents wanted education in English, they did not 
care much for the vernacular. At last there were only four or five boys in 
the school when Moung Shwe Go, a teacher from the Akyab High School, 
was sent to Moungdoo on the 20th July 1875. Then it was that the boys 

re-entered, and now the school has 43 boys on the rolls. The 

parents of the boys have expressed a wish for another teacher of English, and 
they would like the present Vemacidar to be removed. They do not wish 

for any vernacular education In 1874 another cess 

school was open^ at Mrohoung. 

The endeavours to make use of the existing indigenous lay and monastic 
schools for the purposes of general education and to bring them to some extent 
under control have not been extraordinarily successful. In 1875 120 lay and 



80 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


V . 

¥■ ' 


monastic schools submitted to the examination ot their pupils ; the lay 
schools alone did not come up to the standards — necessarily low — fixed by 
the Education Department : pupils passed the examination in 43 monastic 
but in only three lay schools ; in these latter out of the 15 prize winners seven 
were girls. The census of 1872 showed that, as regards mere reading and 
writing, the Mahomedans and Booddhists — that is by far the larger proportion 
of the inhabitants — were farther advanced than almost anywhere else in 
the province. Of those of these religions of 20 years of age and 
upwards 11,589 Mahomedan males out of 22,979, 31,938 Booddhist males out 
of 64,549, 1,543 Mahomedan females and 3,275 Booddhist females could read 
and write. 

Outside the island of Akyab the numerous inosculating creeks which traverse 
. the low country in every direction and unite the 

onuutuuea ons. streams flowing down from the hills to the sea form 

the principal highways. An unmetalled fair-weather road, extending for 20 
miles from Mrohoung to Mengbra, has lately been made and a road from 
Moung-daw in the Naaf township to Akyab, a distance of 65 miles, which 
will nnite this town with the Chittagong division, is under construction, 
and the first section, ten and half miles out of Akyab, has been completed. 

AKYAW. — A revenue circle in the Donabyoo township of the Thoon- 
khwa dis^ct, on the right bank of the Iirrawaddy and some distance inland, 
more cultivated in the north than towards the south where there is a good 
deal of tr^-forest of which a large portion is suitable only for firewood. 
The inhabitants are principally traders, fishermen and rice-cultivators. The 
land revenue in 1874-75 amounted to Rs. 2,990 and the capitation-tax in 
1875-76 to Rs. 1,800. This circle has lately been placed under the Kyoon- 
tanee Thoogyee. 

AKYAW .-—A village in the Thoon-khwa district about four miles to the 
west of the Irrawaddy with a brick-laid road running through it, containing 
a population of some 600 souls. The inhabitants are principally Takings. 

A-LA-BHWOT. — A lake in the northern portion of the Rangoon district, 
on the right bank of the Hlaing river with which it communicates. In the 
dry weather it has a depth of about 10 feet. 

.^AY-BOUK. — A creek in the Alay-kywon, at the entrance to the 
Bassein river, about 100 feet wide and admitting boats of 200 baskets burden 
^all times. 

w village of about 50 houses in 18° 57' 50^' 

t ^ the Htangouk revenue circle, Kama township, Thayet 
^nct on the ^agyee a little mountain torrent which flows down from 
the Tswotj^mng spur to the Made river. 

a revenue circle with an area of 25 square miles 
^mymg the extreme north of the Bamree township of the Kyonk-hpyoo 
dMtnct with about 1 600 inhabitants. Salt is made here to some extent. %e 
land revenue in 1874^-75 was Rs. 1,130 and the capitation-tax in 1875 Rs. 2,010. 

j. . A revenue circle in the Ngapootaw township, Bassein 

dirtnet, mth an esfamated area of 65 square mUes, occupying the central 
I^ion ofthe Kland. or rather mass of islands, which lie in the Bassein 
mer between the Bassein and the Thek-kay-thoung mouths, the northern 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


31 


and southern boundaries being formed by the Lwongan and the Hnget-kywno 
ereeks which flow between them» The country is flat and covered with 
jungle but low sand-hillocks appear to the south-west of Thek-kay-thoung 
village. Intersected by numerous anastomosing channels communication 
is usually carried on by water and the roads are little else than footpaths. 
The principal villages are Thek-kay-thoung and Oon-khyoung, close together 
on the bank of the Thek-kay-thoung^ which together contain a population of 
some IjOOO souls. The inhabitants, who are principally Talaings, are mainly 
employed in salt making and in fishing. The land revenue in 1875-76 
amounted to Ks. 2,563, the capitation-tax in 1876 to Rs. 2,517, the local 
funds revenue to Rs, 260, the gross revenue to Rs. 8,159, and the popula- 
tion to 1,893 souls. 

ALAY-KYWON. — ^The north-western revenue circle of the Mye-boon 
township of the Kyouk-hpyoo district, covering an area of about 27 square 
miles and lying on the northern coast of Hunter^s Bay and west of the Kyat- 
tseng, one of the numerous mouths of the Lemro river. In 1875 the popu- 
lation numbered 1,084 souls, the landrevenue was Rs. 4,660 and the capitation- 
tax Rs. 1,380. 

ALEE-RWA, — A village in the Gnyoung-le-heng circle of the Shwe- 
gyeng township, Shwe-gyeng district, to the west of the Tsittoung river, with 
about 650 inhabitants. 

, ALGXJADA.* — A dangerous reef of rocks in the Bay of Bengal, bearing 
from Diamond Island, S.S.W. 3i leagues, level with the surface of the sea and 
extending north and south about IJ miles with outlying and detached rocks 
at a considerable distance from it. The reef now carries a light-house, 
standing in 15° 42' N. lat. and 94° ll'lO" E. long., 144 feet high and 
built of granite masonry in alternate black and white bands which was com- 
menced in February 1861 and finished in April 1865 and thus took nearly five 
years to build, besides two years of preparation. Considering the difllculty of 
procuring proper labour and the distance it was necessary to go to obtain 
suitable materials (the stone was brought from au island oi\ the coast of 
Tenasserim) this light-house does not compare unfavourably with others of a 
similar type such as the Skerry Vohr and the Bell Rock. It bears a first order 
catadioptric light revolving once in a minute and visible 20 miles. 

ALLAN-MYO. — A town in the Thayet district, situated in 19° 22' 60^ 
N. latitude and 95° 1 7' 20"" E. lon^tude on the left bank of the Irrawaddy close 
to the old Burman town of Myedai. During the second Burmese war when the 
fort at Myedai was occupied by British troops a native village sprang up 
close to it on the opposite or south bank of the Kye-nee stream which 
here enters the Irrawaddy. The situation being a favourable one as the 
outlet of the produce of a large tract of country on the east of the river the 
village rapidly rose into a town which has of late years been much improved 
and extended. A market has been built and an Assistant Commissioner who is 
also ex-officio Assistant Collector of Customs has been stationed here. The 
population in 1872 amounted to 9,697 souls. The town was named after Major 
Allan of the Madras Quartermaster-Generars Department who demarcated the 


* The reef is known to the Bvumans as N(\ga\ii Kyouk but to aU others by its Portuguese 
Paine Alynada, 



32 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


frontier line. The name was readily adopted by the Burmese, whose word for Hag 
Alan’’) has much the same sound except that the emphasis is placed on the last 
syllable, as it was the most advanced post at which the British Hag was hoisted. 

ALO-DAW-RA. — A revenue circle in the Prome district on the North 
Naweng river which now contains four of the old village tracts. In 1876-77 
the land revenue amounted to Rs. 2,759, the capitation-tax to Rs. 3,573, and 
the gross revenue to Es. 6,924. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 5,476. 

ALO-DAW-RA. — A village in the Prome district on the North Naweng 
river seven miles in a direct line from its junction with the South Naweng 
and 19 miles north-east of Prome, A small body of Police is quartered in this 
village. 

ALOON. — A little river in the Henzada district which rises in the Ara- 
kan Roma mountains and flowing through a narrow valley, of which the 
Tagoung-gyee spur, the northern boundary of the district in that direction, 
forms the northern watershed, falls into the Tshanda near Bhet-rai after a 
course of about 25 miles, at first to the north-east then east and for the last 
few miles south. The lower part of its course is rocky and boats cannot 
ascend even in the rains above Tatkoon, a distance of nine or ten miles. The 
banks are steep towards its source and flat near its mouth ; on the banks 
are found teak, cutch, ironwood and bamboos. 

ALOON, — -Arevenue circle in the Kyankheng township, lying in the north- 
western corner of the Henzada district and extending eastwards from the Arakan 
Roma mountains. The whole area is hilly and covered with forest 
contening, amongst other trees. Teak (Tectona grandis), Pyengma {Lager- 
stroemia Reginae) and Pyenggado {Inga xylocarpa). The cultivation is 
carried on almost entirely in toungyas where rice, cotton and other hill produce 
are grown. In 1876 it had a population of 1,634 souls and in 1876-77 the 
land revenue ^s Rs. 2,629, the capitation-tax Ife. 1,820, and the gross revenue 
demand Rs. 4^,413. 

AMAT. — .^f'ci^k in the Kwengbouk circle, Myoungmya township, 
B^ein disjriefc, connecting the Rwe and the Pyamalaw, rather over 20 
___B 5 ilfiS-ffU^the sea aid navigable by the largest native boats. 

AMHERST,* — AN(Jistrict in the Tenasserim division, occupying the coun- 
try north, south and easb of the mouths of the Salween, the Gyaing and the 
Attaran rivers, which unite near the town of Maulmain, the head-quarter station 
of the district and of the division, and including Bheeloogywon a large island 
west of and not a mile from Maulmain. From where the Thoung-yeng pours 
its* waters into the Salween, in the extreme north, the north-western 
boundary of the district follows the latter river for some 40 miles, as far as 
the mouth of the Ewonzaleng,. another of its tributaries. Here it turns north- 
west, and five or six miles up the latter river inclines west, then north, and then 
west again to the Doonthamee river, which it descends for some distance when 
inclining westward again it strikes the Kyouk-tsarit which it follows southwards 
to the eastern mouth of the Kyoon-iek, Turning west it follows the course 
of this natural canal to its western mouth in the Bheeleng river. Here 
it turns south and follows the Bheeleng to its mouth and thence the 


* The district takes its name from the town of Amherst q. v. 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


33 


coast line southward, outside Bheeloogywon and past Amherst, to a spot a few 
miles below the Re or Ye river where the Ma-hlwai spur comes down 
towards the sea. In the south the Ma-hlwai spur separates this district from 
Tavoy, and to the eastward the main range as far north as the source of the 
Thoung-yeng and thence that stream to its mouth form the boundaries between 
British and Siamese territory. The area comprised within these limits is 15,205 
square miles. The major portion of the district, that part lying to the east of the 
Salween and of the sea-coast, was, with Tavoy and Mergui ceded to the British 
by the treaty of Yandaboo, which terminated the first Burmese war. The 
Tha-htoon sub-division, that is the country between the Salween and the 
Bheeleng, was annexed with Pegu by Lord Dalhousie after the second 
Burmese war and for some years formed a portion of the Shwe-gyeng 
district. The inconvenience of this arrangement led to its being adjoined 
to Amherst in 1864-65, Looked at on the map the district is seen to consist 
of five distinct tracts : — ^Tothe north, north-east, east and south-east ofMaulmain 
are alluvial plains intersected by the Salween, the Gyaing and the Attaran and 
shut in on the east by the Dawna and on the west, south of Maulmain, by the 
comparatively low Toung-gnyo chain running parallel to the sea-coast; beyond 
these plains, in the extreme east, is the narrow ^nd densely wooded mountainous 
region formed by the Dawna chain and its spurs ; from Maulmain southwards 
to the Ma/-hlwai spur is a narrow strip of country between the Toung-gnyo 
chain and the sea, gradually widening out in the south into the valley of the Re 
and drained by numerous small streams with a general east and west direction ; 
west of the Salween is Tha-htoon with one main chain running up north 
and numerous other high grounds ; and lastly Bheeloogywon with as it were 
a backbone and ribs of hills forming the skeleton which supports and holds 
together rich rice lands. 

To the eastward is the Dawna chain which starts from the 


Mountains. 


Moolai-yit hid (5,500 feet high) in the main range in 
16° 5' 45" N. and 98° 42' 3" E., and extending N.N,W. 


for a distance of 200 miles divides the waters of the Honng-tharaw and of the 


Hlaing-bhwai from those of the Thoung-yeng. The general appearance of the 
chain is that of an elevated wooded tableland of laterite worM by drainage 


into a mountainous form rather than that which would be produced by sudden 


upheaval. At intervals, however, are outcrops which, in uplifted crests 
of the underlying rocks extending into thc-Jbed of^ the Thoung-veng and 
forming dangerous obstructions to navigation, of powerful 

volcanic disturbance. 


Starting from Moolai-yit, an immense mass of rock throwing out innu- 
merable spurs, the mountains in the south-east and south are formed by the 
main dividing range and its offshoots, the central axis of the mountainous 
system which drains itself into the Gulf of Siam and the Bay of Bengal. At 
the head waters of the Thoung-yeng, which has its source amongst these 
mountains, is a high tableland of laterite, 1,100 feet above the sea, covered 
with Eng forest and dotted with alluvial spots clothed with evergreen forest or 
cultivate by Karengs. Westward is the valley of the Houng-tharaw, 
bounded on the west by a low range of hills of soft wavy outline 


emanating from the high tableland of Fan toon aw and the sandstone 
formations round Thoungboon (3,472 feet above the sea level). 
Here and there the peaked and jagged summits of isolated limestone roclu 


5 



34 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


maybe seen rising out of the plain, some half hidden by struggling vegetation 
others bare and white. For some distance southward the country west of the 
main range preserves its character of softly-undulating hills but this is 
soon lost in barren limestone ridges. 

There are several passes across the main range from this district to 
Siamese territory. The first, which can in strictness hardly be called 
a pass from Burma to Siam as it lies wholly in the latter, requires 
notice as it is on one of the highways from British territory to 
Bangkok. Myawadee, an old and once fortified town on the left bank of 
the Thoung-yeng in 16^ 42' 15^' N. and 98° 32^ 30'^ E., can be reached 
in seven days. Rabaing in Siam lies 45 miles almost due east of Myawadee. The 
route between them, being much frequented, is clear and open and the jour- 
ney can thus be performed in two days. In the south-west monsoon boats 
go down the Meinam from Rahaing to Bangkok in eight days. During the 
hot weather it takes 15, owing to the diminished velocity of the current 
and the winding of the channel which leads through innumerable sand- 
banks and shoals. Another pass leads from the Houng-tharaw river in 15°41^ 
19' N. and 98° 35' E. to the Siamese village of Phra May-klaung the capital 
of the district of that name, where the Governor resides. There is a track called 
the Menanda road up a river of that name, a tributary of the Houng-tharaw, 
and thence near the main watershed northwards to the sources of the Thoung- 
yeng. The next pass is by the Three Pagodas, The journey up the 
Attaran is made by boat as far as Kannee, a police station, and thence 
by elephants across the watershed. The average time occupied in the 
journey from Maulmain to Bangkok by this route is 25 days~eight 
days to the Three Pagodas and 17 from the pass to Bangkok. The view 
from the summit of this pass is thus described by Assistant Surgeon 
Heifer who visited it in 1838 or 1839 One of the most beautiful sights 
I ever enjoyed was visiting that famous pass. It is a high tableland, upon 
" which, again, a number of mountain ridges is planted. I ascended one solitary 
“limestone rock, the north of the three heaps of stones indicating 

« forraers^:^^?f^e Three Pagodas. The view from thence, though exhi- 
“ biting nojgfiowy peaks or glaciers, was in many respects grander than the 
scenery in Switzerland; on the Appenines, or the Jura Alps. It was an 
unbounded view, ridges after ridges in succeedin|^ running in the 

cue other : in the Siamese territories 
“ I counted u?5fe’ent chains.^’ # 

From the Tsadaik hill of the main range, in 15° 17' 25" N. and 98° 15' E., 
the Toung-gnyo chain extends N.N.W. to Maulmain forming the western water- 
shed of the Attaran. These hills, nowhere of any very great elevation, 
finally disappear north of Maulmain in a small island in the Salween called 
Goung-tse-kywon. 

North of Maulmain and east of the Salween is a short range of lime- 
stone rocks called Zwai-ka-beng some 16 miles in length. 

To the west of the Salween a range of hiDs runs northward from Martaban 
of which one peak, the Koolama-toung, east of the Poung circle, is over 3,000 
feet high. At the Zeng-gyaik peak a spur is thrown ofiF to the N.N. W. which 
extends to Kawthan close to Tha-htoon and forms the westemlimit of the Dheba- 
rien valley : at Reng-gnyiem the Beng-gnyiem, which rises in this valley, flows 
through a gorge westward to the sea. The main chain continues northward 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


35 


and terminates at Kama*thaing a little to the south of the Kyoon-iek, the 
northern boundary of the district. There are two passes across these hills ; 
the northern by a cart track from Kyouk-tsarit, a little village on the stream 
of the same name at the eastern mouth of the Kyoon-iek, to Thien-tshiep, a 
rising village on the, as yet unfinished, main road from Martaban to Toung- 
nyoo, 13 miles north of Tha-htoon ; and the southern by a metalled road 
from Zemathway, a village on a small and partially artificially made stream, 
4^ miles to Tha-htoon, through the Gaw gap where the Gaw stream flows 
westward through the pass and under the road. By this route large quantities 
of unhusked rice are annually exported from the neighbourhood of Tha-htoon 
to Maulmain vid the Bhenglaing and Salween rivers. As many as 200 carts a 
day are said to traverse this road in the height of the season. 

Running from north to south and extending from one end of Bheeloo- 
gywon to the other is a low range with short spurs which would seem to have 
been at one time connected with the Martaban hills before the Salween forced its 
way or was forced between them. Near the centre of the island the hills suddenly 
dip and form a narrow pass but a few feet, comparatively, above the sea-level where 
nestled amongst trees, lies Khyoung-tshoon the principal village of the township. 

Owing to the mountainous nature of a great portion of the country the 
rivers are very numerous but except the Salween, the 
Gyaing, with its tributaries the Houng-tharaw and the 
Hlaing-bhwai, the Attaran and the Thoung-yeng there are none of any great 
size. The Salween, the sources of which, far away to the north somewhere in 
unexplored China, have never been seen by European eye, falls into the sea at 
Maulmain. Notwithstanding the distance of its source it cannot rank for 
commercial value with any of the great rivers of Asia. Its channel is broad, 
shallow and obstructed by numerous island shoals and though navigable by 
country boats as far as the passless rapids just below the mouth of the 
Thoung-yeng and in reaches above that point is, except in its southern mouth, 
unfit for the accommodation of sea-going vessels which cannot ascend much 
above Maulmain. Immediately below the town of Martaban, which lies on 
its right bank opposite Maulmain, it is divided into two branches by Bheeloo 
island. The southern, the entrance for ships, is at its mouth, between Amherst 
and Bheeloo-gy won or Bheeloo island, not less than seven miles wide, and its 
northern mouih,'4:^erou? and altogether impracticable for shipping, is still 
broader. Below the mouth of the Thoung^-yeng it receives from the north- 
west the waters of tho Rwonzaleng, a river of the Satween Kill T'r^ts district 
and still lower, from the same direction, the Bhenglaing brings to it the 
waters collected by the Doonthamee, the Kyouk-tsarit and other small rivers 
and during the rains a considerable share of the spill of the Bheeleng which 
formerly flooded the Thien-tshiep and Tha-htoon plains but has been forced 
round the Martaban hills and into the Kyouk-tsarit by an embankment ex- 
tending from Doonwoon to Kama-thaing. At Maulmain it is joined from the 
eastward by the Gyaing and the Attaran. 

The Gyaing, form^ by the junction of the Hlaing-bhwai and the Houng- 
tharaw, flows almost due west. It is a stream of considerable breadth but of 
no great depth and its channel is obstructed by islands and sandbanks. It is 
navigable for ordinary boats during all seasons throughout its course. 

The Hlaing-bhwai rises in the north of the district and flows southwards to 
Gyaing village where it is joined by the Houng-tharaw from the south, the united 



36 


BRITISH BURMA GAZKTTEER. 


waters flowing westward. Its principal tributary is the Dagyaing which 
joins it from the east about 30 miles above Gyaing. In the ruins it is navigable by 
boats to above Hlaing-bhwai, 45 miles up and 85 miles from Maulmain^ but in 
the dry s^on the sand bar below that village can be crossed only at high 
water springs. 

The Honng-tharaw rises in Siamese territory to the south-south-east of 
Maolmain and crossing the frontier in 15° 4r 19" N, and 98° 35' E., flows in 
a N.N.W. direction at first amongst the spurs of the main range, uniting 
with the Hlaing-bhwai in about 16° 34' N., and 98° 3' E. A peculiar feature 
of the Houng-tharaw valley is that it consists of several table lands sepa- 
rated by abrupt descents* The soil is a sandy loam which would seem to have 
been well cultivated in former years. The current is exceedingly rapid in the 
rains and boate then ascend with difficulty. It is navigable beyond Meetan 
which is 40 mfles from the mouth and 80 miles from Maul main. One of the 
main feeders is the Kawkariet which joins it from the east, and in the rains 
forms the route to Kawkariet village and thence vi& Myawadee to Siam. In 
the dry season this little streamlet is not navigable and the whole journey 
from the Houng-tharaw is made by land. 

The Attaran^ which drains the tract of country between the Toung-gnyo 
^am and the low undulating hills west of the Houng-tharaw is, like the 
Gyaing, formed by the junction of two main streams and fed by numerous 
nTOlete, The Zamee, navigable by boats for 40 miles from its mouth but 
uimcult of. ascent by reason of the rapidity of the current, and the Wengraw 
a few miles above the site of ancient Attamn to form this narrow 
deep and slug^h river from which, 60 miles above Manlmain, the light of 
V of overhanging foliage. 

In 1827 Mr. Crawfurd, the Civil Commissioner, ascended as far as Attaran 

m the utanay a small river steamer. 

The Thoung-yeng, which from its source in 16° 27' 47" N.. and 98° 50' 60" E 
to Its month ml7°50'.40"^\and 97° 45; 35" E., forms the north-eastern 
undary of district, rises m the main range of mountains and has a 
general N.N-W. course of about 197 miles to the Salween. Its breadth 
vanes considembly, msome places narrowing to 100 feet and in others widen- 
ing out to 1,000. Its course is filled with rapids and falls rendering navigation 
impossible. Near its mouth it receives from the north the water^^ - 
n^ee a large affluent the whole 

- . r^UJerngining^t^^ whu^isiu foreign territory, 

are small and of buH^tle present import- 
ance. The Ewonzaieng, q, river of the Salween Hill Ti®s, joins the Salween 
from the north-north-west below the Thoung-yeng and 1^11 lower down the 
Bhenglaing brings the collected waters of numerous small rivers and torrents. 
The Bheeleng, which rises in the mass of mountains formiijc^he Salween Hill 
Tracts, falls into the sea considerably to the north and a litrUi^ the west of 
the northern mouth of the Salween and is, in the lower portion of its course, 
the western boundary of the district. The Wakharoo rises in the Toung-gnyo 
chain and passing through a hilly country flows due westward'-to .the sea 
near Amherst; its mouth affords an excellent harbour. The Re, in the extreme 
south, rises in the main range and falls into the sea in 15° 5' 1^, : it is an 
inconsiderable stream and is not accessible except during the fine season a group 
of reefs and breakers about four miles out to sea rendering approach difficult, 
if not impossible, at other periods of the year. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


37 


Off the coast between the mouths of the Wakharoo and tlie Re, a little 
south of the 16th parallel, is Double Island on which, at a cost of Rs. 90,340, 
has been erected a light-house showing a first order dioptric fixed light with 
a cata-dioptric mirror visible 19 miles and first lighted in December 1866, 

Of the geology of the district but little is known as it has never been 

Geology, regularly and completely examined by a professed geolo- 

gist. Mr. Theobald of the Geological Survey of India 
had several opportunities of examining portions of it and a brief notice by him 
was published in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. X,, 
Part 2, 

Dr. Oldham divides the rocks which cover so large a portion of Tenas- 
serim into a lower division, which he terms the Mergui/’ series well developed 
in the south, and an upper, or Moulmein/^ series largely developed to the 
north and the most conspicuous member of which is the massive limestone 
which forms so picturesque a feature in the country round Maulmain and in the 
Salween valley. The entire thickness of these two divisions is placed at 
about 9,000, and the age of the whole fixed as Palaeozoic, the Maulmain beds 
being provisionally placed in the lower carboniferous group of European 
geologists/^ Since Dr. Oldham^s account of these beds was written 
nothing has been added to our knowledge of them save that from 
the evidence of a few fossils procured from Zwai-ka^beng, a limestone hill 
forming a prominent landmark above Maulmain popularly known as the Duke 
of YorVs nose;*^ the limestone in question may certainly be pronounced to be 
of the age of the carboniferous limestone of Europe, Dr. Oldham remarks 
that this limestone is more sparingly developed to the south than in Martaban 
but it is probable that the limestone met with in the Mergui Archipelago 
belongs to the same formation. The most marked feature of this limestone is 
its m^c of occurrence in steeply-scarped hills the sides of which overhang, as 
may be seen in the case of the hills near Maulmain which rise abruptly from 
the low inundated plains between the Gyaing and the Attaran rivers and 
exhibit the precise appearance of what they undoubtedly were at no remote 
geological period, sea-girt rocks such as still stud the Mergui Archipelago and 
which from their position in low-lying alluvial plains even now^ during the 
rains, are approachable only by boats through a mimic freshwater sea. The 
exploration of the eaves in these hills — of which there are no less than 23 groups 
in the district, each distinguished by its proper name, scattered over the country 
and all more or less ornamented by pious Booddhists and filled with images 
of Gaudama and of Bahaas — has been sa^ested in the hope of enlarging 
our knowledge of an extinct local fauna such as, in Europe, has so often 
rewarded cave research ; but as regards all caves similarly situated to those 
near Maulmain the chances are much against finding anything to repay the 
labour expended, as, form their former position as rocky islands in the sea, it 
is improbable that they ever afforded retreat to any vertebrata save the edible 
nest-building swallow or a few bats. In the case, however, of caves situated 
in limestone rocks at a greater elevation and consequently not like the 
others guarded from approach, by the surrounding sea the case is different 
and such caves hold out promise of a rich harvest to future explorers. 

It is probable that this group may prove to be metalliferous, as it is 
traversed by the same series of granite and el van dykes as the older crystal- 
line rocks of the district ; and these may not improbably be connected with the 



38 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


development of the ores of tin, lead, iron and copper occurring in the Salween 
Hill Tracts. The lead ore at Toung-nyoo occurs in the next group, but 
possibly both this group and the next will equally be found to be the reposi- 
tories of the metallic deposits of the Salween Hill Tracts whether these should 
ultimately prove of economic value or not. 

To the next group the term Martaban is applied, for convenience merely, 
from its large development in Martaban. Of its age we know nothing, but, 
petrologically considered, it is a group of true crystalline rocks undistinguish- 
able in character from the ordinary gneissose rocks of Bengal. Near Marta- 
ban specimens of schorl rock and fragments of schorl crystals of not less than 
three inches in diameter have been found which the natives who picked them 
up evidently supposed might have some connection with coal. Micaceous 
schists are common but in Martaban hornblendic rock would seem less abundant 
than in the same group of rocks in India. To this group Mr. Theobald refers 
much of the so-termed granite of the country lying to the east of the Salween. 

From the little he saw of the relation of the Martaban and Maulmain 
groups he judged that, in places at least, the former constituted the higher hills 
whilst the lower country was occupied by the latter ; but his opportunities were, 
he considers, too limited to allow of safely generalizing from such data or in 
authorizing him to say if the last group rests immediately on the present 
one in Martaban or if any representatives of the Mergui group of the 
southern provinces intervene, as is probably the case. The denudation, how- 
ever, to which these Palaeozoic beds have been subjected has been enormous 
and to this is due the curiously isolated appearance of so many of the hills 
and ranges in the vicinity of Maulmain and elsewhere. 

Hot springs exist in eleven spots in various parts of this district but always 
in more or less close proximity to the limestone outcrops. The largest and 
most important are those at Attaran Eeboo* {reboo signifies hot water), 
on the Attaran which can be reached in two tides by boat from Maulmain and, 
according to Dr. Heifer’s description, belong to the carbonated class. They 
are situated about two miles inland from the old town of Attaran and of them Dr. 
Heifer writes. — There are 10 hot springs, or rather hot-water ponds, of which 
I could only examine the nearest as the access to the others was through deep 
water at 130° Fahrenheit. This one was a semi-circular pond, about 50 feet in 
circumference ; in one place it was 35 feet deep. The quantity of carbonic 
acid which the springs evolve seems to render the neighbourhood peculiarly 
adapted to support vegetable life. The ground around the spring is strongly 
impregnated with iron, and the water which runs over the .ochre mud has 
a strong styptic taste. The springs on the Attaran approach in their 
composition nearest to the celebrat^ spring of Toplitz. Their medical 
properties would render them excellent remedies in a number of diseases; 
liver-complaiats would find a powerful remedy in them.^"* The Burmese are 
aware of the medicinal properties of the water in these springs and employ it 
in fevet and in some forms of cutaneous affections. They use it externally in the 
form of a bath when cooled and as a vapour bath when hot ; in the latter 
case the patient sits on a bamboo platform erected over the spring and under 
a large inverted basket covered with cloths to retain the steam. Ur. Morton 


at Ka-hgnyaw, Pa-nga, Thoon-tshay Thoon-tshoo, Mai-kala, 
Oaa-khanen, Myawadee, Bhiim-matha, Doonreng and Poung. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


39 


found on analysis that the water contains a considerable quantity of calcareous 
matter and that the tufa which it deposits on the margin is a carbonate of lime. 
The springs appear to rise from the mountain limestone and thus to hold a 
geological position similar to that of the hot springs of Great Britain most of 
which rise from strata below the coal and hence from or through the limestone. 

Large areas on all the hills are occupied by evergreen forest abounding in 
many valuable species. This is particularly the case 
Forests. with the Dawna chain^ the watershed between the valleys 

of the Thoung-yeng and of the Hlaing-bhwai and Houng-tharaw rivers, 
where the timber attains stupendous proportions and where Hopea odorata, 
Dipterocarpus alata and other valuable trees are abundant. 

The teak localities are some of the most important in the province. For 
forest conservancy purposes they have been divided into the Doonthamee,the 
Hlaing-bhwai, the Lower Salween, the Thoung-yeng, the Houng-tharaw and 
the Attaran. The Doonthamee forests, between the Salween and the Doon- 
thamee rivers stretching down as far south as Hpagat about 32 miles from 
Maulmain, are estimated to cover an area of 60 square miles and in 1869 
to have contained 14,340 Ist-class trees. They are on dry and even 
or undulating ground. The stems are branched and frequently crooked 
and the timber is generally small but hard. The ^eat value of these tracts is 
that they produce excellent crooks^^ for ship-building. The Salween 
and the Doonthamee rivers afford the means of transit but in many instances 
the timber must be dragged or carted overland for considerable distances 
before reaching a waterway. 

The Hlaing-bhwai and Lower Salween forests, situated east' 
of the Salween on the Hlaing-bhwai river and its feeders, are valuable 
mainly from the supply of crooked timber which they have yielded almost 
since the occupation of the country. Teak here grows on even ground ; no 
trace of it can be found on the hills which skirt the valley of the Hlaing-bhwai 
river although these hills are covered with similar trees and bamboos to those 
which are usually found associated with teak. The teak-producing forests are iry 
and open and much exposed to jungle fires. Pyengma is frequently associ- 
ated with teak. The growth of the tree is very inferior. Almost all large 
trees are forked with short stems that are crooked or of irregular shape. 
Much of this may be ascribed to the remains of old toungya cultivation, 
but it is principally owing to the fact that the best trees of good size have 
been removed and that in a locality like this the teak does not naturally attain 
a fine regular stature. 

The Thoung-yeng forests, on the hills forming the western water- 
shed of the Thoung-yeng river cover a considerable proportion of the tract and 
contain trees of gigantic size and of most regular growth. Dr. Brandis, who 
visited the forests, states that the first 40 miles from the river’s mouth are 
without any teak forests of importance. Here the mountains approach close 
to the Thoung-yeng or dense evergreen forest covers the level ground between 
them and the river^s bank. On the Shan side there are teak forests of great 
value in this part of the river but only a few scattered trees on the British. The 
south-western tributary streams drain some valuable teak localities of some 
importance, hedged in almost on all sides by dense evergreen forest which 
covers the flanks of the mountains and higher hills and which here and there 
• stretches down to the banks of the Thoung-yeng, Teak is found in bamboo 



40 


BRITISH BURAIA GAZETTEER, 


forest or in the mixed diy forest in which Pyeng^ado forms a prominent feature 
but there are also extensive tracts covered with bamboo forest or with the 
mixed dry forest in which not a single teak tree is to be met with. 

Higher up the hills are covered with impenetrable forests never touched 
by the hand of man where the trees attain a height which, though not 
equal to that of the gigantic fir of California, would scarcely be believed had 
it not been ascertained by careful measurement. A specimen of a species of 
the Dipterocarpus family had a girth of 20 feet and a height to the first branch 
of 160 feet. The forest is so dense that the height of the trees can only be 
measured on the banks of a stream or on the sides of a hill and in such localities 
the forest appears like a green .‘unbroken wall standing up nearly 200 feet 
from the ground. Teak is not found in forests of this kind but it is abundant 
on the northern hills not only in the Thoung-yeng valley but also in that of the 
Mai-hpa-lai river, a tributary of the former, running nearly parallel to it but in 
an opposite direction, and on the sandstone of the hills between the two are found 
some of the finest teak localities in British Burma in one of which 550 1st class 
trees were observed on an area of one- third of a square mile. The stature of 
the trees is tall and regular ; they stand up in the forest like so many wax 
tapers. The size may be gathered from the following measurements taken at 
random from among the larger trees of the Mai-hpa-lai forest : — 

Girth, 6 ft. Length of stem to first branch, 72 ft. 6 in. 

„ 10 ft. „ „ 77 ft. 9 in, 

„ 10 ft. 4 in. „ „ 70 ft. 

„ 16 ft. 4 in. „ „ S4ft. 

„ 12 ft. „ „ 66 ft. 

But the teak localities are not spread over the whole of this part of the 
Thoung-yeng valley. Large tracts, especially on the undulating hills near the 
main river, are covered with dry and open Dipterocarpus forest interspersed 
occasionally with the Thoung-yeng fir (Pinm Massoniana^ Lamb.) but without 
a trace of teak except on the margin towards the lower ground along the 
smaller streams. ' 

The Houng-tharaw forests were visited by Captain Tremenhere 
in 1841. He particularly mentions teak localities with trees having 
straight stems of great dimensions but of very slow growth. Captain Guthrie 
(1845) estimated the number of the teak trees on the Houng-tharaw . 
at 1,600, of which 473 belonged to the 1st class or in girth above six feet. 
Captain Guthrie mentions that in the forests on some of the tributaries there 
were trees abandoned that had been girdled 10 years previously. Mr. E. 
(XRiley, in a paper entitled Observations in connection with the route 
across to the head of the Houng-tharaw river,” states that a few patches 
of teak, of small extent and widely separated, are found on the banks of 
Hie streams falling into the Houng-tharaw the whole, however, rified of 
the best trees ; and at one locality situated above the falls of the 99 islands, 
where, owing to the favourable nature of the soil (composed of the detritus of 
granite and schistose rocks mixed with the alluvium), the trees were of mag- 
nificent growth and dimensions the teak had been completely annihilated and, 
after conversion into short logs, had been abandoned in consequence, it was 
said, of some obstruction which prevented their conveyance through the 
channels of the islands. Unlike the large teak ef the forests on the Weng-raw 
and Zimmo (Zamee)^ this patch appears to have been composed of the most 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


41 


valuable timber for mast pieces : the logs, after an exposure on the bank of 
the river for the last ten years, with the exception of being weather-worn 
outside are sound throughout some of them measuring 10 cubits in girth, and 
from the original spar converted into four lengths of 10 to 12 cubits each/’ 
Blasting operations have within the last few years been carried on to clear 
the channel of the Houng-tharaw and afford an exit to the timber of these 
forests. In 1873-74, 545 tons of stone were thus removed near the ‘‘ Ninety- 
nine islands.” 

The Attaran group of forests is situated on both banks of the Zamee and 
Wengraw streams, which by their junction in the hilly country to the south 
of the great plains round Maulmain form the Attaran river, and covers an 
estimated area of 100 square miles. For some years after the cession of the 
Martaban and Tenasserim provinces the timber in most of these forests was so 
recklessly and indiscriminately felled, the grantees working for speedy returns, 
that Dr. Falconer in 1850 reported that but for the timber in two small 
reserved forests it would now be a matter of record only that teak of large 
size has ever been produced on the Attaran,” and even these two instead of 
being intact forests have been partially worked by trespass by the adjoining 
** forest holders.” In 1860 Dr, Brandis examined the forests and found that in 
those on the Wengraw the growth of teak was good " almost the whole of the 
large trees having tall straight stems free from branches to a considerable 
height but the greater number were hollow or attacked with epiphytic 
ficus or injured in their growth by a load of creepers” whilst ‘‘ with few 
exceptions all good trees above five cubits in girth and most of those 
above four cubits have been removed, numerous stumps indicating their 
former existence and the numerous logs, once good but half destroyed by a 
“ fire, remaining as a proof of the wasteful mode of working.^* Similarly the 
result of an examination of the forests further east on the Zamee shewed vast 
numbers of stumps remaining in what had been one of the finest teak local- 
ities. Higher up the stream the forests were poorer and from one tract 
very little timber had been removed but the trees ‘^had been killed in a 
wholesale manner, many had since fallen or been destroyed by fire, and the 
traveller finds himself in a forest of dead fallen trees.” For some years 
after 1824 hardly any restrictions were placed on the grantees j subse- 
quently, on Dr. Wallich’s recommendation, the forests were worked on account 
of Government but in 1829 they were again thrown open to private indivi- 
duals. In 1841 the Commissioner, Mr. Blundell, proposed the resumption 
of all permits and the leasing or farming out of the tracts under new rules, 
which were sanctioned by the Government in the same year. In 1842, 
when the forests were visited by Captain Tremenheere, it was found that the 
rules had been disregarded and new rules were framed and sanctioned. 
These three sets of rules under which licenses or leases for cutting timber 
in these forests were granted may be thus summarized : — 

1. Rules of 1829, without any penalties. 

2. Rules of 1841, imposing the penalty of immediate resumption on 

the breach of any of the rules. 

3. Rules of 1842, substituting fines and other penalties for immediate 

resumption. 


6 



42 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


In 1845, the utter neglect of all rules continuing, the Commissioner sum- 
marily resumed several forests under the penalty clause of 1841 ; but this 
measure was disapproved of by the Government of India and his orders were 
cancelled. From this time the supply of timber gradually diminished 
and the northern forests on the Thoung-yeng and Upper Salween took the 
place of those on the Attaran and its affluents. In 1853 Sir A, Bogle can- 
celled a number of permits which were in the hands of native foresters who 
entirely neglected their forests not even bringing timber down. In 1860 
Dr. Brandis, having carefully examined these forests, proposed that they should 
be left in the hands of private parties, hoping that this measure would, consi- 
dering the objections at that time felt to the administration of forests by 
Government, ‘‘ prove the safety valve for the administration of forests in India.”^^ 
Subsequently, however, they were declared reserved Government forests and 
brought under the general forest rules of the province. Such tracts as 
laps^ to the Government were worked under one year permits for the 
removal of seasoned timber only while in the tracts the tenure of which was 
recognized and for which 30 year permits had been given the prohibition of the 
removal of timber under 7 ft. 6 ins. in girth was rigidly enforced. 

Teak, however, is not the only valuable timber tree. The Padouk fur- 
nishes a beautiful hard heavy wood ; the A nan {Fragrceafragrans) a timber which 
hardens under water ; Pyengma possesses strength, pliability and durability ; 
and Thenggan {Hopea odoratc^ is much used for boats ; besides these 
numerous other kinds exist in abundance the wood of which could well be used 
for furniture and for building and other purposes.* 

The history of the country now comprised within the limits of the Amherst 
History. district is little else than an account of petty wars and 

marauding incursions. Claimed by the Siamese on 
the east and by the Peguans on the west, until the one was driven out and the 
other conquered by the Barmans, the country had no rest for many centuries. 
Martaban, on the right bank of the Salween, was founded in 1269 A. D. 
by a Bunnan monarch who reigned in Pagan — Narapadeetseethoo — on a 
rocky promontory with the country of the Shans (Siamese) on the east and 
the sea on the west and this sovereign, whose great ambition it was to spread 
the doctrines of Booddha, planted on the point a colony of thirty families to 
take care of the Pagoda which he had erected and appointed Aliengma as 
Governor. At this period the major portion of the district, that lying to the 
east of the Salween, was Siamese territory. Aliengma, summoned to Court 
by Narapadeetseethoo^s son and successor, escaped into the Shan country and 
Talapya was appointed Governor in his stead. Aliengma soon returned 
smd, aided^ by the Shans, drove out and killed Talapya and resumed the 
governorship, probably as tributary to the King of Siam. For many years 
the Bmman kingdom was harassed by the Chinese from the north and its 
sovereigns were unable to exert any authority in the south. Magadoo, 
a native of Martaban and a trader by profession, having travelled 
into Siam had risen in favour at Court and been appointed Governor 
of the capital during one of the absences of the King. He eloped 
with the King^s daughter and, returning to Martaban, treacherously 

* The felling ^thont permission of Padouk, Anan, Pyengma and Thenggan, and of some other 
unos 18 prohibited in certun tracts throughout the Province. See Introduction ; sub tit, 
Foassxs. 


BKITiaH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


43 


killed Allengnja, seized the reins of Government in 1281 and was recognized 
by the King of Siam who bestowed on him a title, and from this time he is 
known in history as King Wareeyoo. The ambition of Wareeyoo was not 
satisfied. North of Martaban was a country called Kanpalanee and on one 
occasion of the King of that country going into the forests on a hunting 
excursion Wareeyoo sallied forth, pillaged the capital and carried away 
captive the King^s daughter, eventually making himself master of the country. 
About this time the King of Pegu also had succeeded in effecting his independ- 
ence and the two monarchs entered into friendly relations. The Chinese army 
from the north having overcome the King of Pagan advanced south and 
attacked Pegu upon which the King of Martaban joined his forces with those 
of Pegu and defeated the invaders. Quarrels soon arose and eventually 
Wareeyoo annexed Pegu. Wareeyoo was succeeded by his brother who was 
killed in a rebellion and was succeeded by his nephew Zaw-aw-bheng-hmaing. 
In his reign the boundaries of the kingdom were widely extended, Labong, 
Tavoy and Tenasserim being added to dominions which already stretched nearly 
to Prome on the north and to Bassein on the west. From this time the 
history of Martaban merges in that of Pegu. Between 1563 and 1681 A. D. 
Caesar Frederic the Venetian visited Martaban : he found there ninety 
Portugal merchants and other base men which had fallen at difference with the 
Governor of the city/^ The King of Pegu had gone with a million and four 
hundred thousand men to conquer the kingdom of Siam,^’ and in his absence 
some of the Portuguese had killed four or five of the inhabitants in a street 
quarrel ; the captain of the Portugals would not deliver these men, but rather 
set himself up with all the rest in arms/^ From this time forward for many years 
the country was continually the theatre of wars and rebellions. The Kings of 
Burma gradually recovered some of their lost territory but only to lose it again, 
whilst the Kings of Siam took advantage of the disturbances to re-annex 
tbe site of the present Maulmain and the country to the south. and to carry 
their arms across the Salween. In the latter half of the eighteenth century 
Aloungbhoora and his successors conquered the country and retained possession 
till after the first Anglo-Burmese war, when the Burmese were forced to cede 
to the British the whole tract lying to the east of the Salween : the remaining 
portion was annexed after the second war by Lord Dalhousie. 


Of architectural remains worthy of notice there are not a few in this 

A distrlct. Tfac Kalaw Pagoda, towards tbe northern 

Aromtectnral remains. -i-i- i 

end of Bheeloo island, is supposed to have been 

erected over a relic of Gaudama during the reign of Asoka, King of Kapilavastu, 
the great protector of Booddhism — a period to which the Burmans are fond 
of attributing the erection of very many of their sacred buildings. On this 
island alone are some sixty of these structures, held to be of great antiquity, 
of which no written histories are in existence. 


On the hill just above the town of Martaban is a Pagoda the foundation of 
which, in 1282 A.D., is attributed to King Wareeyoo. Its Burman name 
Myathiendhan, which is by some supposed to be a corruption of Myathien- 
deng, is, according to the Burman records, derived from the fact of a 
large emerald having been placed in it. The Burmese account of 
its erection is that the King of Ceylon sent an Embassy to obtain certain 
relics of Gaudama buried here under eight pillars; the relics could not 



44 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


be found but the pillars were carried to Ceylon and the Pagoda raised on the 
site. Its Talaing name is Kyaik Moothamien. Here also are the Shwe Dagon, 
BO called from having been founded at the same time as the great Shwe-Dagon 
Pagoda in Eangoon, the Kyaik-hpyeng-koo or Doo-an, founded in 1288 A.D. 
and the Kyaik-kha-lwon-bhwon, the erection of which is placed in the sixth 
century B.C., during Gaudama’s apocryphal visit to this country. The 
Kyaik-kha-pan Pagoda was founded in 1199 A.D*. by Aliengma to commemo- 
rate the conversion of the inhabitants by Gaudama who had been invited to 
the spot to be eaten but whose preaching changed the evil intention of his 
hosts. The Shwe-koo is of a much later date, having been built by the 
Governor of Martaban in 1785 A.D, by order of Bhodaw-Bhoora, the then 
reigning sovereign of Burma. The Khyan-tha-gyee Pagoda at Zetawon 
close to Martaban was built in 1299 A.D. by King Tsaw-theng-hmaing, 
and was restored in 1785 A.D., by order of King Bhodaw-Bhoora. The 
Talaing name, which has the same meaning as the Burmese, viz. cool, 
comfortable/^ is Kyaik-khaba and was given to the structure from a tradition 
that Gaudama had pronounced the waters of a neighbouring tank to be cool 
and pleasant. At Zeng-kyaik in about 16° 42' N., about 18 miles north-west 
of Martaban on the range of hills which extends towards Tha-htoon, is one 
of the numerous Pagodas supposed to have been built in the reign of Asoka 
and to contain one of Gaudama's hairs. The most ancient and the most cele- 
brated of all is the Tha-htoon Pagoda which bears in its construction evidences 
of its great age though it is certain that it cannot claim the origin given to it 
by the Burmese chroniclers according to whom it was founded in 594 B.C. by 
T|^eeharaga King of Thoowonnabhoome, of which country Tha-htoon was 
the capital, to commemorate the visit of Gaudama. During the reign of 
-Tsawta-koomma it was rebuilt by Thawna and Ootara, the two Booddhist 
apostles who had been commissioned by the great Booddhist council held at 
Pataliputra in 241 B.C. to teach and preach in Pegu. 

South of the town of Maulmain there are a large number of Pagodas of 
which little or nothing is known but that all except two have no claim to 
any great antiquity; some have been built since the occupation of the 
country by the English. The Nattoung and the Toung-gnyo are said to have 
been built in the time of Eamapoora, the original founder of Maulmain. 

In Maulmain, on the ridge of hills which runs through the town, are several 
Pagodas of which the Kyaik-than-lan, occupying a commanding position on the 
Northern spur of the hill over against Martaban, is the principal. According 
to the received traditions the spot was first selected by the Siamese during an 
abortive attempt to invade Pegu and the present structure was afterwards 
built by the hermit Thee-gnya or Theela who enshrined therein a hair of 
Gaudama. Many years later it was repaired by the King of Martaban. 
When the British occupied Tenasserim it was almost a ruin but was repaired 
in 1831 by Moung Tawlai, a native Extra Assistant Commissioner, at a cost of 
Rs. 1,000 raised by private subscription. The name is supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Kyaik-Shan-lan, or the Pagoda of the overthrow of the Siamese.’^ 
On the same hills, farther south, is the Oozeena Pagoda so called from the 
n^e of its last restorer who in 1838 expended Es. 600 on it ; its 
original name was Kyaik-padhan, derived from the white hill on which it 
stands; the Burmese believe it to have been founded during the 
reign of Asoka and to contain a hair of Gaudama. On the same hills are three 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


45 


small and undoubtedly very ancient Pagodas, also supposed to contain Gau- 
dama^s hairs : the Pathada, not far from the Kyaik-than-lan, the Dhatke and the 
Kyaik-matan, The Kyaik-hpanee, supposed to have been built about 1,000 
years ago by the Peguan King Bhanai-tsiet-tsaw to commemorate a victory 
over the Siamese (Bhanai in Taking means victory) is situated close to the 
water’s edge on the north point of the land on which the town stands. In 
1863 it was enlarged by one Moung Shwe Bhoo. In the plain west of the 
hills is another small Pagoda, also said to contain a hair of Gaudama, built very 
many years ago but enlarged and restored about 1838 at a cost of Rs, 1,000, 
raised by public subscription, by a Booddhist priest of considerable note whose 
name in religion was no less formidable than Tshaya-daw-gyee-aniet 
Wonthakalayana Tietkhalengkara Teereetedzha Mahadhammaraza Tieraza- 
gooroo.’^ To the south of the town are two very old Pagodas supposed to con- 
tain relics of Gaudama. 

Besides Pagodas the ruins of ancient towns remain as signs of the former 
glory of the kingdom. Tha-htoon and Martaban, once the capital of a powerful 
monarchy, still exist but Myawaddee in the valley of the Thoungyeng a little 
south of the 17th degree of north latitude and Attaran on the river of the 
same name, once great cities, are now almost entirely deserted ; the former 
contained some 50,000 inhabitants and was enclosed by a regularly built high 
and thick wall, of which the remains are still traceable, with a deep double ditch, 
which formed a parallelogram, the longer sides two miles in length and the 
shorter one mile. Traders in large numbers from Siam and from the neighbour- 
ing States resorted to it and annually caravans arrived from Muangla and from 
China whilst from the west came European goods, imported into Martaban, 
and salt from the coast. 

The parts of the district which are most cultivated are the Tha-htoon sub- 
AgrictUtureandproducts. division, principally in its south- w^tern portion, 
Bheeloo island, the lower part of the country between 
the Salween and the Hlaingbhwai, the plain land east of Maulmain, 
the north-western borders of the lower portion of the Houng-tharaw and the - 
tract between the Toung-gnyo range and the sea from Maulmain southwards 
towards Amherst and in the extreme south near Re. The Tha-htoon sub-division 
furnishes about five-sixteenths of the cultivated area of the whole district and 
of this four-fifths are in the Martaban township of which the western portion 
is the richer. Bheeloogy won and the large township of Zaya^ between Maulmain 
and Amherst, have about the same area under cultivation and together include 
about three-eighths of that of the whole district. 

In the mountainous country forming the Houngtharaw and southern 
portion of the Gyaing Attaran townships there is but little cultivation whilst 
almost the whole of the plains between the Salween and the undulating ground 
bordering the Hlaingbhwai and those between the Houngtharaw and the 
Attaran are inundated during the rains and at some periods are several feet 
under water. In parts of the Gyaing Than-lweng township, especially near 
Htoon-aing on the Salween about twenty miles above Maulmain, inhabited by 
Takings who or whose fathers emigrated from Pegu in a body after the first 
Burmese war, and along the banks of the Gyaing rice is extensively grown. 

The cultivated area is increasing markedly; in 1869-70 there were 318 
square miles under tillage ; five years later, in 1873-74, 401 and in 1876-76 
461. Rice is the main produce: in 1875-76 2,46,022 acres or 390 square miles, 



46 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


that is more than the whole cultivated area in 1869-70, were planted with this 
grain, and the average rate of produce per acre being 1,635 lbs. the gross 
produce of unhusked rice in this district was about 179,574 tons, of which 
about 117,421 were exported in the shape of husked rice. Dbanee palms and 
betel palms are largely cultivated; Akyab alone has a more extensive area 
of the former and Shwe-gyeng of the latter. Of tobacco a small quantity is 
raised both by Burmans and by Karengs, by the former principally on the sand 
banks in the Hpagat circle at the junction of the Salween and the Bhenglaing, 
by the latter in small patches for their own use ; sessamum is grown by the 
latter and sold to the former who express the oil. Of sugar-cane plantations 
there were 1,189 acres in 1875-76: some of the cane is exported to 
Rangoon and from some sugar is made for local consumption and for export. 
Though but little cane is grown in Tha-htoon this sub-division has the 
largest number of mills. The cane is cultivated in the neighbouring Shwe- 
gyeng district on the banks of the Bheeleng, where in the season a brisk trade 
is carried on, purchasers going up from Tha-htoon. Excellent cotton might be 
grown but at present other crops offer a better return ; for some years small 
quantities have been exported to India, Arakan, Tavoy and Mergui but it is 
principally cultivated by the Karengs on the hill sides for home consumption. 
Considering the very large extentof the district and the proportion of that extent 
which is mountainous and unsuited for regular cultivation the number of 
Toungyas or Hill gardens is not large, even Thayetmyo and Prome in the 
northern portion of the valley of the Irrawaddy having more ; this is mainly 
due to the sparseness of the population which is congregated in the lower parts 
leavh^ the hills and mountains comparatively speaking uninhabited. The 
land is almost entirely in the hands of small proprietors who hold it direct from 
the State and cultivate it themselves aided by the members of their families and 
occasionally by hired labourers, who are paid in kind to the value of from six 
to eight rupees a month according as they live and board with their employers 
or not. Of large proprietors there are none and the average holding is from 
10 to 15 acres, which is shewing a tendency to increase, but at a very slow 
rate. As a rule the proprietors reside near their lands and have not yet 
reached that stage of advancement in which they take up their abode in towns 
and live on the rent of their landed property nor can they do so until 
the average holdings increase in size and the rent increases from the present 
average rate of two or three rupees per acre a year. The area under cultivation 
according to crops was, in acres, in : — 


Tbab. 

Bice. 

Sugar. 

Cotton. 

Vege- 

tables. 

Betel 

Nut. 

Cocoa- 

nut. 

Dhanee. 

Fruits. 

All other 
kinds. 

Total. 

1855-56 

1868- 69 

1869- 70 

1870- 71 

1871- 72 

1872- 73 

1873- 74 

1874- 75 

1 1 

iss 

948 

876 

834 

993 

966 

1,107 

1,313 

569 

599 

1,610 

1,016 

877 

778 

Unfa 
7,180 , 
7,702 
7,660 1 

Dtown 

3,430 

3,375 

3,386 

3,375 

3,472 

3,468 

3,500 

iio 

1,023 

1,062 

11,062 

1,066 

1,060 

1,060 

b'oss 

4,262 

4,312 

4,307 

1 4,644 
4,585 
: 4,643 

12,930 1 
12,470 
13,754 
12,601 
12,585 
12,731 
14,027 

13,329 

3,009 

3,262 

2,955 

2,439 

2,520 

2,249 

2,530 

90,788 

1,92,633 

2,04,011 

2,11,601 

2,13,581 

2,23,378 

2,46,422 

2,70,493 














BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


47 


There still remain (in 1875-76) 4,813 square miles of culturable land 
waiting only for cultivators. 

Keeping pace with the increase in the area cultivated has been the in- 
crease in agricultural stock : — 


Year. 

Buffaloes. 

Cows, 

Bulls, 

Bullocks. 

Carts. 

Ploughs. 

Boats. 

• 

1855-56 

36,501 

6,297 

2,356 

1,029 

4,320 

1867-68 

43,169 

18,442 

3,837 

X0406 

4,452 

1868-69 

40,984 

20,820 

4,088 

10,633 

4,764 

1869-70 

44,661 

28,897 

' 4,096 

10,181 

5,250 

1870-71 

49,988 

28,473 

4,109 

13,872 

6,771 

1871-72 

52,893 

31,471 

: 6 20 

19,163 

6,373 

1872-73 

55,286 

28,988 

6,450 

20,615 

5,883 

1873-74 

65,672 

34,611 1 

5,359 

22,472 

6,086 

1874-75 .. .. .. j 

77,886 

39,254 

6,400 

23,020 

6,187 


This district has suffered terribly from cattle-disease which is imported 
almost annually from the Shan States vid Myawaddee and the Three Pagodas. 
In 1876 between the 1st January and the 30th August 12,562 head of cattle 
(11,290 buffaloes and 1,272 cows, bulls and bullocks) died. 

The most important natural product is, undoubtedly, teak. Ever since the 
country came under the British Government this article of trade has attracted 
the attention of almost every class j an immense amount of capital has been 
sunk and lost and whilst the forests have been the grave of many a few for- 
tunes have been made but ruin has overtaken the majority of the Foresters. 
To the attractions of the timber-trade and its ramifications is mainly due the 
growth of Maulmain and at first the prosperity of the district. The more 
considerable portion of the timber is of foreign growth and is brought down the 
rivers from Siam and Zeng-mai for shipment at Maulmain. The mode of bring- 
ing timber to market is as follows : — the selected trees are girdled (almost 
everywhere in British territory by responsible Government officers) by a rim of 
bark being cleared off right round the stem about five feet from the ground. 
Three years later the trees are felled, marked, and dragged by elephants to the 
bed of the river or stream which taps the forest and left there till the 
waters rise during the height of the rains when the logs float down — in some 
cases untouched and unseen in others, as in the Thoungyeng, followed 
and guided by men and elephants — till they reach the Kyodan where their 
further progress in artificially arrested. Here are stationed parties of Foresters 
who recognize their own timber by the marks put on in the forest, draw each 
log to the bank and form them into rafts which are taken down by raftsmen 






48 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


to the Government timber-station where they must be deposited, entered on the 
forest revenue books and duty, if any is due, paid before they can be taken 
further down to the ships waiting to receive them for export, or to the saw-pits 
in Maulmain. At the Kyodan or rppe station on the Salween, some distance 
below the great rapids, where the river is narrowed to a third of its natural 
breadth between two perpendicular cliffs, a deep blue clear swift stream run- 
ning between them, an immense cable is stretched from one side to the other 
which intercepts the floating logs as they collect during the night. At dawn 
a niimber of foresters may be seen scrambling over them, diving under them, 
and swimming amongst them shouting with laughter as a rolling log preci- 
pitates a novice into the water. Each one is trying to select a log and 
paddle it ashore clear of the assembled mass. Sometimes the weight of the 
timber snaps the cable and the whole accumulated body of wood, logs, 
drift and rubbish from the forest tears down the river till it is stranded by 
the current or with great dijB&culty landed by practised men who make this 
their profession and receive salvage at a fixed scale. Some of it is often lost 
by being carried out to sea or stranded on unfrequented islands. The 
salvors are also busily employed in collecting logs which accidentally pass the 
rope : these they form into rafts from which the owners select their particular 
logs. 

A product having all the same properties as camphor is extracted by distil- 
lation from a syngeneseous plant belonging to the sub-division of Verbenaceos 
EupatoruBf which is very common throughout the country. The quantity 
which is obtained from this plant in the dry season is not inconsiderable 
and might probably be increased by a more perfect process of distillation. 
A kind of gamboge is obtained from the juice of two trees in the district, 
which, though not fitted for use as a colour, promises to afford an excellent 
varnish and, like gamboge, is a powerfully drastic purgative. The Ka-gnyeng 
which grows abundantly in the forests yields an oil used as a varnish, which is 
extracted by making a large hole in the trunk in which a fire is kindled the 
heat drawing out the oil which is collected in earthen pots. Sticklac occurs 
in the north produced by the Cocctis Laccoe on several species of ficus. 

When the Tenasserim provinces were ceded by the King of Burma under 
the treaty of Yandaboo they were considered so uupro- 
Bevenue. ductive that their surrender was at one time seriously 

contemplated. The rapid tide of immigration, the discovery of valuable teak 
forests and the careful and fostering measures of the oflScers placed in charge 
soon bore fruit and in 1855-56 the revenues of this district, exclusive of those 
of the Tha-htoon sub-division which then formed a part of what is now called 
the Shwe-gyeng district, amounted to Es. 449,360, and up to 1862-63 


increased rapidly 





Rs. 

1866-57 



• * 


. . 622,150 

1867-58 . ., 





. . 552,480 

1858-69 





. . 671,500 

1869-60 





. . 720,050 

1860-61 





, . 916,930 

1861-62 





. . 962,530 

1862-63 





. . 934,860 


In 1 863-64 there was a considerable diminution from customs and in 
1864-65 from land, in the latter case due mainly to a lowering of the rates. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


49 


In the next decennial period, or from 1862-63 to 1872-73^ the revenues 
continued to rise : — 


Year. 

Land. 

Capita- 

tion. 

Fisheries 
and Net. i 

i 

Customs. 

Excise. 

All other 
items. 

Total. 


Rs. 

Rs. 

i 

Bs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Bs. 

1862-63 . . 

204,600 

i 

72,240 

1,350 

111,390 

266,330 

278,950 

934,860 

1872-73 

403,190 

187,470 

14,310 

354,750 

255,150 

162,500 

! 

1,377,370 


The principal increases were under the heads of customs and fisheries but 
the land revenue had very nearly doubled and the proceeds of the capitation 
tax had more than doubled. Three years later the total revenue amounted to 
Bs. 1,687,413. 

In 1873 there was a remarkable increase in the land revenue owing to the 
largely increased area which became taxable. This was partly due to 
an increase in actual cultivation, caused by the improvement in the rice- 
trade which up to a year or two before was insignificant timber being the 
principal and almost only important export from Maulraain, partly to land 
in the Tha-htoon and Zaya townships having been reclaimed and rendered 
fit for rice cultivation and partly to numerous leases having fallen in and 
the area which the lease-holders had added to their fields during the exist- 
ence of the lease now for the first time becoming liable to Eevenue demand. 

The land revenue, gross revenue and cost of officials of all kinds in this 
district, including those employed in the town of Maulmain and the divisional 
staff, during the last ten years were : — 




Year. 



Land Revenue. 

Gross Revenue. 

Cost of officials. 

1867 





Bs. 

336,080 

Rs. 

1,492,400 

Bs. 

239,180 

1868 





338,790 

1,085,930 

158,240 

1869 





358,990 

1,097,080 

172,210 

1870 





369,080 

1,158,260 

167,960 

1871 





382,570 

1,245,970 

332,270 

1872 





403,194 

1,377,370 

171,090 

1873 





453,130 

1,361,080 

174,220 

1874 





492,877 

1,434,416 

165,035 

1876 

*• 

•• 

•• 

- 

462,520 

1,687,413 

189,681 


7 









60 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


For some years after the cession of the Tenasserim provinces the land 
revenue was represented by a levy of 25 per cent, upon the value of the crop, 
calculated at an average ad valorem rate which was arranged periodically to 
suit the mutations in the market price of grain. In 1834 this system was 
changed and payment on the area substituted, the English acre being the 
measure employed and two rupees eight annas fixed as the maximum per acre 
for the best lands. This plan has been continued ever since, though the 
rates have often been varied. 

In addition to the imperial revenue a local revenue is raised from (a) 
town funds, levied in towns and derived from bazaar-stall rents and other 
sources, (b) a district fund including all other local receipts except those from 
the five per cent, cess, and (c) the cess levied on the land Revenue and fisheries. 
In 1873 the produce of these local rates was Es. 40,200, an increase of Rs. 11,830 
over the receipts in 1872 and of Rs. 12,510 over those of 1871,: the increase was 
especially in the five per cent. cess. In 1875-76 the amount realized was 
Rs. 54,449. 

The scene of continual conflicts between the Siamese and the Peguan 
Population kingdoms and subsequently ravaged by the Burman 

armies of Aloungbhoora and his successors on the one 
hand and by the troops of the King of Siam on the other the country to the 
east of the Salween was found in 1826 to be almost uninhabited. In 1829 
the country stretching from the Thoung-yengto the Pakchan (which includes the 
present districts of Tavoy andMergui) contained a population estimated at a 
little over 70,000 souls. From this time until the annexation of Pegu the 
increase was extraordinarily and increasingly rapid. In 1835 the number had 
risen to 85,000, or by 21 per cent. ; in 1845 to 127,455, or by 50 per cent, in 
the decade ; and in 1855 to 213,629, or by 69 per cent, in the decade. It is 
impossible now to tell how much of the increase was due to births but it is 
certain that only an infinitesimal proportion was and that it was immigration 
which swelled the numbers : immigration from India to Maulmain, which 
rapidly rose into a flourishing town, and immigration into Maulmain and the 
district generally from Pegu where Burman Governors still ruled and 
whence in this period, from 1826 to 1855, 257,000 souls, it is calculated, 
emigrated to the neighbouring British provinces, Arakan on the west and 
Tenasserim on the south-east. In February 1827 Moung Tsat, a Talaing 
chief known in the histories of the first Burmese war as the Syriam 
Raja, who had rebelled against the Barmans and endeavoured to 
re-establish the Talaing kingdom, escaped to Maulmain with 10,000 fol- 
lowers, half of whom settled at a place now known as Htoon-aing about 20 
miles north of Maulmain, and the other half, under Moung Gan, at Wakharoo, 
to the south ; this parly was soon followed by others and at a moderate 
computation some 20,000 souls arrived from Burmese territory in the first few 
years. So rapid was the influx thafc the Commissioner had some diflSeulty in 
obtaining a sufficient supply of rice and had to send to Tavoy and to Be for 
grain. In 1855 the population of the district, which then comprised only the 
country east of the Salween from the Thoung-yeng to the Tavoy district, 
numbered 83,146 souls, in 1860 it had increased to 130,953, or by 56 per 
cent, in the five years, and in 1870 to 235,747 ; but during this decade the 
whole of the Tha-htoon sub-division was transferred from what up to that time 
was called the Martaban, and since then the Shwe-gyeng, district. Two years 
later, when the first regular census was taken, the number had risen to 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


61 


239,940, of whom 46,472 were residents of Maulmain — a fishing -village in 
1825 — the remaining 193,468 being spread throughout the district and, 
being to a considerable extent agriculturists, found most numerous where the 
soil is most fertile and culturable ; Martaban, Blieeloo-gywon and the plain 
country east and north of Maulmain shewing the largest numbers, whilst 
the hilly Houngtharaw and Hlaingbhwai townships had only a small popula- 
tion almost entirely composed of Karengs and Siamese. The population in 
1872, exclusive of that of Maulmain, was: — 


Talaings 

.. 9M76 

Natives of India — 


Karengs 

. . 63,751 

Hindoos 

. . 4,236 

Toun^hoos 

, . 19,636 

Mahomedans 

826 

Axakanese 

. . 8,215 

Chinese 

.. 1,848 

Shans 

. . 5,891 

Malays 

72 

Barmans 

. . 4,241 

All others 

646 


During the Barman occupation of the country the coast- tracts of 
Tenasserim were peopled for the most part by Talaings, called by themselves 
Moon, and subsequently to the cession of these provinces to the British, 
after the English had abandoned the valley of the Irrawaddy, their numbers 
were largely reinforced by immigration from Pegu. The lower portion of the 
Tha-htoon sub-division round about Martaban, the country extending north- 
ward along the left bank of the Salween, and more especially the tract of 
country from Maulmain southward to Re between the sea and the Toung-gnyo 
hills are inhabited mainly by this race. A people of the same stock as the Kols 
and other aboriginal tribes of India, who may have occupied that country even 
before the Dravidians entered it, seem to have arrived in Burma both from 
the north and by the coast, though, as stated by Sir Arthur Phayre, “ we 
have now no means of tracing whether the Mans {Moon) of Pegu came direct 
down the Erawati {Irrawaddy) or parting from their kinsmen the Kolarian 
tribes, in the lower course of the Ganges or the Brahmaputra, came through 
Arakan to their present seat. There appear now to be no indications of 
their presence either in Arakan or in the country of the upper Erawati/^ 
Later, about a thousand years before Christ, the Dravidians from Talingana 
arrived by sea and established trading colonies on the coast of Eamayana,^^ 
that is the country between the mouths of the Bassein and of the Salween. 
They found the Moon wild and uncivilized, yet the Dravidian colonists have 
been merged into the mass of that wild raee^’ losing, except for foreigners, 
even their name but leaving, as it were, in the word " Talaing” by which 
this mixed people is known to all but themselves, a mark to shew their 
connection with the Talingana from which they came. 

Their use of their own language, which is harsh and guttural, differing 
from Burmese in almost every word and totally different in combination of 
words and sentences and in idiom, was more than strongly discouraged by 
the Burman conqueror Aloungbhoora and by his successors, and after the first 
Anglo-Burmese war was ‘‘ furiously proscribed and no longer permitted in the 
monasteries or elsewhere within the Burman dominions : in Pegu it has 
almost died out but in this district, in places coastward remote from 
the principal towns, the enforcement of the orders prohibiting its use was a 
work of much difficulty and was checked by the British occupation, 
whilst the immigrants from Pegu brought it with them and reinforced 
largely the number of those who adhered to their mother tongue. In 
1772 a Talaing chief named Bee-gnya Theng rebelled against the Barmans, 

f •’ Kfej 

• : ^ . / 



52 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


in 1791 Myat Poo followed his example in Tavoy, in 1814 Thoot Paw rose 
against them, and in 1824 Meng Kyaik raised an insurrection, also in Tavoy. 
These rebellions were unsuccessful and were put down with great cruelty, the 
Talaings escaping in vast numbers to Siam : the enforced emigration reached 
an estimated number of over 200,000 souls and the descendants of the emi- 
grants are now living in the country to which they escaped. 

The Karengs occupy, generally, the hilly country, the whole extent of the 
valley of the Thoung-yeng and the western slopes of the Dawna spur, the 
banks of the Houngtharaw, of the Wengraw and of the Zamee and the moun- 
tains amongst which these rivers flow, and the upper portion of the valley 
of the Re ; both Sgaws and Pwos, or Pgho, are fully represented. Of pure Bur- 
mese there are but few. The Toungthoos are an isolated race, whose ori- 
gin has not been very accurately fixed, of whom by far the larger number 
are, in this district, in and around Tha-htoon with a few villages on the 
Salween though some are found in the valley of the Tsittoung as far north as 
the Toung-ngoo district and a few to the eastward as far as the Houngtharaw. 

They are a swarthy race, sturdily built and differing in language, dress, 
** customs and physique from the surrounding races. They have no written 
character and their traditions are preserved to them by professional story- 
tellers.’^ Their language is said by competent authorities to approach 
nearer to that of the Pwo Karengs than to that of any of the other surround- 
ing races,^^ and in dress they resemble the Shans, wearing loose trousers and 
jackets, white or blue. The Arakanese and the Shans who have immigrated 
from the west and from Siam may be considered as permanent residents who 
have settled definitely in the country as, doubtless, have most of the Chinese 
and some of the Hindoos and Mahomedans — amongst whom are included 
Burmese women converted before marriage with Mussulmans, a process to 
which they have little or no aversion, and the mixed descendants of these 
marriages — but of these many have come only to make money and look for- 
ward to a return to India. On the banks of the Attaran in the Theetharo 
circle, some distance below Maulmain, is a colony of Mahomedans, and others 
scattered by twos and threes are found in most of the trading towns and 
villages. The Hindoos, rarely penetrating far into the interior, are clustered 
in the town and larger villages near Maulmain. 

As almost everywhere else in the province the msdes are more numer- 
ous than the females (the numbers being 52 '07 of the former to 47*93 of 
the latter) and as might be expected this is most so amongst the Hindoos 
and Mahomedans and least so amongst the indigenous population : of the 
Hindoo population 69*83 per cent, are males and of the Mahomedans 64*03, 
whilst of the Booddhists — Talaings, Burmans, Toungthoos, Arakanese, &c. — 
51*66 per cent, are males. Though not entirely yet in a great measure this 
disproportion is due to the constant tide of immigration which is to a great 
extent confined to males. In 1872 the immigrants numbered 19,906 and in 
1873 12,631, the emigrants numbering 9,796 and 5,395. 

The population of the district in 1875-76 was 2,75,432, of whom 57,719 
were in Maulmain. 

The number of towns and villages spread over the face of the country is 
Towns and Tillages, which 420 have less than 200 inhabitants, 

257 from 200 to 500, 61 from 500 to 1,000, 18 
between 1,000 and 2,000, 1 from 2,000 to 3,000, 1 from 3,000 to 5,000 and 
1 over 20,000. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


63 


The only town having a population exceeding 5,000 is Maulmain which, 
lying in 16^^ 38' N. and 97° 38' E.^ is situated on a bend of the Salween at 
the junction of that river with the Gyaing and the Attaran opposite to the 
small town of Martaban on the north and Bheeloo island on the west. When 
the British occupied Tenasserim in 1826 Maulmain was little else than a 
fishing-village. It was selected as the site for the cantonment of the main 
body of the troops in that province by the Commander-in-Chief, Sir Archibald 
Campbell, as the best position from which to overawe the Burmese who still 
retained Pegu and had a force at Martaban on the opposite bank of the Salween, 
and as having a better supply of water than Amherst, at the mouth of the 
river. The large areas fitted for cultivation, the cruelties of the Burmese in 
Pegu and the discovery and working of the valuable teak-forests in the 
interior led to a stream of immigration and the town rapidly rose in size and 
in importance. In 1855 it had a population of 23,683 inclusive of 2,211 
troops, which ten years later had increased to 70,347 ; but after that year the 
number of its inhabitants fell year by year till in 1872-73 it had only 46,742 ; 
this falling off was largely caused by the losses in the timber-trade on which 
the town depended for its prosperity. In 1873-74 the number rose again to 
58,873, owing partly to an influx of Hindoos from the famine Btricken 
districts in Bengal; and in 1875-76 the population was 57,719 souls. 

Amherst is a small station in 16° 15' N. and 97° 34' E. on the sea 
coast, about 30 miles south of Maulmain by river and 54 by road. On the 
cession of Tenasserim to the British Mr. Crawford the Commissioner selected it 
as the seat of the local Government and called it Amherst after Lord Amherst 
the Governor-General, its native name being Kyaik Khamee. Mr. Crawford 
appears to have been guided in his selection by its position, easily accessible 
from the sea, well elevated and open to the sea breeze and on the Wakharoo 
a river navigable for some distance by large ships the mouth of which 
affords a good harbour- The General Commanding, however, preferred Maul- 
main which eventually, in 1827, became the head-quarter station. A bold range 
of wooded hills rises within a short distance on the inland side of the town, 
leaving a limited space of level ground partially cleared of jungle between it and 
the sea on one side and the river on the other. As a sanatarium for invalids 
it is highly recommended and the residents of Maulmain visit it as a seaside 
retreat during the hot season. For some years it was garrisoned by a small 
detachment which was eventually replaced by a Police guard. 

Martaban opposite Maulmain on the right bank of the Salween came into 
the possession of the British on the annexation of Pegu by Lord Dalhousie in 
1854 and for some years was included in the then formed Martaban (now called 
Shwe-gyeng) district but, with the Tha-htoon sub-division, was transferred to 
Amherst in 1864-65. In 1544, when it was the capital of a kingdom, it was 
besieged by the Burmese aided by some Portuguese, taken and sacked, the King 
cast into the sea and the kingdom annexed to Burma. During the wars which 
lasted with hardly any intermission from, this period till the subjugatioa of the 
whole country from Arakan to Mergui by Aloungbhoora and his successors 
Martaban was sometimes the capital of an independent State, at others 
ruled by a governor appointed by the Burman, Peguan or Siamese Govern- 
ment to each of which it belonged at different periods. Ralph Fitch who 
visited Pegu at the end of the sixteenth century described Martaban as a 



64 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


flourishing’ city with a large trade with China and Malacca. In the eighteenth 
century the Peguans rose against the Burmese and succeeded in re-establish- 
ing the Pegu Monarchy which a few years later was overthrown by Aloung- 
bhoora and from that time till 1852 Martaban remained in the possession of 
the Burmans. During both Burmese wars it was attacked by the English and, 
on both occasions, taken after a short and feeble resistance. 

The demand for rice and teak timber in the Home and Indian markets, 
the rapid influx of population, which followed on 
the British occupation, who settled on the fertile but 
uncultivated waste land whicli abounded, the discovery of vast and valuable 
teak tracts, and the site of the town on the Salween, which taps a foreign 
country rich in teak forests for the produce of which this river is the only 
outlet, led to a rapid increase of trade. In January 1855 the Customs Depart- 
ment was established and from that year onwards the values of the imports and 
exports have been : — 


Yeab. 

Imports. 

Exports. 

Total. 

1855-56 





Rs. 

3,583,020 

Rs. 

4,390,920 

Rs. 

7,973,940 

1856-57 





5,036,750 

5,320,760 

10,357.510 

1857-58 





6,396,880 

5,786,210 

11,183,190 

1858-59 





6,505,710 

5,773,860 

11,279,570 

1859-60 





5,930,590 

4,966,430 

10,897,020 

1860-61 





5,302,340 

4,463,710 

9,766,060 

1861-62 





8,236,480 

7,812,980 

16,049,460 

1862-63 





5,536,240 

6,141,250 

11,677,490 

1863-64 





4,884,430 

5,419,240 

10,303,670 

1864-65 





6,930,210 

8,748,340 

15,678,560 

1865-66 





7,95,2490 

9,537,370 

17,489,860 

1866-67 





5,971,940 

5,631,940 

11,603,880 

1867-68 





6,352,173 

1 

6,043,726 

12,395,899 

1868-69 





6,760,680 

1 8,398,130 

15,158,810 

1869-70 





6,079,555 

6,407,004 

12,486,559 

1870-71 





6,167,590 

6,220,360 

12,387,950 

1871-72 





6,439,480 

7,207,440 

13,646,920 

1872-73 

* 




7,909,040 

8,494,650 

16,403,690 

1873-74 




•• 

10,686,380 

12,441,130 

23,127,610 

1874-75 





9,098,135 

9,276,384 

18,374,519 

1875-76 

•• 

•• 



5,987,377 

11,844,357 

17,831,734 


BBITISH BCRMA GAZETTEER* 


55 


The principal articles of export are timber and rice and the ductuatious in 
these were the main causes of the fluctuations of trade. Teak is sent to the 
United Kingdom and to India largely, increasingly to Foreign Europe and in 
small quantities to the Straits : the first shipment to England was in 1839, 
The increase in the value of this trade is shewn by the Forest revenue 
till the Custom House was established and since then by the value of the 
exports ; — 


1836 

1839- 40 

1840- 41 

1841- 42 

1842- 43 

1843- 44 

1844- 45 

1845- 46 

1846- 47 

1847- 48 

1848- 49 

1849- 50 

1850- 51 

1851- 52 

1852- 53 

1853- 54 

1854- 55 


1855- 56 

1856- 57 

1857- 58 

1858- 59 

1859- 60 

1860- 61 
1861-62 

1862- 63 

1863- 64 
1873-74 


Timber revenue. 


Value of timber exported. 


Rs. 

20,800 

21,730 

29,240 

55,110 

58,920 

54,180 

23,710 

61.870 

88.870 
96,480 
90,650 
63,440 
79,460 
71,630 
84,790 

102,370 

188,350 


. . 1,438,960 
..2,070,570 
. . 2,949,250 
. . 3,744,850 
..3,189,520 
. . 2,964,970 
. . 6,062,900 
..4,302,020 
. . 3,728,440 
.. 5,824,830 


The rice trade had formerly been mainly with the Straits, for which in ordi- 
nary seasons the bulk of the crop was purchased, but the grain has now acquired 
a more favourable standing in the European markets and year by year 
larger shipments are made to Europe besides shipments to India. In 1863-64 
only 4,033 tons were sent to the United Kingdom and in 1866-67 only 1102\ 
in 1868-69 the quantity increased to 8,552 tons, in 1871-72 it was 14^280 
and in 1873-74, notwithstanding the large demand in India on account of 
the scarcity in Bengal it was 21,341 tons. In the same years the exports 
to the Straits were — 6,476; 3,477 ; 3,942 ; 29,765 and 15,712 tons. The 
increase in this branch of the trade of the district, depending as it did on the 
rice having obtained a better footing in the European markets, led to the 
erection of steam-cleaning mills, of which there were twelve in 1875-76. The 
following statement of the total exports shews the fluctuations of the trade 


1864-65 

1870- 71 

1871- 72 

1872- 73 


tons 21,567 1873-74 

„ 37,572 1874-75 

„ 56,257 1875-76 

„ 51,718 1876-77 


tons 71,949 
„ 44,791 
„ 77,987 
„ 56,383 


Cotton is produced in the district and exported as are hides, but the trade 
in these is very small. 



56 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The principal imports are cotton and woollen piece-goods, tea, sugar and 
sugarcandy, spirits^ vegetable oils, silk piece-goods, twist and tobacco ; the 
quantities of these in 1873-74 were : — 



From 

Foreign 

ports. 

Fuom Indu, 

Total. 

Foreign 

manufacture. 

Indian 

manufacture. 

Cotton piece-goods 

. . Yds. 

155,508 

280,683 

222,028 

658,119 

Twist 

• . . • 

-- 

180,100 


180,100 

Spirits 

. , Galls. 

21,953 

•• 

•• 

21,953 

Spices 

. . Cwts. 

9,785 

•• 

5,572 

15,357 

Sugar and sugarcandy 


5,045 

•• 

1,191 

6,236 

Tea 

. . lbs. 

38,031 



38,031 

Woollen piece-goods 

. . Yds. 

23,499 


• • 

23,499 

Vegetable oils . . 

. . GaUs. . . 


.. 

32,719 

32,719 

Silk piece-goods 

. . Yds. 


174,884 

26,698 

201,582 

Tobacco 

. . Cwts. 

•• 

19,068 

17,474 

; 36,542 


For administrative purposes the district is divided into eleven townships. 
Administration. Tha-htoon, Hpagat and Martaban, on the west side 

of the Salween, joined to it in 1865, now forming the 
Tha-htoon, until very lately called the Martaban, Sub-division under an Assist- 
ant Commissioner whose head-quarters are at Tha-htoon. Bheeloogywon an 
island off Maul main dividing the northern from the southern mouth of the 
Salween ; the Than-lweng Hlaingbhwai occupying the northern portion between 
the Salween and its tributary the Thoung-yeng ; the Gyaing Than-lweng 
between those two rivers but further south and reaching down to the Gyaing 
and, near Maulmain, a short way beyond it ; the Gyaing Attaran stretching 
southwards behind Maulmain to the extreme southern limit of the district, 
shut in on the west by the Toung-gnyo spur and on the east by the Houng- 
tharaw river ; the Zaya, the Wakharoo and the Re Lamaing occupying the 
stretch of sea-coast from Maulmain southwards to the Ma-hlwai spur, the 
southern watershed of the Re, and bounded on the east by the Toung-gnyo 
spur; and the Houngtharaw occupying the hilly country between the 
Thoung-yeng and the Houngtharaw southwards from the Pata stream, 
an eastern tributary of the Hlaingbhwai which joins it a little north of 
the junction of that river with the Houngtharaw, These townships again 
are sab-<hyided into revenue circles. The Judicial tribunals of the district 
are precisely similar to those elsewhere in the province, except that 
the Recorder of Rangoon is here replaced by a Judge of Maulmain with 
less extensive powers. Of the eighteen presiding officers fourteen exercise 
criminal, civil and revenue powers ; oue, the Judge of Maulmain, civil and 
criminal ; one, the Magistrate of Maulmain, criminal only ; and two, Forest 
Officers, deal only with breaches of the Forest Rules. The maximum distance 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


57 


of villages from the nearest Court is forty miles, the average distance nine. 
For guarding this territory and for the prevention of crime and detection 
and arrest of offenders 581 Police Constables and 36 River Policemen 
were entertained in 1876 under three superior and sixty-five subordinate 
officers at a total cost of Rs. 1,55,974. It is with the Toungthoo and 
Kareng population that the Police have most to do for these are the people 
who are most concerned in crimes of violence of which there were annually 
not a few, many however committed by Shans who rush across the eastern 
and south-eastern frontier and back again before it is possible for the 
Police to do anything, indeed in some cases before the Police are made 
aware that any crime has been committed. Sometimes a band of robbers 
sprang up in the district and, perfectly at home on the hills and in the 
wild jungles, it was only with great difficulty that it could be dispersed 
and then only after some months. In 1870 a leader of one of these gangs 
offered a reward of Es. 600 for the head of an Inspector of Police who was 
energetically hunting him down and who eventually came up with him and 
shot him after a sharp fight, A great difficulty under which the Police laboured 
was the unwillingness of the inhabitants to give information which would lead 
to the capture of a band until the atrocities become too great even for them 
to bear. Latterly there have been fewer crimes of violence such as robberies 
and dacoities and no organized gang has been known for some years. The 
town of Maul main is protected by a body of Police, under the same Superin- 
tendent and forming a portion of the same force, numbering 149 men, of 
whom 99 are for the Military cantonment. The salaries of the men employed 
in the town are partly defrayed by the Municipality. 

The large Gaol in Maulmain, one of the great Central Prisons of the 
province, has been in existence for some years but has been much improved 
of late and rendered more fitted for the reception of the large numbers of pri- 
soners who used formerly to be retained in the districts where they had been 
tried and convicted. Before the establishment of the Penal Settlement on 
the Andaman Islands Maulmain was one of the places of transportation of 
prisoners from India. As originally constructed this Gaol was simply a col- 
lection of large barracks within four high walls but work-yards, work-sheds 
and store-rooms have been added. The Gaol now consists of double-storied 
brick- work buildings with wooden floors and tiled roofe. The prisoners 
sentenced to hard labour are employed as gardeners in the Gaol garden, as 
wicker- workers, coir- workers, tailors, blacksmiths, cotton-spinners, stone 
breakers, and especially in upholstery and as carpenters and the nett value 
of their labour credited to the Government in 1875 was Rs. 26,513. The 


expenditure in 1875 was : — 

Be. 

Rations ... ... ... ... ... 24,462 

Establishment... ... ... ... ... 19,760 

Police Guard ... ... ... ... ... 5,229 

Hospital charges ... ... ... ... 606 

Clothing* ... ... ... ... ... 127 

Contingencies... ... ... ... ... 2,128 


Total ... 62,371 


■* The cost of clothing in 1874 was Rs. 3,550. 


8 



58 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The prison population in the same year was : — 

Criroinal prisoners sentenced to rigorous imprisonment 
„ „ „ simple „ 

Civil f, (debtors) „ 


Total 


1,456 

206 

284 

1,946 


Deducting from the charges the profits of the Gaol labour, the nett cost 
for each prisoner was Es. 31-7-6. 

Including Maulmain the district possesses 195 schools, viz.^ two Govern- 
ment and 195 private of which 11 are Missionary and a considerable 
number Monastic. Until of late these monastic schools, spread over the whole 
face of the country and found in almost every village, 

E ucation. which the Booddhist Hpoongyees live and teach 

the village lads, received little or no active attention from the Government 
but they are now being gradually and cautiously taken in hand so that, if 
possible, they may be improved and strengthened and made the means of 
spreading a sounder and better education among the people. In 1835 
Government school was established in Maulmain which is now classed as 
High School, has about 100 pupils, Europeans and Eurasians, and ha 
absorbed a neighbouring English school which was receiving State aid. 

St. Patrick’s School was established in 1842 by the Eo man Catholic Mission. 
In 1871 the Moung-gan Anglo- Vernacular School was opened under a master of 
pure Burmese origin ; this was found not to be sufficiently well supported 
and has been amalgamated with the Government school. Of schools for girls 
onl}^ the town of Maulmain has several : the Morton Lane Girls’ School for 
Burmese girls, an excellent institution, attached to which are five ancillary 
girls^ schools in different parts of the town ; St. Joseph’s School estab- 
lished by the Roman Catholic Mission and consisting of two distinct 
seminaries, a convent school and an orphanage for destitute girls of 
mixed European origin ; and the Church of England orphanage which holds 
a deservedly respectable place amongst the girls’ schools of the province. In 
1843 the American Baptist Mission set up a normal school in Maulmain for 
Karengs in which Burmese is taught as a subject and English will probably 
follow. At Tha-htoon the Government has lately established a town school 
for boys and girls. The extent to which the improvement of the monastic 
schools has been carried in this district is brought out in the Report of the 
Director of Public Instruction for 1873. Eighty-nine of such schools were 
visited with the consent of the Hpoongyees, and the pupils examined and 
prizes given. In Maulmain the result was not successful ; no less than 50 
Hpoongyees refused to admit the Examiner. Into these schools boys alone 
are received and for the education of girls other agencies have to be depended on. 
Though, speaking generally, the women of Burma are content to leave educa- 
tion to their fathers, husbands, brothers and sons yet in many places laymen 
have started village schools in which girls are taught to read and write. In 
this district in 1873 twelve lay village schools were visited and the pupils 
examined and among those so examined were 71 girls. 

Communication is carried on principally in boats. A metalled road extends 
p . . southwards as far as Kwan-hla, a distance of 38 miles, 

ommmuca ions. course of construction as far as Re, 73 miles 

further whence it will eventually be prolonged to Tavoy and Mergui. At 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


69 


Kwan-hla a branch road leaves this main road westwards to Amherst, a dis- 
tance of 16 miles, A road has been carried from Maulmain eastward, past 
the Farm Cave’^ Rocks, to the Gyaing* ; this was intended as the first section 
of a road to Hlaingbhwai. A road is now being made from Martaban north- 
wards to Tha^htoon whence it will be extended to Shwe-gyeng. Besides these 
there is a short metalled road about 4 J miles long from Zemathway on the 
stream of that name to Tha-htoon. 

A telegraph line extends from Maulmain past Tha-htoon to Shwe-gyeng 
(with a branch thence to Rangoon) and on to Toung-ngoo, and another from 
Maulmain to Amherst. The only Telegraph Stations are at Maulmain and 
Amherst. 

AMHERST. — A small town in the Amherst district at the southern mouth 
of the Salween River in latitude 16° 15' north and longitude 97° 84' east 
about 80 miles south of Maulmain by river and 54 miles by road. A bold 
range of wooded hills rises within a short distance on the inland side of the 
town leaving a limited space of level ground partially cleared of jungle 
between it and the sea on one side, and the Wakharoo river on the other. As a 
sanatorium for invalids Amherst is highly recommended by most medical 
men. The town displays a goodly collection of planked houses belonging to 
residents of Maulmain, who go down occasionally to benefit by the sea 
breezes. It is also resorted to by invalids from Maulmain and Rangoon 
during the hot and dry months of February, March and April as well for the 
benefit of change of air as for the enjoyment of the cool sea-breeze and salt-water 
bathing. The chief importance of Amherst is its convenience as a pilot-station. 
The site was selected, on the cession of Tenasserim, by the Civil Commissioner, 
Mr. Crawford, as the capital of the Province and named after the Governor- 
General, Lord Amherst. The head-quarters were subsequently removed to 
Maulmain, The town gives its name to the district. 

AMHERST. — An island in the Kyouk-hpyoo district . — See Tsagoo, 

AMHERST, — A circle in the Amhert district . — See Kyaih-Khamee, 

AMHERST, — A township in the district of the same name. — SeeKyaik- 
Khamee. 

AN. — A village in the Kyouk-hpyoo district on the An river, the head- 
quarter station of the An township. It contains a Court-house for the Extra 
Assistant Commissioner and a police station and in 1875 had a population of 
1,528 souls, largely engaged in trade. Ponies and cattle, dried tea, cutch 
and other goods are brought over the mountains from Upper Burma and 
passed down to the coast for distribution throughout the country and piece- 
goods, tobacco and other articles are brought hither for export to Upper 
Burma in return. 

AN. — A river in the Kyouk-hpyoo district, more generally known as the 
Aeng^ which rises in the Arakan Romas and falls into Combermere Bay. 
During spring tides large boats can ascend as far as An village, 45 miles from 
the mouth, but at all other periods they are obliged to stop some five miles 
lower down. 

AN. — An extensive township occupying the whole of the eastern portion 
of the Kyouk-hpyoo district from the Maee river northwards, bounded on the 
east by the Arakan Roma mountains and traversed by the An river. It has 



60 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


never been surveyed but the estimated Jirea is 2,883 square miles or more 
than half that of the whole district. The inhabitants, who number 20,631 
souls, are mainly Arakanese on the coast and Burroans inland in the villages 
on the Maee and the An whilst Khyengs occupy the northern part of the 
township. In the north and east the country is hilly and densely wooded but 
in the valleys of the rivers and towards the sea-coast there is a good deal of 
cultivation. The principal products, besides rice, are sessamum and tobacco both 
of which are exported, whilst from Upper Burma across the An pass come 
ponies, tea, coarse sugar, lacquered ware, cutch and other articles. The head- 
quarters of the township are at An a village on the river of the same name some 
45 miles from its mouth. In 1876 the land revenue amounted to Rs. 10,519, 
and the capitation-tax to Rs. 15,736 : in the same year the gross Revenue 
was Rs. 25,649. 

Before the conquest of Arakan by the British this township formed a 
Burman Governorship, and after the conquest it was joined to Sandoway. In 
1833 it was formed into a separate district with portions of the present 
Kyoiik-hpyoo and Akyab districts added to it. In 1838 the head-quarters 
were transferred from An to Kyouk-hpyoo and eleven circles joined to it from 
Ramree then a separate district. In 1852 Ramree and An were united into 
the Kyouk-hpyoo district and the township re-formed. In 1871 two circles, 
Ro and Tsitkan, were taken from it and added to others from the Kyouk- 
hpyoo township and the Akyab district to form the Myeboon township. 

ANAN-BAW. — An extensive revenue circle covering an area of more 
than 270 square miles in the Kyouk-kyee township, Shwe-gyeng district, west 
of the Tsittoung river and adjoining Toung-ngoo on the north. It has 
a population of 4,418 inhabitants who are principally Karengs. Silk-worms 
are bred to some extent in this circle and the silk exported, principally across 
the Roma mountains to Prome and Shwe-doung in the Prome district. In 
1876 the capitation tax was Rs, 3,967 ^-he land Revenue Rs. 2,148 and the 
gross Revenue Rs. 6,652. [The name is derived from the Anan tree), 

AN-DAW. (Sacred double tooih),^h. small Pagoda in the Sandoway 
district on a hill on the right bank of the Sandoway river opposite the town 
of that name, said to have been erected iu 761 A.D. by King Tsek-khyoop to 
contain a tooth of Gaudama Booddha. In 1865 the outer shell gave way and 
was repaired. Feasts are held thrice yearfy during the months of March, June 
and October, which each last one day ; those who attend — chiefly from San- 
doway town — pass on for another day to the Nandaw and for a third to the 
Tshandaw Pagoda, both of which are in the neighbourhood. 

AN-GYEE. — A township in the Rangoon district rather over 600 square 
miles in extent extending from the sea^noast northward as far as the Pan- 
blaing creek and stretching westwards froxn the Rangoon river, which forms 
its eastern boundary, to the To or China Bakir, the lower portion of which 
bounds it on the south towards the east. The Tha-khwot-peng, more com- 
monly known as the Bassein creek, the ordinary route for river steamers from 
Rangoon to the Irrawaddy during the dry season, traverses it from N.N. W. to 
S.S.E, The principal villages are Htan-nia-uaing where salt is made, Pyaw- 
bhway inhabited chiefly by rice cultivators, Lek-khaik, Kwon-khyan-goon and 
^oon-khwa where pots for salt-boiling are manufactured. The soil is exceed- 
ingly fertile and a considerable quantity of rice is produced for the Rangoon 
market. In 1876 the population nunabered 75,147 souls, the land revenue 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


61 


amounted to Rs. 319,585 and the capitation-tax to Rs. 93,386 ; the gross 
Revenue was Es 444,888. It contains 14 Revenue circles. The head* 
quarters are at Twante. The old name of this tract was Dala. It was changed 
to An-khyee wonderful’^ ^‘admirable""), of which An-gyee is a corruption, 
about fifty years ago when Moung Shwe Tha the Myo Thoogyee or headman 
had sent to the annual boat races on the Royal lake at Rangoon a boat so 
named, manned by men from Dala, which won all the races in which it competed. 

AN-KHYOUNGl, {An strearn ), — A revenue circle in the An township of 
the Kyouk-hpyoo district stretching westward from the Arakan mountains 
beyond the An river. It has an area of 481 square miles and a population (in 
1876) of 8,086 souls. Its principal produce is sessamum. The land revenue 
in 1876-77 was Rs. 2,000 the capitation^taa^^Rs. 2,510 and the gross Revenue 
Es. 4,653. 

AN-LET-WAI. An ), — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo 

district 1,200 square miles in extent, stretching southwards from the extreme 
north of the district on the right bank of the An river. Exceedingly moun- 
tainous and almost entirely covered by forest : the area under cultivation is 
very small; sessamum is its main produce : the population numbers 2,105. 
The land revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 6,646 and the capitation- tax Rs. 2,000. 
The gross Revenue was Rs. 2,680. 

AN-LET-YA. {Right An ), — A revenue circle in the An townships 
Kyouk-hpyoo district, with little cultivation and a population of 4,997 souls 
including those of the village of An. It lies in the hilly country towards the 
north-east of the district in the valley of the An. The laud revenue in 1876-77 
was Rs. 4,922 and the capitation-tax Rs. 3,234. 

ANOO. — A small tribe living in the Arakan Hill Tracts of whom little or 
nothing is known except that the few villages which they occupy in this 
province are difficult of access, that they dress like the Kbamies but speak a 
distinct dialect, and bury their dead in the Forest. They are the only tribe 
who live at any distance from a navigable stream. 

ANOUK-BHET. — A township of Tavoy occupying, as its name {Western 
Side) denotes, the western portion of the district. It extends southwards in a 
narrow strip between the coast and the Tavoy river from the northern boundary 
of the district to Tavoy point. Throughout its entire length it is traversed by 
a low range of wooded hills nowhere exceeding 500 feet in height which 
form the western watershed of the Tavoy river. In the north and separated 
from the coast by a still lower range is the Hien-tsai basin, a large sweet-water 
lake 15 miles long and from 6 to 8 miles broad which is fed by numerous 
streams and empties itself into the sea by a narrow mouth closed by a sand- 
bar. The principal products of the township are rice and the Nipa palm ; salt is 
made in several places. 

It is divided into 12 Revenue circles and contains no towns or villages of 
any size or importance. The population in 1876 numbered 26,732 souls : the 
land revenue amounted to Rs. 37,483 the capitation-tax to Rs. 19,932 and 
the gross Revenue to Rs. 63,086 including Rs. 1,962 local cess. 

APENG-HNIT-TSHAY. {Twenty tree creek ), — A creek in theBassein 
district flowing between the Daga and Shwe-gnyoung-beng rivers. It is about 
200 feet wide and has a depth of 15 feet increased to 19 at the flood. In the 
rains it is navigable from the Shwe-gnyoung-beng as far as Rangoon, but in 
the dry weather small boats cannot ascend above Koon-tsabay-oon. 



62 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


ARAKAN. — The most northern of the three divisions of British Burma 
extending in a long narrow strip along the coast of the Bay of Bengal from the 
Naaf estuary in the north to the Khwa river in the south and shut in on the east 
by the Arakan Roma mountains. The name is a corruption of Rakhaing” 
the native name for the Arakanese. It covers an area of 12,525 square 
miles and is divided into four districts : — The Arakan Hill Tracts, Akyab, 
Kyouk-hpyoo and Sandoway. After the first Burmese war Rakhaing-pyee- 
gyee/’ or the Arakan kingdom, ‘was ceded to the British by the King of Burma 
and formed into a Province which was placed under the Bengal Government. 
It then extended as far south as Cape Negrais and was divided into four 
districts ; — Akyab, An, Ramree and Sandoway, Various changes took place 
in the boundaries of the districts - and after the second Burmese war, when 
Pegu was annexed, the lower strip, between the Khwa and Cape Negrais, was 
joined to the Bassein district of Pegu. In 1875 it contained a population 
of 497,632 souls and produced a gross revenue of Es, 2,528,828. It is 
administered by a Commissioner whose head-quarters are at Akyab and by 
three Deputy Commissioners of districts and a Superintendant of Hill Tracts. 
Of the total area 12,668 square miles are reputed to be unculturable and only 
785 square miles as actually under cultivation, 

ARAKAN. — The ancient capital of Arakan . — See Mrohoung, 

ABAKAN HILL TRACTS.* — This district, lying amongst the wilderness 
of mountains in the north of Arakan, for many years formed a portion of the 
Akyab district. Inhabited by wild tribes continually at feud with each other and 
occupied largely in committing forays not only in the hills but even occasionally 
in the lower and more civilised countiy to the south it was found impossible 
for the local officers to do more than occasionally to copy the habits of these 
almost savages and to make occasional raids for the punishment of the 
marauders. In 1865 in order to bring the country more under control and, 
as far as possible, to civilize the inhabitants and reduce them gradually to 
more peaceful habits it was separated from Akyab and an officer placed in 
independent charge subject directly to the Commissioner of Arakan. In 1868 
with a view of encouraging trade and traffic with the Hill Tribes and the 
gradual winning of them over to a more frequent peaceable communication 
with the people of the plains a market was established towards the south 
at Myouk-toung, far enough in the hills to attract the hill people whilst not too far 
from Akyab to attract traders, where the sessamum, cotton, tobacco and 
other hill produce could be disposed of instead of being, as formerly, 
exchanged for other goods with petty travelling hucksters who were an 
inducement to the hillmen to commit dacoity and who could not be prevented 
from carrying about for sale or barter arms, sulphur, saltpetre and gunpowder. 
The market has proved a success and is now the common resort of hill men 
from the Kooladan and the Mee. The Superintendent can personally super- 
intend their dealings with the traders from the plains and many cases of 
violence and murder have thus been prevented. In the same year, 1868, 
the establishment was increased and an Assistant Superintendent appointed. 

[Wi^ ffie exception of a few unimportant verbal alterations, some additions from subsequent 
reports by Captain Hughes and a change in the method of spelling so as to bring it, as far as 
possible, into accordance with Colonel Horace Browne’s system, approved by the Chief Commis- 
these tracts is taken almost entirely word for word from a report dated in 
1^2 by Mr. R. P. St. A. St. John of the tJneovenanted Service formerly of the 60th Royal Rides 
who was for some time Superintendent. — Emtob.] 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


63 


The jurisdiction of the Superintendent comprises the whole of the country 
drained by the Pay or Pee and the Kooladan with their tributaries north 
of the latitude of the Kooladan police-station (which is situated about a 
mile south of the junction of the Mee with the Kooladan) together with 
the whole of the country drained by the Le-mro and its tributaries north of the 
police post situated at the junction of the Roo with that stream and by 
streams joining the Le-mro, above that river also the whole of the country 
north of a line drawn westward from the mouth of the Roo to a point on 
the east bank of the Kooladan about fifteen miles below the Kooladan post. 
Until a regular boundary is laid down the actual limits of the district cannot 
be fixed. On the Kooladan river the utmost limit of the real practical power 
of control of the Superintendent is twenty miles north of Dalekmai ; beyond 
this there are only one or two villages and then comes an uninhabited tract of 
country reaching far north. On the Mee his control is not felt further north 
than a mile or two beyond the police post at the junction of the Thamie and Mee 
or Walien. Above this post there are a few villages on the Thamie, but the 
Mee or Walien is uninhabited until the Bookie Shandoo villages are reached 
after seven or eight days* journey. On the Le-mro owing to the police post 
being on the boundary between this district and that of Akyab it is impossible 
to say how far actual control extends. Roughly the Hill Tracts may be said to 
be bounded on the south by the district of Akyab and on the west by 
Chittagong, whilst on the north and east are no defined boundaries bub 
unknown tracts of mountainous jungle, stretching away towards Burma on 
the east and Manipur on the north. 

The Kooladan or Yam-pang is the principal river. It is called Kooladan 
by the Arakanese from " dan” a place or location and 
koola” a foreigner, as it was on this river that the 
Kings of Araban located their Bengali slaves ; Yam-pang is the Khamie 
name. The source is unknown ; its general course, which is said to be for 
some miles underground, is nearly north and south and even in the dry 
weather it is navigable for large boats for about 120 miles from Akyab. The 
tide is felt as far north as Koon-daw, 15 miles higher up. Above this the 
river is a succession of rapids and shallows, and above the Tsala stream the 
bed is excessively rocky. Its principal tributaries are the Tsala which joins it 
about 25 miles above Dalekmai ; the Eala, the Kola, the Palak, the Kan, 
the Mee which also receives the Thamie, and the Pay or Pee. The valleys of 
the Palak and Kan are fertile and open and it is said that the tobacco 
formerly grown there was especially good ; owing to frequent raids these two 
valleys are now uninhabited. The banks of the Mee are inhabited chiefly by 
Mro as far north as the river’s junction with the Thamie, the small breadth of 
its valley, however, affords but little space for tobacco cultivation, as is the case 
also with the Thamie ; far north on the head waters of the Mee are Shandoo 
tribes whilst* to the south-west is the small tribe of Khoungtso who 
generally join in their raids. With the exception of a few miles above its 
junction with the Kooladan the Mee is a very shallow and impracticable 
stream. The Pee, which runs parallel to the Kooladan on the west, is 
navigable for large boats up to the latitude of the Kooladan police post, and 
thence is a shallow mountain torrent flowing through a country inhabited by 
Mro and Khamie. 

The Le-mro has its sources in the eastern Roma, the watershed between 
Arakan and Upper Burma, some distance to the north of the latitude of 



64 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Dalekmai and after a course due south for about 60 miles is joined by the 
Pee from the east and turning westwards receives the waters of the O 
from the north and then, after running south and west for about eight miles, 
it takes an abrupt turn to the north and receives the waters of the Peng or 
Wakrien. On the head waters of these streams reside tribes of Khyeng 
and Shandoo of whom little is known but below their junction are tributary 
Khyeng whose villages are found from this point south to within a few miles 
of Old Arakan {Mrohoung), On the Roo are three or four villages of Mro who 
settled there by permission of the Khyeng clan who claim that part. The 
Le-mro at its mouth is much silted up and the tide ascends only a few miles 
so that in the dry weather small canoes alone can pass up, whilst in the 
rains the current is very rapid. Above the mouth of the Roo the Le-mro 
is joined from the east by two large streams, the Wet and the Tseng, which 
receive the greater part of the drainage from the south-east; the valleys 
through which they flow are sparsely inhabited by Khyeng. 

The total area of the district is generally calculated at between 4,000 and 
6,000 square miles but a large part is almost inaccessible and generally 
speaking the population is confined to the large streams. This area is 
composed of broken parallel ridges of sandstone hills covered with dense 
forest drained by innumerable streamlets. The general run of the ranges is 
north and south and wherever the rivers have been forced to take an easterly 
or westerly course may still be seen the broken barriers which formerly 
dammed up the waters and raised the alluvial deposits on their banks far 
above the level of the highest rise in modern times. The scenery is sometimes 
very wild and beautiful but still there is, necessarily, a great sameness. 

Amongst the wild animals may be mentioned the elephant, rhinoceros, 
Nattu-al products. bison, deer, goat, antelope, pig, tiger, bear and monkey. 

The domestic animals are the gayal, buffalo, ox, goat, 
pig and dog. The timber trees are ironwood, kamoung, thit-ka-do, ye-ma- 
theng-gan-net {fiopea), mee-gyoung-ye {pentaptera glabra), 
ka-gnyeng {dipterocarpus Icevis) and in one spot north of Dalekmai there 
is a little teak. Bamboos are plentiful and are taken down in large quan- 
tities to Akyab. 

Inhabitants. The great tribes inhabiting the hills are* 


1. Rakhaing or Khyoungtha .. 1,219 

2. Shandoo .. .. 2 

3. Khamie or Khwe-myee . . . . 7,172 

4. Anoo or Khoungtso , . . . 29 

5. Khyeng .. .. .. 1,634 

6. Khyaw or Kookie . . . . 84 

7. Mro .. 2,162 


Total (exclusive of the Police) . . 12,302 


The Rakhaing, commonly called Khyoung-tha, are of Burmese stock and 
speak a dialect differing but little from Arakanese. They are divided into 
seven clans, viz : I. Loon-hie (Arakanese), — II. Dala (Taking), — III. Tansiet 
(Arakanese], — -IV. Moon-htouk (Taking),— V. Koon-tsway (Arakanese) , — VI. 
Shwe-ba-dzwai (Arakanese), and — VII. Rook (Taking) ; all live ontheKooladan 
river, their most northern village being about eight miles above Dalekmai. 


♦ The figures given are for 1870-76. 



BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


65 


Some clans, however, are said to be descended from Talaing^s or Moon who 
came over to Arakan with a princess of Pegu who was married to an Arakanese 
King in the sixteenth century ; a story borne out by the fact that one clan 
is still called the Moon ^ clan whilst Dalekmai is said to be named from Dala 
opposite Rangoon. In manners and customs they differ but little from 
the Arakanese and Burmese and belong to the great Myamma or Mramma 
(Burman) family : Khyoung-tha^' simply means the sons-of-the-river.” 
Their numbers in this district are 1,219, but there are many in Akyak They 
are a quiet, pleasant people, more like the Burmese than the Arakanese in 
disposition. Their dress consists of the Arakanese waist cloth of dark 
home-spun cotton and a white turban, the hair being tied in a knot on 
the top of the head : the women wear the Arakanese petticoat which is the 
same as the Burmese save that it comes further round so as not to expose 
the leg in walking ; the colours however are sad and throughout the whole 
of the Arakanese family there seems to be a want of appreciation of the 
harmonious blending of gorgeous colours so dear to the eastern Barman’s 
eye. Tattooing is practised but not as in Burma, the utmost being a few 
charms on the back or shoulders. Though professedly Booddhists the spirit 
worship of their fathers finds a much larger place in their hearts and many 
customs common to primitive tribes are strictly observed. The written 
character used by the Khyoung-tha was originally the same as the Burmese 
but in repeating the alphabet they call some of the letters by different 
names : the books which they use are written on rough home-made paper 
cut to look like palm leaves and the characters used in these books differ 
greatly from the usual Burmese form ; this arises from the originals having 
been copied by Bengali writers who were ignorant of the true form. 

The next tribe in order is the Shandoo but of them we know so little 
that no trustworthy information can be given ; it appears, however, that the 
customs of the tribes differ. Major Tiekell in 1852 had an interview with a 
Chief of the Bookie clan, which is nearest to us on the river Mee, and 
those seen by Mr. Davis and Mr. St. John were from southern tribes. In 
appearance they resemble the Khamie but their language is very different 
though a few words are found common to both. In comparing the languages 
of these tribes, who use monosyllabic words and are always in a state of feud 
with one another, little result can be obtained from vocabularies as compared 
with the consonantal sounds and the construction of the sentences. The tract 
inhabited by them for the most part lies to the east and north-east of the 
mountain which is commonly called the ** Blue Mountain,” and which is 
situated at the north-west point of the Akyab district as laid down by the 
Survey oflB^cers previous to the formation of the Hill Tracts District. There 
are, however, outlying tribes on the Mee and head waters of the Le-mro and 
it is impossible to say how far they extend north and east. The only points 
which the accounts given by Captain Lewin the Superintend ant of Hill 
Tribes in Chittagong, by Major Tiekell, and by Mr. St. John have in common 
are : — that they frequently use timber in building their houses and that they 
raise them from the ground ; that they are polygamous (though all the tribes are 
polygamous yet as in Burma monogamy is the rule more than the exception); 
that they have a dread of water above knee deep ; and that they bury their 
dead in graves dug in the village and lined with stones instead of burning 
them. In this latter custom they seem to differ from the Burmese and every 

9 



6G 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


other tribe. Captain Lewin states that their features do not bear any signs 
of Mongolian physiognomy and Major Tickell remarks this of one specimen 
but not of the other. Those, however, seen by Mr. St. John were decidedly 
Mongolian and in no way differed in stature or appearance from the Khamie. 
Strictly speaking a description of this tribe is out of place as they can hardly 
be called one of the district tribes though some of their clans are within the 
limits of the survey map. 

The Khamie, or as they are more commonly called the Khwe-myee, are 
the principal tribe of the district. Three or four generations ago they dwelt 
on the mountain ranges to the north-east but having quarrelled with their 
neighbours the Shandoo they were driven down towards the Kooladan, gradually 
pushing before them the Mro and the Khyoung-tha who formerly dwelt there. 
They are divided, like all the hill people, into clans and doubtless in their 
former habitat had their own lands and obeyed influential heads of 
clans ; but their forced immigration has destroyed all this and now they are 
scattered and confused though keeping together in villages composed for the 
most part of members of the same clan under a headman or toung-meng whose 
office is generally hereditary. “ Toung-meng” is a Burmese word derived from 
‘‘ toung^^ a hill and meng” a chief : their own word for chief is " a-raing.” 
The name Khamie” is the one by which they call themselves and means 
man” {homo) ; the Burmese, however, as is their wont, have seized upon the 
peculiarity of their dress which hangs down behind like a tail and adapting 
the word Khamie^’ to their own language make it into “ Khwe-myee^^ from 
^*khwe” a dog, and ^^myee^* a tail. In features, language and manners 
they are of the same family as the Mram-ma. The dress of the male 
Khamie is a long home-spun cotton cloth about one foot in width which is 
passed several times round the waist and once between the legs, the coloured 
ends hanging down in front and behind ; the hair is knotted over the front 
part of the head and a long twisted white cloth is bound round the head so 
as to make a turban standing well up over the forehead ; this adds to the 
height and sets them off to great advantage. They are generally well set 
up and muscular but vary greatly in stature ; they are wary and occasionally 
deceitful ; their distrust is the result of their dealings with people who 
they know deceive them and if once convinced that you will keep your 
word they will always trust you.^^ Generally speaking they are more open to 
improvement than any of the other tribes not even excepting the Khyoung-tha 
and there can be no doubt but they are now fully able to understand the 
benefits of peace and trade and are desirous of changing their former pre- 
datory habits. 

The Mro (whom Mr. St. John is inclined to consider as a sept of the 
Khamie) wear but a small blue waist cloth about four inches wide and are 
not particular as to their head dress or personal appearance ; their houses, too, 
are small and the desire for improvement is not so great. The women 
of both tribes dress almost exactly alike. A short dark blue cloth reaching 
to the knee and open at the side is fastened round the waist with a belt of 
cords covered either with large beads or copper rings ; over the breast is worn 
a sinall strip of cloth. Unlike the men they are very squarely built but the 
habit of carrying very heavy weights on their backs in baskets with a band 
posing over their forehead up the precipitous hill paths makes them walk 
with a constrained and waddling gait. Some when young are good looking 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


67 


but constant labour soon destroys their personal appearance. This tribe lives 
on the Mee, a tributary of the Kooladan, and on some streams to the south, 
and appears to be looked upon by the others as inferior to themselves. It 
was their custom to form a nest, as nearly musket proof as they could 
make it, in some high tree connected with the ground by a bamboo ladder, 
in which men women and children took refuge in case of attack, cutting 
the ladder after they had gone up. The practice has died out owing to the 
freedom from danger which they now enjoy. 

The Anoo, Koon or Khoungtso are a small tribe of whom there is one 
village east of Dalekmai, very difficult to get at, and three or four on the Tsala 
and near the head waters of the Thamie, also difficult of access : little, there- 
fore, is known of them save that they dress like Khamie but speak a dis- 
tinct dialect which contains many words and expressions intelligible to the 
Manipuri. They also bury their dead, but in the forest. 

The Khyeng are the most widely spread of all the tribes and inhabit the 
Arakan Roma mountain range, east of the Le-mro river, that divides 
Arakan from Burma, and extends from far south down into the Sandoway 
district and across the Romas into the Pegu division. Though all acknowledge 
that they are of the same family and universally tattoo the faces of their women, 
a practice peculiar to their tribe, yet there is a great difference between the 
dialects of those who are brought captives from the east side and of those who 
inhabit these hills : generally speaking they are shy and averse to improvement, 
cultivating neither cotton nor tobacco for sale. They are divided into numerous 
clans each of which is located on certain tracts sufficiently large to supply them 
with cultivation the boundaries of which they never exceed. 

It has been said that they adopted the custom of tattooing the womens’ 
faces to prevent their being taken by the Burmese rulers and this is the 
explanation almost universally accepted in the plains and in the Pegu division; 
but the reason may have been as suggested by Mr. St. John, that they mark 
them thus so as to know them when carried away by other tribes and also 
to enable them to conceal the women of other tribes carried off by them. 
Their language though not understood by either Khamie or Mro has 
many words in common with theirs. The men knot their hair over the fore- 
head and the waist cloth is, in these hill tracts, redi^ced to the smallest 
possible dimensions; in fact it can hardly be said to have the shghtest 
pretensions to decency. Those of the tribe who live east of the Roma mountain 
dress somewhat differently {See Khyeng), 

The women wear a short waist cloth but open on both sides and a 
smock frock like that worn by the Kareng but very short ; the clans further 
south wear it long. 

The Khyaw inhabit a village of about 30 houses near the junction 
of the Tsala with the Kooladan : they are undoubtedly of the Kookie family 
but how they became separated from the main body is not known. The men 
knot their hair at the back and shave over the forehead ; the women plait 
it into two tails which are brought up over the forehead : their features are 
different to the other tribes and their complexion far darker. 

Though there may be a few minor differences in the manners and customs 
of these tribes yet on the whole there is great similarity. The religion of 
all is spirit worehip of the most primitive kind and consists in paying a 
sacrifi(^ of blood to the spirits of the hills and rivers as a means of averting 



68 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


evil; the smallest act cannot be performed without shedding the blood of 
some kind of animal or bird. 

In the year there are two important ceremonies for the propitiation of 
the Ka-nie,’^ or spirit, viz., at the time of sowing seed and before harvest. 
At the first ^ fowl or pig is taken alive to the place to be sown, a small heap 
of rice seed is placed on the ground and the blood from the animal is poured 
on it ; the flesh is taken home and eaten. The second is performed when 
the rice plant is well grown but before the ear has come up ; a fowl, pig or 
dog is killed at home and the blood is smeared on long bamboos decorated 
by shaving round the joints so as to leave tassels and tufts hanging from 
them ; these bamboos are then taken to the field and stuck up in various 
parts of it. 

There is also another annual feast, in honour of departed spirits who 
are called hpalaw.^’ This custom is followed by the Khamie and 
Khyoung-tha but not by the Mro. The ceremony is performed by the 
Khamie after harvest and is called ta-proungpa-oung or the opening of 
the dead-house. When a person dies and has been burnt the ashes are 
collected and placed in a small house in the forest, together with his spear 
or gun which has first been broken in pieces. These small houses are generally 
placed in groups near a village, for which they are sometimes numerous enough 
to be mistaken. After harvest the whole of the deceased^s relatives cook 
various kinds of dishes and rice and take them with pots of ‘"a-moo^^ 
(liquor made from rice) to the small houses where the ashes repose ; the doors 
of the house are opened and food having been placed for the departed are 
re-closed : the relatives then weep, eat and drink and return home in the 
evening. Khyoung-tha perform this ceremony thrice a year but with 
them it consists simply of setting aside food and drink for the departed for 
a short time and then throwing it away into the river. 

During the dry weather numerous feasts are given at which large 
numbers of cattle are killed and eaten and rice-beer and spirits consumed. 
It is a mark of distinction amongst them to have it said that they have 
killed so many head at a feast ; the largest number Mr. St. John heard of was 
150 killed at one feast by a headman (A-raing) .and his sons. The gayals, 
buffaloes and oxen are tied up to a post and speared behind the right 
shoulder but other animals have their throats cut. Dogs are castrated when 
young for use at feasts. The post used by the Mro is Y shaped ; and just 
below the fork carved so as to represent two or more beasts. There is some 
peculiar but at present unknown significance attached to this symbol both 
by Mro and Khamie and it is often carved on the posts of headmen^s 
houses and on the house ladder. The Khamie and Khyeng do not carve 
their posts but set them up rough ; in the Khyeng villages some rough 
stones are set up. 

At the feasts there is always a drinking of khoung” or rice-beer 
which is made by soaking rice with certain ferment-causing roots in a large 
pot : this pot is then put away till required and then filled to the brim with 
water ; a reed with two little holes cut at the side above the bottom joint 
having been thrust down into the liquor it is sucked up and when the 
first man has drank his quantum he marks it with a slip of bamboo and fills 
up with water for the next comer. One pot is sufficient for a large number 
of men. When five or six pots are put in a row the drinkers are supposed 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


69 


to commence at one and move on up the line until they come to the other.* 
This liquor is not disagreeable and is moderately intoxicating. 

Dancing must be seen to be clearly understood : it is more of a side 
Dances closing step than a dance the line being headed by 

drummers, small gong players, wind instrument 
blowers and men armed with spears, Wa-raik” (a peculiar brass handled 
sword said to be made by the Shandoos and much prized), muskets and 
shields. The step consists of closing two steps to the right and one to the 
left in time to the music and at the same time bending the body so as to 
throw the posteriors outwards : the young men commence it and then drag in 
the girls between them to whom they make love and whom they stimulate with 
ardent spirits, I have seen’^ writes Mr. St. John a young man thus dancing 
away and murmuring a love song into the ears of two girls at the same time, 
one on each side, with his arms round their necks, Before commencing 
the faces of all are often smeared with a mixture of saffron and rice flour 
which is supposed to ward off the bad effects of drinking. Occasionally they 
dance a wild sort of war dance with “ dhas” and shields and there is also 


a very clever dance something resembling the sword dance of Scotland 
but between two heavy rice pounders which are clapped together by two other 
men to the sound of a drum : if the dancer is not very agile or exact he 
is liable to get his leg broken between the pounders. 

Till marriage, intercourse between the sexes is perfectly free and unres- 
Marriage trained ; and it is considered highly proper to marry 

a girl great with child though it be that of another 
man ; if however a girl bring forth before marriage the child is, it is said, 
exposed. Marriage is a simple contract consequent on making valuable 
presents to the parents. It is an insult to tell a girl that the young men 
will not sleep in her house. 

Tabooing ceremony of " Ya” for tabooing is strictly observed 

on the following occasions : — 

1st , — When any person belonging to the village is killed by a tiger 
or crocodile ; when the body of any person so killed is brought 
into a village ; or when any woman of the village dies in child- 
birth all intercourse with other villages is cut off until the appear- 
ance of the next new moon. 


2nd , — When a village or house is burnt; or when a new village is erected 
intercourse is forbidden for the period of three days, 

3^^, — When any epidemic breaks out intercourse is forbidden with 
that village until the disease has disappeared. 

— When the rice plants are well up and require weeding intercourse 
is forbidden for seven days. 

^ffi ^ — When a villager dies by accident intercourse is forbidden for one 

Any person breaking this custom is fined by the headmen of the 
neighbouring villages. To show that a village is tabooed strings or canes are 
suspended across the road. 

At harvest time the people are forbidden to eat flesh or fish ; and 
any person who has killed another or been wounded by a tiger or crocodile 
is obliged to abstain from flesh for a period extending from three months 
to one year. It is also considered wrong to take money for a tiger’s skin. 



70 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


When the inhabitants of a village have been successful in a raid or in 
Customs ‘ repelling* an attack a sacrifice is offered to the Kanie^’ 
or guardian spirit ; all the men dancing a war dance 
with spears and shields round the village post. 

When a person dies the body is laid out in the house and a feast made ; 
fpod is set apart for the ghost which is supposed to remain over the house 
as long as the body is there. Seven bundles of rice for a man and six for a 
woman are left at the place of cremation for the ghost to feed on, and neglect 
of this custom is a bar to inheritance. 

According to the Hill custom all offences or injuries are remedial by fine 
only, and this fine is called in the Burmese goung-hpo,'*'* or head money ; 
by the Mro it is called aloo-wang^^; and by the Khamie loo-wang/” 
If the fine or debt be not paid means are first taken to try and recover 
the money by restraining the person and if this be ineffectual the judgment- 
debtor becomes the slave of the injured party who either keeps him in his 
house to work or sells him. In cases where it is impossible to apprehend 
the party or recover the amount due the creditor will bide his time and, 
when least expected, a raid will be committed on the village of the debtor. 
As this goung-hpo’^ is constantly demanded for purely imaginary reasons, 
and in a very arbitrary manner, raids are sometimes committed and feuds 
established on very frivolous pretences ; for instance the feud between the 
Shandoo and the Karay clan of Khamie, who formerly lived in the Palook 
valley, is said to have originated in a dispute concerning a bamboo pipe head, an 
article of but small value, and has resulted in the expulsion of the whole 
of the Khamie from that valley. In another ease a young Mro found the 
body of a small deer that had been killed by a tiger and threw it into the forest 
near another man’s field at a great distance from the village ; this came to 
the knowledge of the owner of the joom,^^ or patch of cultivation and one of 
his children dying shortly afterwards he attributed it to the act and 
demanded goung-hpo’^ from the young man. The village elders admitted 
the claim and a small forfeit was paid and it was thought that the matter 
was fully settled but about a year afterwards another child died and its 
death, was by some curious process of reasoning, attributed to the same act 
and another demand of larger value was made ; this was too much and the 
person of whom the demand was made fled to the Superintendent for succour. 

The following, is an abstract of the Hill laws as 
given by Mr. Davis and quoted by Mr. St, John, two 
successive Superintendents. 

Criminal, 


i. — If a person commit murder he should be fined the value of two 

Murder or Homicide. and several spears, swords and gongs, say in all 

about Rs. 600. If death be caused accidentally the 
fine should be half the above. 

ii. ~When a village is plundered by a body of raiders the deader alone 

is to be held responsible and if apj^ehended is 
bound to return the value of all property taken (includ- 
ing the head money of persons killed) and also to pay a fine. ; 

iii. — If a village be burnt down in committing a raid tjhe leader is 
Raid and arson, bound to make good the damage done and Ito pay a fine 

in addition. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


71 


iv. — A person who commits theft is bound to return the pro- 
perty, or its value, and to pay a fine not exceeding 
Rs. 30. 

V. — A person who causes grievous hurt may be 
fined Rs. 100. 

vi. — If a person assault another he is to pay a fine not 
exceeding Rs. 30. 

vii, — If rape be committed on a married woman the husband is entitled 
to demand a sum not exceeding Rs. 60. Rape of 
an unmarried woman is to be punished by a fine not 

exceeding Rs. 30. 

Besides the fine the offender has to pay for the animal (pig) slain to make 
the agreement binding. 

When murder is committed in a raid any raiders caught red-handed are 
at once beheaded and the heads stuck up in the village. 

A woman may not receive a fine but a male relative or husband may 
receive it for her. 

Civil, 


Theft. 

Grievous hurt. 
Assault. 


11 .- 

Execution. 


Interest. 


i. — If two persons dispute about a debt or other matter and neither 
Ordeal produce evidence they are obliged to go through 

the ordeal of ducking the head in water, and the decision 
is given in favour of him who keeps under longest. 

If a debt be not paid and the debtor is not apprehended the 
creditor's party, if strong enough, attacks the debtor^s 
village and carries off as many captives as it can. 
iii, — The interest on a debt is double the principal if one year 
be allowed to expire from the date on which it was 
contracted. 

iv. — The debts of the father must be paid by the 
sons. 

If a man die without male issue his property is claimed by his near- 
est male relative ; he, therefore, is responsible for the 
debts of the deceased whether there be property or not* 
man die leaving a son who is a minor the nearest male 
relative acts as guardian until minority ceases on 
marriage when he is bound to give account of his 
stewardship. 

vii. — A woman cannot inherit and is, therefore, not 
responsible for a debt. 

viii. — If a man die leaving two or more sons the 
property is divided as follows : — 

If there are only two they divide equally : if there be more than two 
the eldest and the youngest take two shares each and the others one share 
each. 

ix. — On the death of the father the eldest son must give his maternal 
Customs to be ob- uncle a full-grown buffalo or the value. On the death of 
served. the mother the youngest son must give a paternal uncle 

a full-grown buffalo or the value. If this cannot be done a son should be 
given. 


Sons liable for father. 


No male issue. 

vi. — Should 
Minority. 

Women. 


Division 

ance. 


of inherit- 



72 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Bequeathing sons. 


XI.- 


Slaves. 


Divorce. 


X. — If a manbeou the point of death and cannot pay his 
debts he must leave a son to the creditor to work it otf. 
-Slaves do not inherit unless adopted according to rule ; if inheriting 
as having been adopted they will be held responsible for 
debts. If a slave, however, be adopted by a master who 
has sons he cannot inherit. 

xii. — There is no fixed age for marriage, nor any constraint used to 

influence choice. Marriage is contracted on consent of 
Marriage, Woman’s parents after payment of the fixed dowry 

by the suitor. 

xiii. a . — If a husband wish to divorce his wife he may do so and take 
all the children ; but in so doing he will forfeit claim 
to dowry. 

h . — If a woman have children by a former husband she is entitled to 
them on divorce. 

c. — A divorced woman must, until re-married, be supported by the male 
relative who received her dowry or by his heir. 

xiv. a , — No female can receive dowry; it must be 
received by the nearest male relative. 

h . — If a husband chastise or ill-treat his wife and she absconds in 
consequence he is nevertheless entitled to receive back the dowry. 

c. — If a wife abuse or ill-treat her husband he may chastise her ; but 
if on that account he divorce her he forfeits claim to dowry, 

XV. a, — If the husband divorce the wife for proved adultery he is entitled 
Adultery receive the dowry paid by him and may also demand 

a sum equal to the dowry from the adulterer in addition 


to fine and costs. 

h , — If a man commit adultery the wife has no redress. 

xvi. — Should a woman die in giving birth to a child before marriage the 
reputed father must pay her value to her father or nearest male relative. 

Oath is usually taken by swearing to speak the truth on a musket, spear, 
sword, tiger’s tusk, crocodile^s tooth and stone hatchet 
(supposed to be a meteoric stone, they are occasionally 
found when cutting the jungle) ; these are all held together in the hands 
whilst repeating the oath. This is not much feared and it is said that the 
Khamie consider an oath taken on the skull of a cat or tiger more binding. 
Some Mro say that an oath taken on the praying mantis is binding whilst 
this is denied by others. 

Cultivation is of the simplest character, viz.y that commonly called 

Cultivation. toungya in Burma and joom in India : it consists 
in selecting a suitable spot of forest on the side of 
a hill and clearing it by cutting down the underwood ; early in April 
this is set fire to and immediately afterwards the seed is sown broad- 
cast. The only implements used are a chopper about twelve inches long 
and about three inches broad at the end, in fact an isosceles triangle of iron 
with a base of three inches, the apex being fitted into a bamboo handle, and 
a small axe or triangular celt^’ of iron with the small end run through a 
hole in a bamboo to form the handle. Unlike Burmese choppers however 
the wash is only on one side. During the rains cotton and sessamum 
are planted on the same piece of ground. In August the rice ripens and 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


73 


the family on some fine day repair to the field with a basket four or five feet 
in diameter; the women and children reap the ears with a rough jagged 
sickle and carry them to a man who tramples out the grain which when 
taken home is dried in the sun or, if the weather will not allow of this, over 
fires. 

The cotton is much sought after by the Arakanese and of late years 
the cultivation has considerably increased as the Kbamie on the Kooladan 
are quite alive to the advantage of a good market. It is inferior to Egyptian 
in staple, fibre and texture but it yields a much larger crop and it has been 
reported by the Secretary to the Chamber of Commerce, Bombay, to be 
somewhat superior to ordinary Bengal cotton. 

Tobacco is cultivated by all the villagers on the Kooladan and is 
remarkably good, almost equal to Manilla. It is sown broadcast on the 
alluvial deposits along the banks after the fall of the river in November, the 
long elephant grass having first been cut and burnt. The plants are not 
transplanted but well weeded and thinned out ; a good deal, however, depends 
upon the season as the plants require a little rain though the heavy fogs no 
doubt do a great deal for them. When the plants are about two feet high 
the shoots and lower leaves are broken off to make the good leaves grow 
larger. In April and May the leaves are picked and strung through the 
stalk on a thin bamboo skewer about one cubit in length, from 20 to 30 leaves 
on a skewer, and hung up in the house roof to dry ; after five or six days they 
are taken down and shaken about to prevent the leaves from adhering to one 
another : they are then re-hung and after six or seven days, when quite dry, 
thrown into a large basket in which they undergo heavy pressure ; after 
about a month and a half, when the rain has well set in, they are taken out 
and sorted into bundles. The tobacco is never exposed to the sun and is 
kept till the rains for sorting so that the leaves may be pliant. The Mro 
have a tradition that the seed was brought from Cheduba Island where also 
good tobacco is produced. The Khamie call it tsa-rak,^^ the Mro tsa-rook,’^ 
and the Khyeng tsee-met.'^'^ These words are evidently corruptions of the 
Burmese tshe-rwek^^ tobacco leaf. The Shandoo call it "" oma,’^ or koma- 
kouk.^^ 

The women do most of the cultivation with the exception of cutting the 
jungle for toungya. 

Of the climate Mr. St, John writes: — I think that the deadliness of the 
Health and climate. climate has been overstated ; but it affects people 
^^differently. I do not consider, however, that the Hill 
fever is to be attributed to malaria but to constant severe changes of 
temperature. From my own experience I have found that the only dangerous 
months are April, May and June ; April is excessively hot and May and 
June are the beginning of the rains, the end of the rains I have found 
pleasant. The time for moving about is from the 1st of November to the 31st 
March. The people are generally speaking healthy but subject to skin 
diseases. What tells most on the European is want of proper food. It is 
evident from the custom of the people that a very strong diet is necessary, 
and chickens, therefore, and tin-meats are not sufficient for the European ; 
occasionally he may obtain a little venison but beef and mutton are out of 
the question.^^ Arakanese do not stand the climate well and it is deadly to 
most Burmese who seldom get over the fever and almost always suffer from 

10 



74 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


enlargement of the spleen. From December to March the prevailing wind is 
north and during the monsoon south or south-west. 

The dispensary at head-quarters is a well raised building with a planked 
floor and bamboo mat walls, and consists of two rooms for indoor patients 
and another which is used as an office and dispensary. The total number of 
persons treated iu 1875 was 1,441 of whom 277 were in-patients. Included 
in these figures are 225 Policemen of whom 102 were in-patients. 

The number of cases of each class of disease treated was — 


Fever ... ... 292 Disease of the respiratory system 93 

Measles ... ... 69 Ditto digestive do. 229 

Dysentery ... ... 57 Ditto urinary do. 10 

Diarrhoea ... - ... 61 Ditto skin 208 

Disease of the eye ... 77 Others 345 

The weapons used by the Shandoo, Khamie and Mro are muskets. 
Weapons spears, short swords or bills, knives and shields. The 

muskets are old English ones obtained from Arakan, 
Chittagong and Upper Burma : the spears are of two or three difiereut 
shapes but all short (about four feet long) with a long iron spike; sanroteer” 
as the Greeks called it. The Khamie and Mro chopper is about one foot long 
in the blade and is carried in a basket-work sheath ; the end is not pointed 
but is about two inches broad. The Shandoo have a very qnrious bill about 
the same length but with a brass handle four or five inches long with a 
guard for the fingers and a tuft of stained hair. This guard is, however, too 
small for a European's hand and even for that of many Khamie : this is carried 
in a curiously-cut wooden scabbard. The shields used by the Shandoo and Kha- 
mie are similar in shape and are made of buffalo-skin ; they are about two feet 
long one cubit wide at the top and fourteen inches at the bottom, and the 
centre is slightly raised ; inside there is a double handle by which to hold 
them. Those of the Shandoo Chiefs are ornamented with rows of small brass 
saucer-shaped plates which are fastened on in rows of eight and occupy the 
upper half ; from the lower row hang pendants of coloured horse or goats 
hair. The second in command of a war-party and a chiePs son carry the 
same shaped shield with one large brass plate, about ten inches in diameter, in 
the centre. The knives or daggers are sharp-pointed and carried by a leather 
belt over the shoulder in a bone sheath usually ornamented with cowries. 

The spear of the Khyeng is very long and heavy and their shield is 
long and rounded like the Eoman scutum^' : it has only one handle and has 
no ornamentation. They also use a large cross-bow like the Kareng and 
some tribes use a small long-bow with short iron-tipped arrows, but these are 
now scarce. 

From the Arakanese histories, which, like all Burmese records, are, as far 
Origin of tribes. ^ accounts of the more early times are concerned, a 

mixture of tradition and romance worked up with a view 
to fabricating for the first kings a fabulous descent from the solar race of 
India and to introducing the imaginary visit of Gaudama to Indo- China, 
very little of value is to be gleaned. The first Booddhist monks seem to have 
pursued much the same course as the Brahmins did in Manipur when, after 
converting a portion of these same tribes, they made out a fabuloas connection 
between them and the heroes of .the Maha Bharata. From the facts, however, 
that the Burmese do admit that all the tribes are related to them and to one 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


75 


Architecture. 


another and that frequent reference is made to immigrations vid the Kooladau 
river and from the stories of ^^bhee-loos’‘^or monsters it would seem that in very 
remote ages a great Mongolian horde consisting of several tribes passed south- 
ward from Thibet and dividing into two streams either in or near the valley of 
Manipur the one proceeded down the Kyeng-dweng and peopled Upper Burma 
whilst the other followed the valley of the Kooladau driving before it an 
aboriginal race similar to the Yak-ko of Ceylon, or the present Andamanese, 
who either were or were believed to be cannibals and whom the new arrivals 
termed Yek-kha.''* As soon as the heads of these columns reached the sea 
a reaction would set in naturally resulting in the improvement of those who 
held the plains and in the isolation of the smaller families in the hills : this by 
the process of natural selection and isolation and their want of a written 
language would soon result in the various tribes talking very different 
dialects. The different dialects, however, are more alike and have more affinity 
with the Burmese than is at first apparent. All have a few words in common 
as ien^^ or iem” a house, and lau'^ or " lam^^ a road ; the Burman is the 
only tribe that pronounces the final as n. 

The houses of all the tribes are built of bamboos with either wooden or 
bamboo posts ; those of the Khamie being decidedly 
the best and largest. The Kbamie house is raised five 
or six feet from the ground and is usually three fathoms broad by five or six 
in length (the fathom is an ordinary rnaii^s stretch from the tips of the fingers 
of the right hand to those of the left), some however are larger. The interior 
of the house is one large hall ; at one end the mat walls are double and at 
both are fireplaces. There is a door leading to a raised platform and at the 
usual entrance there is a sort of vestibule where the water-bottles are kept. 
Inside on the centre post are fixed the skulls of animals killed at feasts and 
also spears, gongs, drums &c. ; outside on the wall at the entrance end are the 
skulls of animals killed in the chase. The floor is of woven bamboos and 
the roof, which is round and brought down at the corners, is thatched with 
grass or bamboo leaves placed over a rough bamboo mat and kept down on 
the outside with another ; at the end of the house between the double walls is 
a place for fowls ; below are the piggeries. Generally each married couple 
have a house to themselves. The Khyoung-tha house — never very large — is 
built in the usual Arakanese fashion, raised five or six feet from the ground 
with a door at one end and a fowl-house on one side : the roof is brought up 
to a ridge. The Mro house is very similar but the side where the fireplace 
is put instead of being of mat is made of unsplit bamboos so that the smoke 
may escape. The Khyeng vary in their style but all build well off the 
ground ; some build their houses so that they are pentagon-shaped with a 

♦ The name Arakan, “ Rakhaing, ” now given to the w)iolo tract south of the Naaf and west of 
“the Roma mountains as far south as the Khwa stream appears to be a corruption of 
“ Bekkhaik^ derived from the Pali word Yek-kha which in its popular signification means a 
“ monster, half-man half-beast which, like the Cretan Minotaur, devoured human flesh. The 
“ country was named Rek-kha-pu-ra by the Booddhist Missionaries from India, either because 
“ they found the tradition existing of a race of monste rs which committed devastation in a 
** remote period or because they found the Mramma people worshippers of spirits and demons. 
** It is possible that these traditions of human -flesh-devouring monsters arose from exaggerated 
“ stories concerning the savage tribes who inhabited the country when first the Mramma race 
“ entered it. The names given to some of these monsters bear a close resemblance to the names 
“ common among the ^yeng and Khamie tribes to this day”. Phayre^s Histoi^ of Arakan. 
“ Journal Bong : As : Soc :*Vol. XII. pp. 24, 25. 




76 


BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


door at the end and three large openings at the side. The Khyaw houses are 
much the same but they do not weave the bamboo floor, simply laying down 
the split bamboos loose so that dust may easily be swept away. 

Villages are, wherever the ground admits, built in a rough circle in the 
centre of which are the slaughter-posts and a shed for travellers, which is also 
used as a forge. The chief men, too, generally have a detached building for 
strangers to sleep in. The hill-people always weave the mats of the walls in 
the place where they are to remain and do not follow the Burmese custom of 
first weaving on the ground and fixing up afterwards. 

The only arts practised are those of weaving cotton cloths and baskets. 

The blankets made by the Khamie are, generally speak- 
actures. white and have thick ribs of cotton run in to make 

.them warm ; some are like large Turkish towels. The Mro usually weave 
blankets with a black and white pattern, shewing only on one side. The 
Khyeng weave them in broad stripes of bright colours like those worn by the 
Toungthoo. There are also long earthenware pots which are said to be made 
by the Khyeng high up the Le-mro ; they are covered with a cane network 
with a wide ring at the bottom to make them stand. 

The population returns for this district are very inaccurate as the hill 
people object to telling the number of children they 
op ation, have. The statistics are collected by the Khyoung-ook^^ 

who corresponds to the Thoogyee” of other parts of the Province. 

The total population in 1875-76 was supposed to be 12,442. 

The proportion of males to females by races is shewn below 


Races. 

Males. 

Eetnales. 

European 

• • 


.. 

.. 

. . 

4 

• . 

Burmese 

.. 


.. 


.. 

28 

19 

Arakanese and Khyoung-tha 





710 

650 

Khaiuie .. 






3,769 

3,403 

Mxo 






1,026 

1,136 

Khyeng 






811 

823 

Anoo 






15 

14 

Shandoo 


.. 




! 2 

, , 

Other 


•• 

•• 



21 

11 





Total 

•• 

6,386 

6,056 


Nearly the whole population are agriculturists. 

The prevailing languages are Arakanese and Khamie. 

The estimated area under cultivation is nine square miles and of this 2,500 
acres ate under cotton and 4,000 under tobacco. There are only 16 acres of 






BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


77 


rice-land under cultivation and these are in the plain near Myouk-toung 
at the foot of the hills ; the rate of assessment per acre 
^ ' is twelve annas : rice is grown in the joom or ya/’ 

but no measurements are made or rate per acre fixed, each family being 
charged one Rupee a year; the number of ya in 1875-76 was 5,196. An 
experimental tobacco farm has been opened by the State at Myouk-toung. A 
capitation tax was formerly charged on all Mro and Khyeng living near 
the borders of the Akyab district and on Khyoungtha generally ; the rates 
were two rupees for married men and one rupee for widowers ; bachelors were 
not charged at all. This tax has since been abolished and tribute has been 
levied at the rate of one rupee per family. The only other sources of revenue 
are timber-duty and fines. A tax of one rupee is levied as in other parts of 
Arakan on all iron wood trees felled. 

The following table shews the amount realized 
Total receipts. during 1876-76 as compared with the receipts for 

1869-70 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 


Amount Amount 

Items of Revenue realized. realized for realized for Increase. Peerease. 

1875-76. 1869-70. 


Ra. Rs. Ra, Rs. 

Land Revenue . . . . 2,720 690 2,030 

Capitation- tax . . . . . , 1,420 , . 1,420 

Excise (Tari Sale License) . . . . 60 . . 60 

Tribute .. .. .. 2,479 1,190 1,289 

Miscellaneous .. .. 1,610 340 1,270 

Total .. 6,809 3,700 4,589 1,480 

Nett Increase . . . . . . 3,109 


Mr. Davis’s estimate for 1868 shewed that Rs. 80,000 worth of produce 
found its way yearly down to Akyab and nearly the whole 
Trade, Kooladan Khamie. 

The exports from the Kooladan in 1875-76 were : — 


Tobacco leaves, 126,428 bundles . 

Ditto roots, 185,000 do. 

Ditto ditto, 18 sera 

Cotton, 1,603 baskets 

Sessamum, 3,291 
Bamboos, 513,442 
Plantains, 103,335 
Miscellaneous 
Cash'’' • ... 

Goods unsold... 


Value. 

Rs. A. P. 
28,462 6 0 
62 8 0 
7 0 0 
8,325 8 0 
3,004 0 0 
3,222 4 0 
1,121 7 0 
6,539 1 6 
... 139,541 2 0 

32,327 6 0 

Total ... 216,612 11 6 


On account of the State. 














78 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The trade on the Le-mro river amounts to about Rs, 12,000 and the princi- 
pal exports are bamboos and sessamum whilst miscellaneous goods form the 
bulk of the imports. 

On the Pee river there is a trade of the value about Es. 8,000, consisting of 
tobacco, cotton, sessamum and miscellaneous goods. 

The whole of the salt used in the district is brought from Ramree in large 
boats, which begin to arrive in November. The price is four to five baskets 
(12 sers) for one rupee. The Shandoo obtain their salt by barter from the 
villagers near the frontier, who make very large profits from the trade, and, 
as the salt has afterwards to be canded on men’s backs for several days^ 
journey, it must be a highly-prized article by the time it reaches the Shandoo 
villages. All the trans-frontier tribes are dependent on our administration 
for their supplies of salt, which might, if necessary, be cut off without any 
trouble or expense. 

Cotton is grown in the toungya and the crop is gathered soon after the 
rains. The export season is from December to March. 
The late rains of 1875 were very destructive to the 
cotton crop which amounted to about 2,000 baskets only, some of this was 
not purchased until after the close of the year. The cotton is sold by the 
basket of 30 sers (so called), but this has been found to contain little more 
than 401bs. The usual price is two rupees a basket, which would make the 
price of a maund of 801bs about Es. 4. 

There are two Judicial Officers in the district both exercising Criminal 
Civil jurisdiction viz. :-^the Superintendent and 
Tnbnnalsan o ce. Assistant Superintendent. The Superintendent 

exercises all the powers of a District Magistrate and on the 27th July 
1870 was invested with special powers under the Criminal Procedure Code. 
He also exercises all the Civil powers of a District Judge as defined in Act XVI. 
of 1875 and elsewhere. The Assistant Superintendent exercises in Criminal 
matters the powers of a subordinate Magistrate of the 2nd class with power 
of committal, and in Civil matters the power of a Court of the 1st grade 
as defined in Section 6 of Act XVI of 1875. The Superintendent of Hill 
Tribes is also ex-officio Superintendent of Police. The men are divided 
among ten guards, eight of which are stockaded. The stockades are built 
with upright posts, six feet apart, and chevaux-de-frise of split bamboos, 
sharpened, between. One hundred of the men are armed with muzzle-loading 
cavalry carbines while the remainder have the old Brown Bess. 

The whole length of the north-eastern frontier, from Dalekmai to 
Prengwa, is regularly patrolled once a week during the raiding months by 
strong parties of men of the frontier guards, who meet and exchange reports. 
Weekly communication by patrol is also kept up by the guards which are 
within the line of frontier. It requires strong and hardy men to stand the 
climate and the work incidental to the Police of these hills and the admissions 
to hospital stand as high as 84 per cent. 

In 1875 the stockade at Dalekmai was removed from its former 
position on the bank of the river to the top of a small hill ; this besides 
increasing the strength of the place has proved beneficial to the health 
of the men. The guard-house at this station has been built sufficiently 
strong to bear two-inch planking being fixed all round below the flooring,' as 
well as for three feet above the floor, which will convert it into a block-house 



BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 79 

that can be held by a handful of men leaving nearly the whole guard available 
to follow up raiders. 

A new guard-house has been built on the same plan at Tsamee and new 
guard-houses have also been put up on the Kan and Pee rivers. 

The composition of the Police force on the 1st January 1876 is shewn 
in the table ! below : — 


Europeans 

... 

... 

... 8 

Khyouugtlia 



... 9 

Khamie 



... 60 

Khyeng 



... 5 

Mro 

... 

**• 

... 12 

Manipuri 

«•* 

... 

... 32 

Rajbansi* 



... 25 

Burmese 

... 


... 4 

Arakanese 

... 


... 22 

Goorkhas and Tipperah men ... 

••• 


... 81 

Madrassis 

... 


... 8 

Bengalis 

••• 


... 4 

Vacancies 


... 

... 6 


Total sanctioned strength 266 


The European element consists of one Assistant Superintendent of 
Police who is stationed on the northern frontier at Dalekmai, and two 
Chief Inspectors of Police^ one of whom is stationed on the Le-mro and 
the other at Tsamee. The Inspectors of Police in this district are styled 
Chief Inspectors and draw a local allowance of Rs, 75 a month in addition 
to their pay of Rs, 175. 

The above table shows that 76 inhabitants of the country are drawing 
Government pay as policemen. That there are not more is due to the large 
number of Goorkhas who find their way up here seeking employment and it 
is not thought advisable to discourage the practice by turning them back. 
That the work has not become distasteful is shewn by the number of hill-men 
who apply for enlistment and have to be told to wait for vacancies. The 
time has not yet arrived when it would be safe to trust to a police force 
composed chiefly of hill -men although mixed up as they now are with men 
from the Indian hills they do their work well. , 

The Police of the Hill Tracts have little of the work common to other 
districts and they really constitute a quasi military force whose duty is to 
repel raids from outside and to keep ordeir amongst the tribes within our 
administrative boundary. 

ASHE-KH YOUNG. — A village in tho Moby a circle, Theckweng town- 
ship, Bassein district, on the Kyoon-la-ngoo stream, in the middle of a large 
extent of rice fields, inhabited principally by Kareng. 

ASHE-MYOUK, — A township in Tavoy occupying the whole of the 
eastern portion of the district from Amhersit on the north to Mergui on the 


♦ The Rajbansi in Lower Bengal are fishermen and cultivators and are said to be a branch 
of the Tiors who are divided into two classes, the Raj-bansi Tiors and the ordinary Tiors. In 
Eastern and North-Eastern Bengal on the other harid the Koch or ancient ruling class as 
they embrace Hinduism are called Rajbansi, literally “ of the royal kindred.'* The Rajbansi 
in the Hill Tracts are from Eastern Bengal. 




80 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


south, and from the high range of hills forming the boundary between 
British territory on the east to the Tavoy river as far south as about the 
latitude of Tavoy town, and below that to the range of hills forming 
the eastern watershed of that river in the lower portion of its 
course. The whole face of the country is mountainous and forest -clad, pro- 
ducing valuable timber of various kinds but containing little cultivation 
and that only in clearings on the hill sides. The principal river is the 
Tenasserim which has its source in the southern boundary of the district 
amongst the spurs of the Myeng-mo-let-khat hill, the summit of which is 
supposed to attain an elevation of 7,000 feet, and flowing N. by W. for a consi- 
derable distance is joined at Myetta by the Khamoung-thwai and turning west 
and south rounds the northern end of a range of hills and runs southward, 
almost parallel to its original course, into the Mergui district. The Tenas- 
serim before receiving the waters of the Khamoung-thwai, a shallow river in 
the dry season but much swollen during the rains, is about 55 yards broad 
at low water. It, like its northern tributary, flows through a narrow 
valley fed by numerous mountain torrents over a rocky bed which forms a 
Recession of rapids rendering it unnavigable by boats. 

^ There are no towns or villages of any importance in the township : 
Myetta at the junction of the Tenasserim and the Khamoung-thwai was once 
a large ^t^wn, traditionally the capital of an independent Siamese principality, 
but is now^ly a small Kareng village at which, soon after the British occu- 
pation, the At!^erican Baptist Missionaries formed a settlement. 

The population of the township, which is divided into twelve Ee venue 
circles, was 18,06i seisin 1876, the land revenue Ks. 28,261, the capitation 
tax Es. 13,210 and the.gross Eevenue Rs. 42,933. The name literally means 

North-east/^ 

ASHE-TOUNG {Soiith-east ) . — A township in Tavoy, divided into ten 
Revenue circles, lying on the left bank of the Tavoy river and extending 
southwards along the seacoast to the Mergui district : a range of hills which 
send their spurs down nearly to the river and the coast separates it from 
the North-Eastern Township. It is drained by numerous streams which have 
generally an E. and W. direction, with broad mouths fringed with mangrove ; 
the most important is the Toung-byouk in the south which, rising in the 
north-western slopes of the Myeng-mo-let-khat hill and flowing through a 
fertile valley towards the N. W. turns west and falls into the mouth of the 
Tavoy river through an outlet about half a mile wide. The principal products 
are rice, sessamum, cardamoms, betel -nuts, fruit, and nipa palms from which 
is extracted tari and sugar the leaves being extensively used for thatch. 

The population in 1876 was 17,943 souls, the land revenue Rs.28,720, 
the amount realized from the capitation tax Rs. 12,593 and the gross Eevenue 
Es. 43,332. 

i^THAY-GYEE . — A revenue circle in the Bassein township of the Bas- 
sein district with an area of about 15 square miles, between the Bassein and 
Paibeng rivers on the east and west and the Let-khoot on the north. Towards 
the Bassein river it is undulating and the soil gravelly. The inhabitants, 
Burmans and Kareng, are employed in rice and garden cultivation. A broad 
belt of forest skirts the rivers and creeks and there is a good deal of low 
land in the south. To the north is the large town of Bassein, a portion of 
which is within the limits of this circle. There are no made roads but dry 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


81 


weather footpaths from village to village. The land Eevenue in 1876 was Es. 
5,119, the capitation tax Rs. 1,520, and the gross revenue Rs. 6,898 ; the 
population numbered 1,542 souls. The Zhe-khyoung circle is under the same 
Thoogyee. 

ATHAY-GYEE, — A quarter of the town of Bassein. The quarter 
received its name, Athay, from being occupied in the Burmese time by a class 
of people who were exempt from regular service under the Government, paying 
a tax in lieu thereof. 

A-THOOT. — A stream in the Tsambay-roon township of the Bassein 
district, which rises in the Kyoonlaha lake or swamp and trending gradually 
towards the south-west meanders through large waste plains sparsely covered 
with forest and falls into the Kyoon-khabo a short distance above Bhoora- 
thoon-tshoo. It is tidal and for about fifteen miles from its mouth, as far as 
Kywon-ta-leng-goon, is, in the rains, open for laden boats of all sizes. In the 
dry season it is divided olff into fisheries, 

A-THOOT — A revenue circle in the Tsambay-roon township — to which 
is nowjoined Kyoung-goon — in the Bassein district about 84 square miles in 
extent. The northern portion consists of undulating ground covered with 
good timber ; the remainder of low waste plains subject to inundation. The 
inhabitants, who in 1876 numbered 4,528, are largely engaged in the lake 
and pond fisheries which are numerous. The land Revenue in 1876 was Rs. 
9,260, the capitation tax Es. 4,350, and the gross Eevenue Es. 18,060. 

A-THOOT. — A village or rather a cluster of villages in the Bassein dis- 
trict on the stream of the same name between seven and eight miles from 
its mouth. The name is Talaing and means “ after-birth^'* (placenta) and is 
said to have been given to the village as being the birth place of one of the 
early kings of Bassein*. 

A-TSAI. — A village in the Thanlyeng township, Rangoon district, in 
16° 35' N. and 96° 32' E. near the source of an insignificant branch of the 
Hmawwon and 31 miles west of Khanoung. The inhabitants, who are 
principally Shan and are engaged mainly in rice cultivation, numbered, in 1877, 
672 souls. The name is Talaing and means a glazed earthenware pot^ of 
which there was once a large manufactory here, 

A-TSEE. — A revenue circle in the Ee Lamaing township, Amherst dis- 
trict, sometimes called A -tsen. It is situated on the sea coast at and south 
of the mouth of the Ee river. The inhabitants are chiefly Talaing, A-tsee 
is the Talaing name for the Eria odoratissima a sweet smelling orchid, a 
favourite with Burmans and Talaing, which is common on the trees in this 
circle. In 1876 the population numbered 1,185 souls, the land revenue was 
Rs. 2,710, and the capitation tax Rs, 1,270. 

A-TSEN. — A revenue circle in the Amherst district, {See Atsee.) 

ATTARAN. — A river in the Amherst district, formed by the junction of 
the Zamie and the Wengraw, which falls into the Salween at Maulmain. 
It is a narrow, deep and somewhat sluggish stream with a N.N.W. course 
and is navigable for a considerable distance. Mr. Crawford, the first British 
Commissioner of the Tenasserim Provinces, ascended in a small steamer 

♦ “ Akhyeng (in Talaing Atlwot) bhay-ma hmyoop-thee-le” literally “ where was your after- 
” birth buried is an idiomatic way of asking a Barman where he was born. 


11 



82 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


very nearly to the junction of the Zamie and the Wengfraw, Two tides or 
one day^s journey from the mouth are some hot springs {vide Amherst district ) . 
In former years a considerable quantity of teak was brought down from the 
forests — now almost exhausted — which clothe the hills on the banks of the 
Zamie and the Wengraw. 

BASSEIN. — A creek in the Rangoon district — See Tha-khwot-peng. 

BASSEIN. — A river, or perhaps more correctly a creek, in the Pegu 
division ; the most westerly of the main channels through which the waters of 
the Irrawaddy reach the sea. Its northern entrance, about nine miles above the 
town of Henzada, is 300 yards wide but is choked by a bank of sand uncovered 
in the dry season through which at this period a little water finds its way to 
form a small rivulet in the bed. Flowing in a south-westerly direction the 
Daga leaves it three miles from the main stream of the Irrawaddy to rejoin it 
again a few miles farther on ; beyond this it is joined by the Panmawaddee, and 
lower down other large tidal creeks connect it by a thousand smaller channels 
with the other mouths of the great river till after a tortuous course of two 
hundred miles it falls into the sea at Hmawdeng or Pagoda Point. In the 
rains it is navigable throughout by river steamers but in the dry season it 
is fordable as far down as Nga-thaing-khyoung beyond which point steamers 
cannot then ascend. From Le-myet-hna, where it is about 100 yards wide, it 
gradually broadens to 900 yar^, a width which it retains for some dis- 
tance in its winding course above Ngapootaw. From this point downwards 
its course is generally S.S.W. and many rocks and islands occur but naviga- 
tion is by no means difficult. The right bank from Ngapootaw down to 
Long Island is low, muddy and covered with jungle; thence to the site of 
Dalhousie it is low and from Dalhousie to Hmawdeng somewhat hilly. The left 
bank is hilly and low alternately to Hnget-pouk ; from thence to the mouth 
of the Pyeng-kha-raing it is low and very muddy ; a fine sandy beach 
stretches to Yeethoung and from here to Poorian point, which marks the 
eastern shore of the mouth, the margin is rocky. From a little above the 
Sesostris rock off Long Island the river contracts but directly Long Island is 
passed it opens out and gradually widens to its mouth, J ust at the mouth 
and close to the right bank is Haing-gyee or Negrais Island celebrated in 
Anglo-Burmese history. “ There are two channels leading into this river one 
“ on each side of Negrais Island and the western channel forms a good harbour. 
“ The eastern channel is not so safe for an extensive reef projects from the 
land about Poorian nearly to Diamond Island — which faces the mouth of the 
river — and a reef also projects from Negrais Island about five miles to the 
south-west which with other detached shoal banks nearly join the extremity 
of the former reef and Diamond Island.^’ Seventy-five miles up is the 
large and important town of Bassein, the head-quarters of the district of the 
same name, which does a large export trade in rice and is one of the prin- 
cipal ports of the province, annually visited by numerous ships of considerable 
tonnage. 

BASSEIN. — A Municipal town in the delta of the Irrawaddy on both 
banks of the Bassein river 75 miles from the sea, in 16° 45' N. and 94° 40' E. 
the head-quarters of the Bassein district, with 22,417 inhabitants in 1876. 
On the left bank of the river on a slight eminence in the Zhe-khyoung quarter 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


83 


stands the Shwe Moo-htaw Pagoda now in the centre of a fort constructed by 
the English within the walls of which are the Court-houses and the Treasury 
and in the neighbourhood a newly laid out public garden. To the east, beyond 
an open space which served as a parade-ground for the troops, is the Myothit 
quarter with two principal streets running through it east and west about a 
mile in length terminating in a plain covered with pagodas, zayats or rest- 
houses, monasteries and massive images in all stages of decay where the inhabi- 
tants assemble for their feasts and religious festivals. North of the Fort and 
the open space round it is the Taiaing-khyoung quarter extending along the 
bank of the river and pierced by a large street running north and south and 
others at right angles thereto, whilst to the southward lies the Athaygyee 
quarter traversed by two good streets running north and south and by cross 
streets at right angles, the richest and most populous of the Municipal divisions. 
Here are the Chief Market, the Custom-house, the Roman Catholic Church and 
institute of St. Peter, and the principal shops. Across the river is the small 
Theng-bhaw-gyeng suburb containing the rice-mills and store-yards of the 
principal merchants. Outside the Fort is the Gaol, completed in 1868-69 at 
a cost of Es, 172,600, consisting of shingled wooden buildings well raised 
from the ground, radiating from the centre and surrounded by a wall. There 
are two markets ; the principal built in the Athay-gyee quarter in 1860-61 and 
the second completed in 1873-74 in the Taking khyoung quarter ; a circuit- 
house, two hospitals, one a wooden building for Europeans and the other of 
masonry for natives, Customs office, and a Master Attendant’s Office. There 
are also an Anglican Catholic Church, a Roman Catholic Church, a Roman 
Catholic School, and a Chapel and two Kareng Normal Schools belonging to 
the American Baptist Missionaries, one for Pwo and one for Sgaw Kareng. 

The town having been utterly depopulated in the time of the Burman 
conqueror Aloung-bhoora no trustworthy records are obtainable. It is by one 
account said to have been founded in 1249 A.D. by Oom-ma-dan-dee a Taking 
Princess, whilst according to another it was in existence many years earlier. 
Situated in a fertile rice country intersected by numerous navigable creeks which 
afford means of communication with Rangoon and with the Irrawaddy and the 
country to the north and accessible by the largest ships from the sea Basseia 
has always been a port of considerable importance and is alluded to as 
Cosmin by Ralph Fitch and other travellers who found Rangoon, or as it 
was then called Dagon, a small village. Endeavours were continually made 
by the English to obtain a permanent footing and factories were formed on 
Negrais and in Bassein itself but they never succeeded and the establishments 
were eventually withdrawn. During the first Burmese war the occupation of 
the town by the British under Major Sale was unopposed the Burman Gover- 
nor having set fire to and deserted it and retreated up the Bassein river to 
Le-rayet-hna. The population gradually returned and the place was not 
abandoned till the conclusion of the war when all troops were withdrawn. 
During the second Burmese war it was taken by assault by detachments of 
the 51st K. O. L. I. and of the M. N. 1. 

In 1855-56 the value of grain exports by sea and land was Es, 435,050, 
and of all other exports including treasure Es. 90,396; the value of the 
imports was Es. 243,000 : the tonnage of the vessels which cleared out in the 
same year was 2,847. In 1864-65, when the English had been for ten years 
in undisputed possession of the whole country from which Bassein could draw 



84 


BIUTISII BURMA GAZETTEER. 


its export supplies^ the values had varied to Rs. 2,672,822, Es. 67,702 and 
Ks. 166,519. la 1876-77 the value of grain exported (104,516 tons) was 
Rs. 5,000,427, of all other exports Rs. 34,268, of imports Rs. 369,519, 
and the tonnage of vessels which cleared out, excluding those in ballast, was 
79,176. 

The main article of export is rice and the principal imports by sea are 
coal, salt and gunny-bags, the last brought down from Calcutta to be filled 
with the rice to be exported ; whilst the piece-goods and other articles of 
foreign manufacture with which the markets and shops are supplied are 
brought principally from Rangoon, 

Within the last few years the town has been connected with Rangoon by 
a telegraph line which it is proposed to extend to the mouth of the river where 
ships call for orders. 

In 1876-77 the town had a gross Municipal revenue of Es. 97,784, 

BASSEIN. — A district in the Pegu division occupying the extreme 
western portion of the delta of the Irrawaddy and a small strip of country 
on the sea coast on the other side of the Arakau mountains north of Hmawdeng. 
To the north lie Henzada on the east and Sandoway on the west of the Arakan 
hills, to the east Thoon-khwa and to the south and west the Bay of 
Bengal. 

From the mouth of the Khwa river in about 17° 34' N. and 94^ 37' E. 
the coast line stretches for 110 miles, measured in a straight line, in a 
generally south -south-west direction to Cape Negrais, thence it inclines south 
by east for nine miles to Hmawdeng or Pagoda Point the southern extremity of 
the Arakan mountains. The first few miles consist of a gently shelving sandy 
beach backed by undulating ground covered with forest, below this rocky 
headlands alternate with stretches of narrow sandy beach the forest here and 
there coming down to the wateris edge : beyond Cape Negrais, where the 
bills enter the sea abruptly forming a bold and rugged escarpment, the coast 
is generally rocky. From Hmawdeng westwards the whole aspect and 
character as well as the direction of the coast Une changes. The rocky shore 
with forest-clad hills behind it gives place to a flat and sandy beach with 
narrow grass-covered plains running along its margin soon passing into man- 
grove swamps intersected in every direction by tidal creeks. 

The eastern boundary is formed almost throughout its entire length by 
creeks. From the Pyengthaloo or eastern mouth of the Pyamalaw it runs 
northward along the course of that stream to the Zalai-htaw Oukpouk thence 
it is marked by the Zalai-htaw, the Thaigoon, the Tawbadaik, the Regoo, the 
"Wawmee, theKhaya-gan, the Eoon-ngoo, the Kawthaleng (as far as Danaw), 
the Bawzat-gale, the Mezalee, the Pouk-padan to its junction with the Taw- 
da-loo below Kyoon-tanee, thence by the Taw-da-loo as far as Nat maw Koola^ 
tshiep from which by a line drawn to the southernmost point of the Ngabyema 
Lake, thence along the western bank of that lake to its northern end and then 
by a line drawn to the leng-khyoung near Myo-goon-rwa at the head of the 
Shakhaigyee lake ; from this point it inclines north-west till it strikes the 
Daga river. From the Daga the boundary runs in a north-westerly direction 
for 26 miles to the Bassein river which it crosses in about 17° 3' N, a few miles 
above Le-myet-hna, only eight or nine miles as the crow flies from the Daga. 
From the Bassein river westwards it follows the crest of the Mo-htee spur for 
28 miles to its root in the Arakan mountains : there it turns south for 10 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


85 


miles following the crest of the main range to near the source of the Khwa 
which it follows to the sea coast, 16 miles off due west but more than 86 miles 
measured along the bed of the river. 

The appearance of the district on the map is that of an irregular paral- 
lelogram extending northwards from the Bay of Bengal divided into two very 
unequal parts by the Arakan mountains, that to the west forming a narrow 
strip of mountainous country that to the east a stretch of alluvial land 
traversed by three large rivers, branches of the Irrawaddy, which flow nearly 
parallel to one another from their parent source to the sea. Of this the 
northern and largest portion as far south as the latitude of Ngapootaw is 
well watered and exceedingly fertile, the southern, with cultivated plains 
scattered here and there and with large tracts of forest, gradually passes into 
low marshy ground cut into innumerable islands by the network of tidal 
creeks which unite the mouths of the Irrawaddy. The area contained within 
the limits given above is about 6,517 square miles of which, in 1876-77, 431 
were cultivated and 4,986 culturable waste leaving 1,100 unculturable. 

The principal rivers are the Pyamalaw — with its two mouths the Pyamalaw 
and the Pyengthaloo — the boundary of the district, the 
Ewe with the small Daye-bhyoo mouth and the Bassein 
with the Thekkay-thoung mouth. With the exception of the Bassein these 
names are those by which the mouths only are known. The Pyamalaw 
leaves the Kyocnpat at Shwe-loung and flows for some distance north-west 
and west before it turns south to the sea. The Rwe is formed by the junction 
a little to the south-east of Myoungmya of several inosculating creeks. 
All these streams appear to be almost entirely dependent upon the Irrawaddy 
and the tide for their water. The Bassein river though itself leaving the 
Irrawaddy some miles above Henzada and connected with that river by 
numerous creeks and smaller streams, of which the Daga is the most impor- 
tant, receives much of its water from the eastern slopes of the Arakan hills 
and is the only mouth used by large sea-going vessels, which ascend to 
Bassein the head-quai'ters of the district and one of the principal ports of the 
Province. The whole country south of the 17th degree, except to the west 
of the Arakan Bomas and in their immediate neighbourhood on the east, con- 
sists of numerous islands formed by vast numbers of anastomosing tidal creeks 
some navigable by large boats and even by steamers, others only by canoes. 

The only hills of any size are the Arakan mountains across which are 
several passes used by travellers but they are all more 
or less difficult and impracticable except during the 
driest portion of the year. The most northern pass which is entirely in this 
district is the Bhawmee, the highest point of which is 270 feet only above the 
sea level, from the junction of the Tsa-loo and Bhawmee streams to the 
village of Thit-nan-koo on the Thien. Further south there are two passes 
by the Kyoung-tha and Tsheng-ma streams ; the crest of the first is 381 and 
of the second 284 feet above the sea. By the Nga-root river a pass leads 
over the mountains to the Pien stream ; the principal obstructions are the 
rocks and boulders the elevation of the hills being insignificant. Lastly 
from Ilwotpa to Letpan in the extreme south, a little north of the latitude of 
CapeNegrais, a rarely used track crosses the hills at an elevation of 270 feet.* 


* Eor tlie passes north of Bhawmee see Sandou-ay District. 



86 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Nothing definite is known of the character and resources of the forests 
Forests. district beyond the fact that they comprise large 

tracts of mangrove forestand of evergreen forest, the dry 
or upper mixed forest being, it would seem, somewhat limited in area. These 
forests are resorted to yearly for considerable quantities of Pyeug-gado {Xylia 
dolahriformis) , Sha {Acacia catechu), Toungpien {Artocaj'pus sp.), Thit-kha 
{Quercus semiserrata) and other woods for use at Bassein and at the large 
villages in the delta and along the Bassein river. Teak is not met with in 
any great abundance on any part of the hills. 

Along the coast, especially between Cape Negrais and Hmawdeng 
^ j occur beds of blown sand, somewhat more earthy than 

60 ogy. sandy, which Irom their reddish colour when viewed 

frona a distance are named Kannee or red bank.'’ A deposit of a somewhat 
similar origin only coarser and distinctly accumulated under water is met 
with along the course of some of the less sheltered tidal creeks ; it is a 
calcareous sand composed of comminuted shells and corals of living species 
consolidated into a more or less calcareous sandstone or ragstone and display- 
ing the same local variations as are seen in the deposits now forming along 
the Indian shores. When this littoral concrete does not form on the banks of 
the tidal streams its place is taken by the foetid mud or sand and mud of 
the mangrove swamps. East of Ngapootaw on the Bassein river a considerable 
area is covered with sandy deposits, as is also a tract of country stretching 
northward frona Bassein which Mr. Blanford of the Geological Survey of 
India thus describes : — ^^In the northern portion of the district and as far south 
'' as the neighbourhood of Bassein a considerable tract of low hills skirting the 
higher range is composed of gravel and sand of considerable thickness. This 
“formation includes a bed of laterite covered to some depth by a sandy deposit 
and cropping out at the small escarpment which in most places rises from 
the flat alluvium of the delta. A similar laterite and gravelly deposit 
“ covers a considerable area east of the Bassein river in the neighbourhood of 
“ the tow^ of Bassein.” In the northern part of this district these sandy 
beds attain a greater importance than elsewhere and it is not unlikely that 
these vast accumulations are mainly derived from the denudation of the 
incoherent beds of the fossil wood group, which at present occupies a very 
restated area in Pegu in comparison with its former limits. A remarkable 
patch of beds, somewhat recalling in appearance the Porebunder beds of 
Kattiawar, occurs on the western coast of the district. These beds embrace 
Kaw-ran-gyee Island in Lat. 13° 30' 50" N. together with a small portion of 
the mainland. The most characteristic bed is a calcareous sandstone or soft 
^ther earthy limestone of a very pale brown or cream colour, containing- 
four species of as many genera of echinoderms the most common being a 
Bfecies oflohopkora very close to that now inhabiting the adjoining coast and a 
species of Echinolampas (near £J. Affinis) and one pelecypod, a rather small 
species of Amussium Kaw-xan-gyee Island consists of beds of thin calcareous 

^ y.' Denudatiou has, save at this 

1 • trace of this deposit. On the mainland the rocks are 

W ^ channel running into the Nga-root creek. 

Irthv hhd extremity of Kaw-ran-gyee Island some beds of 

nm J Sf ^ sandstone come in vertically along the shore. At the mouth 
of the N^a-root creek small sharks teeth are not rare and from the same 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


87 


earthy beds two conical fish teeth, some fragmentary crustacean claws and the 
ossicles (palatal or dermal) of some species of Ray were found by Mr. Theobald 
of the Geological Survey of India. On Kaw-ran-gyee Island he also 
procured a small reptilian tooth with cultrate edges, smooth and mottled 
yellow longitudinally. On this island and on the adjoining mainland a soft 
calcareous sandstone or earthy limestone occurs, easy to work and unusually 
well situated for shipment into lighters or small coasting craft. The island 
is composed of these beds and under its leeside a channel exists having a 
depth of two or three fathoms at low water with a good bottom of sand or 
mud. The channel shoals gradually towards the mainland and is protected 
by the island on the west or seaward and by a bar almost dry at low water to 
the north but enjoying a safe and easy entrance from the south save during 
the prevalence of the southwest monsoon. 

The Nummulitic or Eocene group of rocks is well developed, extending 
throughout this district as far as Pooriam point, a rocky spit running into 
the sea on the eastern side of the mouth of the Bassein river, but its precise 
extent towards the west is uncertain from its joining, if not blending 
with, the altered rocks of the southern portion of the Arakan hills which 
are almost devoid of mganic remains or present so few as to be useless 
for any purpose of subdivision of the group or even for estimating its geo- 
logical age. The difficulty of separating the groups is increased by the 
similar capricious sort of submetamorphism which prevails in both. For 
these altered rocks of the southern region a provisional classification and 
name has been accepted by Mr. Theobald who has named them the Negrais 
beds, from their being very characteristically displayed about Cape Negrais, 
a term which includes all the rocks met with in the country stretching 
northward from Cape Negrais along the Arakan range and western coast 
older than the Nummulitic and younger than the Triassie. The difference 
in mineral character in the Negrais rocks is very great. In some places 
flaggy and massive sandstones occur quite unaltered and dipping at moderate 
angles whilst in places sections are exposed of highly altered shales and sand- 
stones and in some spots the sandstone is seen converted into a cherty rock 
seamed with silica and evidently subjected to an alteration of an intense 
kind. The following sketch of the beds seen in crossing the Arakan range 
from east to west between Gnyoung-beng-tha and Ee-poot will illustrate the 
character of the present group. When well within the hills, proceeding in a 
westerly direction ; the first rocks passed over in descending order are blue 
slaty shales of great thickness with a dip to the east. These shales are soft 
and silky and contain numerous beds of blue limestone varying from a few 
inches to a few feet in thickness. The limestone is fine-grained and sub- 
crystalline, breaking with a conchoidal fracture, blue on its freshly broken 
surface but weathering to a pale yellow or nankeen colour. It is rather 
** silicious and hardened and although a very probable looking rock for fossils 
a close search failed to discover any traces whatever of organic remains 
in it. After passing these shales, but still on the east side of the range, 
“ a group of coarse thick bedded silicious sandstones is met with, with harsh 
‘‘ silicious or jaspery shales and thin-bedded silicious sandstones intermixed. 
The whole of these beds^are internally hardened and silicified. One very 
thick bed has a hardened appearance from containing irregularly shaped 
earthy portions which decay and leave great angular hollows three or four 



88 


BBITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


} 


t 


{ 

j 

f 


inches across. Some dark blue thin-bedded slaty shale also occurs associated 
subordinately with the silicious beds as though here foreshadowing the 
approaching deposition of similar shales in much greater force which are seen 
as above mentioned to overlie these silicious beds. After leaving these silicious 
beds no very clear section is seen. The dip appears however to remain easterly 
till the axis of the main range is crossed. 

The axis of the range here consists of a great thickness of beds of a very 
homogeneous clay, of a reddish or pinky yellow colour, and obscurely bedded. 
‘‘ It is much broken up and comminuted as though through severe pressure, but 
** little altered, and neither to the eastward nor westward are its relations with 
the other rocks well seen. After crossing the axis of the range the succession 
of beds was not well seen ; and though I did not remark the silicious beds to 
be so prominent as on the east of the range I am inclined to believe that the 
^^same beds as are met with in the east are again crossed on the west, in a 
reverse order, that is to say that the range forms a great anticlinal, the pre- 
“ vailing dips on its Eastern side being Easterly, and on its Western side Wes- 
^Herly. On the west, however, there is (locally at all events) greater irregu- 
larity in dip and strike than on the east ; and I have there noticed beds with 
an east and west strike, or nearly at right angles to the prevailing one of 
the range. Much allowance must be made for imperfect observation, as all 
one sees of the rock is such glimpses as can be obtained along the narrow 
path threading these forest-clad ranges. When well past the main range 
the road descends and runs over a thick succession of the but little altered 
sandstones of the Kyouk-gyee (hig stone^ stream. Part of this rocky stream 
is quite impassable for elephants, and the nature of the country may be 
" imagined from it requiring four hard days marches to accomplish the distance 
fromNyoung-ben-tha {Gnyoung-heng-tha) to Yaypot {Re-poot), though these 
“ villages are in a direct line only fifteen miles apart. 

^‘A little south of Phon-sa-khyoung(2?poon-tsa-fefe2/cutn^)5 near Matha on 
the coast, a good section of beds of this group is seen * but their proper place 
in the series can hardly be determined, owing to the want of any sort of 
geological horizon in the group, either lithological or otherwise. I am 
inclined, however, to place them high in the series, above the vast series of 
sandstones seen above Yaypot {Re-poot)^ in the bed of the Kyouk-gyee 
stream. 

Section near Matha (ascending). The beds veer round from 15 ^ to 
south -by-west, to 45 ° to west-by -south. 

1 . Bark arenaceous shales, with faint carbonaceous mark- 

ings and stringy beds of sandstone much contorted 
and squeezed about , , . . . . . , 300 

2. Harsh thin-bedded sandstones in one and two-inch beds, 

with shaly partings and a few beds five and seven inches 
thick .. .. .. .. .. .. 85 

3 . Beds similar to the above, but one and two feet beds 

predominating , . . . . . . . . , 23 

4 . Yery thin-bedded sandstones not averaging half an inch, 

^th a few one and two-inch beds interspersed , . 69 

6. Thicker bedded sandstones in from nine to twenty-inch 

beds . . , . . . . . , , , , 5^ 

6. Similar to the last, but thinner bedded , , , . 49 

7 . Thm-bedded shaly sandstones , , • , , . , 99 

8. Thicker bedded sandstones in from nine to twelve-inch 

beds . . , , , , . ^ ^ ^ ^ 40 

9 . Thin shaly beds . . , . , , , , * * 80 


753 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


89 


The section here becomes confused, but thick beds of sandstone come in, 
which seem identical with the sandstones commonly seen along* the coast, and 
which I will now describe. Along most parts of the coast, from Negrais 
upwards, a group of sandstones occurs, thin-bedded and massive, but present- 
ing no very prominent mineral character, or alfording any fossil. The sand- 
stones are very little altered, generally not at all, and usually dip at moderate 
angles and with much less show of disturbance than other and older beds 

along the coast 

The massive beds at the base of this group are everywhere most con- 
^^spicuous and of a peculiar greenish hue very characteristic of this rock, 
which hue, however, in some places towards the north is changed into a 
bluish tinge. The rock is a very fine-grained argillaceous sandstone, rather 
compact, but where exposed to the action of tlie sea, its surface usually pre- 
sents a honeycombed or cancellated appearance, the result of a peculiar mode 
'^of weathering, the modus operandi and proximate cause of which is somewhat 
obscure. Subordinate to the thick-bedded greenish or cancellated sandstone, 
as it may conveniently be termed, occurs an irregular, and in places almost 
stringy bed of conglomerate, a prominent feature connected with which is its 
great irregularity and capricious mode of occurrence. It nowhere forms a 
marked bed, save perhaps near Ywot-pa {Rivot-pa) ^ but dies out and re-ap- 
pears along a certain horizon as an integral constituent of the cancellated sand- 
stone, in places forming a stringy course in it, reduced in places to little more 
than a sprinkling of small pebbles in a sandstone matrix, whilst in other 
places it would seem to expand into a thick mass of conglomerate, though 
^^such instances are very local and circumscribed in extent. 

This is the conglomerate, I think, which is so largely developed in the 
hill behind Phouug-do {Ilpoiing-do) ; if so, it nowhere else attains the same 
importance. To this bed may also be referred the masses of conglomerate 
seen on the shore opposite Ywot-pa (Bii'ot-pa)^ where they stand quite 
^‘isolated between tidemarks, and are so compact as to have resisted the full 
force of the waves on an exposed coast, 

‘‘ This conglomerate is in places almost a pseudo-breccia, the fragments 
composing it being but imperfectly rounded. The included fragments are all 
small, rarely half an inch across, and usually much smaller, and mainly consist 
of a comminuted dark blue or eream-colored shale highly indurated, the latter 
variety only effervescing very feebly with acid. Quartz fragments are here 
very subordinate and small. This conglomerate is very soon lost sight of, 
going north, and may be said to cease almost at once as an independent bed, 
" though re-appearing here and there at intervals. It may be recognised, for 
instance, a little north of the Yaytho {Re-iho) stream on the coast between 
Broken Point and Kyoungthah (Kkyoung-tka) . The rocks along the shpre 
here are thick-bedded massive sandstones, mingled with wliich a thin string 
of conglomerate occurs, rather irregularly, composed mainly of small white 
quartz pebbles with a little shaly detritus as elsewhere. Some few miles 
south of Matha, strings of fine conglomerate are noticed in the sandstone, 
and still further north, between Kyouk-kyon (Khgouk-kywon) and Gwah 
{Khwa)y considerable bands of a coarse conglomerate, made up of shaly and 
^‘cherty fragments, are dispersed through the sandstone, all w'hich represent, 
probably within narrow limits, what may be called a common horizon. 

12 



90 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


" These thick-bedded sandstones are often tilted up at hig^h angles but are 
more usually seen either horizontal or dipping at low angles. In addi- 
tion to the cancellated form of weathering, the rock is sometimes seen 
‘^with a tendency to divide into polygonal fragments, the fissures separating 
which seem to originate spontaneously, the nucleus of each fragment retaining 
the original green or bluish hue of the undecayed rock, while the fissures are 
represented by yellow bands, as though the result of chemical rather than 
mechanical causes. 

‘‘ Nowhere is the variable character of the beds of this group better dis- 
played than along the coast immediately north of Cape Negrais. Below the 
point where the Ywot-pa {Ricot-pa,) stream falls into the sea, beds are expos- 
ed very similar in general character to those already given in the section near 
Math a, higher up the coast. These beds contain crushed carbonaceous trunks 
and branches, and dip at angles varying from 10° to 40° east-by-north. 
South of these beds, thin shaly sandstone, quite unaltered, come in, dipping 
15° west-by-north. Nearer Negrais, a thick series of dark shales, with 
subordinate beds of cherty limestone, comes in, displaying signs of having 
been subjected to great mechanical strain as well as to chemical alteration. 
This latter is displayed in the numerous veins of fibrous calciteand fibrous 
quartz which traverse the rock, the former attaining a thickness of a 
couple of inches, the latter rarely attaining half an inch. Some of the 
where the veins are most numerous is of a deep black color and very 
'^Ihard and glossy, and I can convey no better idea of the lumps of this rock 
scattered along the shore than by comparing them to lumps of black putty, 
which they precisely resemble. A little nodular soapstone is also found 
scattered here and there, and the occurence of this mineral, together with 
its invariable associate, the fibrous vein -quartz, points to this being a focus 
for that peculiar metamorphism which has so generally affected this group. 
These shales constitute the low ridge, which here forms the axis of the range^ 
where crossed by the pass leading to Ywot-pa {Rwot-pa), but on which, from 
its forest-clad nature, little is seen of the rocks passed over. It is here 
*Hhat the “mud volcano^' of the charts of this coast is situated, a complete 
“ misnomer, as it has no connection with volcanic action properly so called, 
and neither lava, ashes, nor other volcanic rocks are seen about it. 

“ This “ mud volcano” is situated on the hill side, where it rapidly slopes 
“ down to the shore, and within a stone’s throw of the sea. A narrow footpath 
exists along the coast here, on the east of which at one spot a small mound of 
loose pulverulent shale rises a few feet in height, and about thirty feet at most 
diameter, over which any one might walk without having his attention 
‘"arrested by any peculiarity. This mound is the mud volcano.’^ A very 
“^rimilar instance is seen near the shore near Ngan-khyoung, and my remarks 
one will be equally applicable to both. This mound consists of a 
“greenish shale, very much comminuted and mixed with fragments of veins of 
^ caleite, from the thickness of cardboard to one or two inches. These fragments 
^ have evidently resulted from the spontaneous dehiscence of the compact shale 
ey ori^nally traversed ; and this is seen in the constitution of the thicker 
veins, ^ are fomed by the union and anastomosis of numerous smaller 
veins, w erein portions of the shaly matrix are seen enveloped and preserved. 
A very little hydrated peroxide of iron in small lumps is seen lying about, 





BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


91 


but nothing else to indicate any peculiarity, still less volcanic action. The 
‘‘form of the low mound suggests a certain amount of intumescence -or 
“ upheaving of the clay having taken place, but in the case of the Ngan- 
“ khyoung “ volcano’'^ this is less seen, and I am inclined to pronounce the 
“ ‘ mud volcano ’ in either case as the vent for a very feeble discharge of 
marsh-gas. In "’the rains, when the surface was plastic, a feeble ebullition of 
“ gas would be quite adequate to produce the low mound in question, which 
“ on drying would present the incoherent heap of shale fragments described ; 
“ the combustion of the marsh-gas at some period or other from burning 
“ grass, probably attracting notice during the night to the locality. . . . 

“ Most of the outcrops of limestone through the southern portion of the 
“ Arakan Range, both those along the coast and those met with occasionally in 
“ the hills, present the appearance of subordinate beds among the shales and 
“ sandstones of this group ; but there are some cases where limestone occurs in 
“ such extensive masses as to favor the idea of their being continuations of the 
“ thick bed of Nummulitic limestone which occurs on the east side of the 
range, and such may be their character, though not yet established on fossil 
“ evidence. First of these in importance is the limestone a couple of miles or so 
“ east-north-east from Baumi (Bhaw-mee) , on the Arakan coast, about Lat. 17^ 
“ 18', forming a low ridge striking north-north-east from the margin of the 
“ mangrove swamp, where it terminates towards the river, and soon disappear- 
‘‘ ing in the forest-clad ground in the interior. It is only approachable by a small 
boat up a tidal creek traversing the mangrove swamp, after three-quarter flood. 
‘‘ The rock is massive and suberystalline, with an apparent dip of 20° to 50° to 
“ east-south-east, as far as the cyclopean masses in which the rock lies enables 
“ us to judge. It is of a blue or gray color, and generally devoid of fossils ; in 
“ some of the blocks corals are seen, but none have hitherto been obtained, 
“ capable of being determined. Its thickness is probably not much under one 
“ hundred feet. Above the limestone (as well as the ground enabled 
“ me to judge) occurs an intensely hard ferruginous conglomerate, charac- 
“ terised by numerous quartz pebbles. Below the limestone comes in a very 
“ hard silicious sandstone like a quartzite, of a gray color on its freshly- 
“ fractured surface, but weathering red, and then displaying the original 
“ thin layers of sand, which in the aggregate form the thick-bedded rock before 
“ us. Near Sat-wa, {Tsat-wa) a little boss of limestone which may belong to this 
" bed is exposed in'the jungles, and is used for lime by the villagers in the neigh- 
‘‘ bourhood. This rock is a white and somewhat argillaceous rock, not well 
“ seen, but with an apparent dip to the east. Strewed about the vicinity are a 
“few pieces of conglomerate, like that associated with the Baumi {Bhaiv-mee) 
“ limestone ; and a little to the south, in a line indicating a lower position 
^ strategraphically, stands a huge fang of harsh sandstone very similar to the 
“ Baumi {BhaW’-mee) rock. The distance of this spot from Baumi (Bhaiv-mee) 
“ is about thirty miles, and though I know of no other outcrop in the interval, 
“ I am inclined to regard both outcrops as belonging to one bed. Great as 
“ the thickness of the limestone is at Bhaiv-mee) it is much isolated, most 

“ probably by denudation ; and I failed after a careful search to detect any 
“ traces of it on the opposite side of the Baumi (Bhaw-mcc) river, nor were ray 
“ enquiries among the Burmese more successful. Another enormous isolated 
“ mass of limestone of very similar character occurs on the On-ben {Oon-hcng) 



92 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


stream, a tributary of the Gwah {Khiva) river. It is situated in dense tree 

forest away from any village There is small question that the 

Baumi {Bkaio-mee) and On-ben (Oon-beng) limestones are the same bed/^* 

Soapstone which is used by the Burmese for writing on parabaik or 
blackened fibre-paper is largely imported from Upper Burma, but occurs at 
a variety of spots in the Arakan range, chiefly, though not ^exclusively, on its 
eastern side. Among the altered rock towards Cape Negrais it is found in 
the form of veins, among altered shale along the shore, and a few miles east 
of Kweng-boo, thirty miles north of Cape Negrais among sandstones, which 
are indurated and disturbed; but at neither of these spots are any intruded rocks 
visible. At Kweng-boo, the steatite occurs in veins traversing sandstone 
lenticularly intermixed with the peculiar fibrous quartz, but not averaging 
an inch in thickness. In these veins the steatite is a little in excess of the 
fibrous quartz, but the two minerals are very intimately united, the lenticular 
masses of the former being often enveloped with a layer of the latter, and 
portions are sometimes seen presenting almost the appearance of a conglomerate 
of steatite kernels, some no larger than hemp-seeds, enveloped in a paste of 
fibrous quartz. These steatite kernels have, however, nothing to do with a 
mechanical origin, but are bounded by lustrous burnished surfaces, much resem- 
bling the silken sides produced in shales by pressure, but in this case of quite 
another character, and the result of the peculiar chemical composition and mode 
of origin of the mineral — the smaller and purer portions of which being those 
with most lustrous surface. 

Most of the lime used in the district is procured near Thamandewa and 
Kyouk-thaing-haw on the Eassein river a few miles below Ngapootaw on 

which Mr. Blanford, of the Geological Survey of India, remarked ; 

This is by far the most important locality in the province, and perhaps 
“ in the whole of Pegu, At Kyouk-theingbaw (Kyouk-thaing-haw) several 
very large masses of limestone crop out from the alluvium on the river 
bank. The quantity here, though considerable, would, however, soon be 
exhausted if there were a large demand for lime. South of the village 
Thamandewa, a tidal creek stretches for some miles into the country, and 
# ‘^on the south of this creek the outcrop of abed at least thirty or forty 
^^feet thick stretches across the country in a direction nearly south 20^ 
west, for a distance of about a mile, re-appearing at intervals for about 
a mile further, the most southerly point where it is seen being near the 
bank of the river bed not far from the village of Toung-gale. The quan- 
‘Hity is inexhaustible, the quality good, and the access easy, Thamandewa 
« creek ^mg navigable for Burmese boats of the largest size, and probably 
at high tide for sea-going vessels. 

Of the early history of the district but little is known. The Bassein 
Bifltoiy. river has been claimed as the Besynga of the Geo- 



- . grapner rtolemy but its right to this distinctioi 

has never been universally admitted, though the weight of evidence is ii 

hydrography of India beyond th« 
Ganges observes that learned and cautious officer Colonel Yule “ th( 


t Sd UeoWd hidia. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


93 


Geographer (Ptolemy) says distinctly, ' From the range of Mcendrus flow’ 
‘ down all the rivers beyond Ganges, until you come to the river Besynga,* 
This remark seems infallibly to identify Mons Moeandrus with Yoma-doung, 
the great spinal range of Arakau, and the river Besynga with the Basseia 
branch of the Irawadi/^* In the old Talaiug histories the 32 cities of 
Bassein’"’ are rffbntioned under the date 625 A,D. as forming a portion of 
the kingdom of Pegu. Circa 1250 A.D. a princess named Oommadandee 
ascended the throne but a few years later Bassein was conquered by the 
Barmans. In 1272 the Chinese invaded Burma and the reigning king 
Narathee-ha-pade, subsequently nicknamed Taroop-pye-meng or the king 
who ran away from the Tartars’*', escaped southward to Bassein. Yery few 
years later on, in 1289 A.D., Bassein, accoi'ding to Talaing histories, again 
passed over to Pegu; this occurred probably when the Talaing kingdom increas- 
ed in power owing to the gradual sinking of the Burman authority in the 
north. About 1383 A.D., when Eazadhierit, the greatest monarch of the Ta- 
laing, ascended the throne, one Louk-bya, Governor of Myoungmya, proposed 
to the Barmans to assist them in conquering Pegu and the acceptance of 
his offer led to long and almost incessant wars between the two kingdoms. 

In 1686 the Governor of Madras determined on establishing a settlement 
on Negrais, which was then considered as a portion of the Arakan dominions, 
and despatched a sloop to make a survey of the island but she lost her pas- 
sage and was obliged to return. The following year Captain Weldon, on his 
return from Mergiii, landed on Negrais and hoisting the British flag took 
possession of the island in the name of the East India Company. No further 
steps were taken till 1753 when Mr. Hunter was sent in charge of an expedi- 
tion which landed on the island and formed the first British settlement. The 
settlement did not thrive and Mr. Hunter soon died and was succeeded by 
Mr. Burke. At this time the war between the kingdoms of Pegu and Burma, 
which ended in the complete subjugation of the former, was raging in all its 
fierceness. Both Peguans and Barmans sought the assistance of the British 
which was refused by Mr. Burke. In 1755 the English had a settlement at 
Bassein itself and Captain Baker who was then in charge of the factory wrote 
that the Talaing having quitted Bassein the Barmans had attacked and des- 
troyed the place respecting however the East India Company’s factory and pro- 
perty. In his report to the Madras Government Mr, Burke strongly urged the 
advisability of our siding with the Barmans whose cause was flourishing and 
whose enemies the Talaing had succeeded in obtaining the assistance of our 
rivals the French who then had a settlement at Syriam below Ban goon. The 
King of Burma sent ambassadors to Negrais who were escorted from Bassein 
by Captain Baker. A mission was sent to the Burman King with the object 
of obtaining, amongst other advantages, a formal grant of Negrais and a grant 
of the land at Bassein occupied by the Company’s factory as the whole 
country had now, in the opinion of the English officers, passed to the Barman 
monarchy. Unfortunately the British ships near Rangoon had been forced to 
assist the Talaing and the Burman King could not forgive this treachery as he 
considered it. The English authorities insisted on absolute neutrality and 


* Yule’s Mhiiion to Avn, pa^e 205. Colonel Yule does not adopt this view as ahtoluiely 
correct, but his opinion appears to lean verj' strongly to it. 



94 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


their local agents were in consequence suspected by both sovereigns* In 
1757 Ensign Lister obtained wliat was considered as a cession in perpetuity of 
Negrais and of ground at Bassein, In 1759 the establishment was withdrawn 
from Negrais and a few persons only left to take charge of the Company’s 
property there as well as to hold possession of the island and for the superin- 
tendance of these Captain Southey was sent from Madras. Me landed on the 
5th October 1759 and on the 7thj when all the Europeans were collected to 
meet the Burmese authorities, they were treacherously attacked and, with the 
exception of a midshipman who escaped to his ship the Victoria, Captain Alves, 
murdered. After the Europeans, 10 in number, had been despatched a 
general massacre took place. In 1760 a mission was sent to obtain redress 
but without eflPect, the Burman King absolutely forbidding onr return to 
Negrais but granting a site for the factory at Bassein of which the English 
Government did not avail itself. From this time until the first Burmese 
war the English Government took no further steps for forming a settlement 
in this district. During that war a detachment under Major Sale attacked 
and occupied Bassein which was retained until the evacuation of Pegu, in 
accordance with the terms of the treaty of Yandaboo. During the second 
Burmese war the town was again captured, after a feeble resistance, by a 
force under Commodore Lambert and since then has remained in possession 
of the British. On the annexation of Pegu the district, which in the Bur- 
mese times had been divided into 14 districts, eleven under Paineng or 
steersmen of royal war-boats and three under Myothoogyee who were heredi- 
tary ofiice holders, was placed under a Deputy Commissioner. At this time 
the whole of the district was a prey to anarchy : the British troops were kept 
within the limits of the seaport towns and frontier stations and in the interior 
numerous bandit chiefs set up a pseudo-independent authority, in more than 
one case claiming to he officers of the Burman Court deputed to regain the 
country, and there can be no doubt that had they been successful they would 
have been rewarded by the King provided that they handed over their 
conquests and settled down into peaceable offices about the Court. A kind of 
civil war was now carried on ; on the one side were those who were averse to 
us or who looked to plunder for profit, on the other were those who had in 
any way sided with the English. So far was animosity carried that villages 
on the banks of the Irrawaddy were destroyed because fuel had been supplied 
to the steamers. To clear the country of these gangs, to afford protection to 
the people and restore their confidence in us was now the great object of all 
civil officers and in this district as well as in Henzada and Tharrawaddy 
this was the more necessary as no one dared to accept even small appoiut- 
ipente the country was without local officials owning obedience to 
the Bntish. In January 1853 Captain Fytche, the Deputy Commissioner, 
succeeded in dispersing a force which kept the whole country in the south 
and south-east m a state of terror, attacking it first on Negrais Island, 
whither It had gone to plunder the village of Haingyee, and following it 
up northwards into the Shweloung township, eventually destroying the three 
large villages m which it had made its head-quarters. 

No sooner was this effected than Captain Fytche with a party of sea- 
men tvom the Zenoha and Nemesis, one or two guns, and his Kareug levies 
proceeded northward up the Daga river and encountering a party under three 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


95 


Burman leaders routed them with considerable loss and drove the remainder 
northward to join another chief, Mengyee Mouiig Gnyoon the former Gover- 
nor of Bassein, whom he attacked a few days later and utterly defeated captur- 
ing* his two sons. Two days after the engagement the Mengyee^s dead body 
was found in the jungles. In the words of the official report : — ‘‘ The Bassein 
district was cleared of the remnant of Burmese troops and of numerous 
marauders by the gallant exertions of Major A. Fytche. He received a 
brevet-majority as a rew^ard for his services.” The nucleus and heart of 
this force was a party of seamen of the steam frigate Zenohia under Com- 
mander Rennie of the Indian Navy. By the beginning of March 185B the 
lower tracts were freed from the large marauding parties which hitherto 
had occupied them and nothing but straggling bands of robbers remained. 
The northern part of the district was still disturbed by a man named 
Nga Myat Htoon who held out in the south of Henzada (g.r.) and was 
finally defeated and his party broken up by Sir John Cheape operating 
from the north and Major Fytche and Captain Rennie from the south. 
In January 1854 fresh disturbances broke out. Two men named Shwe Too 
and *Kyaw Zan Hla came down from Ava and issued a proclamation to the 
effect that they had been commissioned by the heir apparent to drive out 
the English and had been appointed the one Governor of Bassein and the 
other Commander-in-chief. They were aided and abetted by a Booddhist 
priest, a resident of the district, in whose monastery the plan of the out- 
break was settled. They gradually assembled a number of desperate characters 
from the borders of this district and from Henzada and suddenly seized the three 
large adjoining towns of Douugg3"ee,Ngathaing-khyoung and Eegyee and this 
success induced numbers to join them, amongst others NgaTha Oo formerly 
Royal Steersman of Eegyee who had fled to Ava on our taking possession 
of the country but had returned some six months previously and was on 
parole. The upper part of the district, unprotected by any British troops, fell 
at once into the hands of the rebels who exercised no oppression of any kind 
except against those who had accepted office under the English. On the 
receipt of the information Major Fytche moved up the river with a small 
military force of Europeans and Madras Native Infantry and 400 of the inha- 
bitants of the country and found the enemy advancing on Bassein on either 
bank of the river ; some three hundred on the right bank and eleven hundred 
in two parties on the left : on the approach of the British force the Barmans 
on the right hank retreated to Ngathaing-khyoung but those on the left 
were attacked and driven into Pandaw which was evacuated on the arrival of 
the British in pursuit. During the night Shwe Too moved out from Ngathaing- 
khyoung and surrounded Pandaw but was kept off by the Burmese pickets 
till daybreak when the main body moved out against him. He had taken up a 
position at the head of the village and his force was drawn up in a plain with 
the flanks resting in groves of mango trees and low bushes filled with 
skirmishers. After a sharp struggle the Burmese broke and fled and the 
British force moved on to Ngathaing-khyoung where it joined Major 
Baker’s detachment and a force of Burmese who had been sent to attack an- 
other leader, a duty which it performed with success bringing him in captive. 
In the meanwhile a party under the Goung-gyoop of Le-myet-hna had attacked 
the rebels at Dounggyee but had been defeated with great loss and was pursued 



96 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEKR. 


by the rebel chief. Major Fytelie followed, conveying his men in carts, and came 
up with the Barmans the following day surprising them whilst eating and 
totally defeating them. The Chief escaped but was captured crossing the 
Bassein river. On the first news of the outbreak information had been des- 
patched to Rangoon and assistance asked for ; a detachment w^as sent under 
Lieutenant Shuldham 26th M.N.I. which encountered and^defeated a rebel 
party at Myoungmya the Chief being killed during the pursuit. The outbreak 
was thus speedily crushed by rapid and decisive action and Nga Kyaw Zau 
Hla, the priest, and most of the inferior leaders killed or captured. 

The difficulties encountered were not confined to inspiriting a down trodden 
people and getting them to resist their old oppressors, to out-manoeuvring 
leaders who knew every footpath and creek, and to obtaining information of 
their strength and movements from a timid population who were in greater 
fear of the marauders than of the constituted authority, but the very nature of 
the country greatly impeded any combined and successful movements, any 
surprises and sudden attacks. Only one who has traversed the delta of the 
Irrawaddy can adequately appreciate the difficulty of accomplishing this work. 
The country is a net-work of creeks which though they afford a ready means 
of access to any given point yet present serious impediments as soon as a 
force lands and commences to march. 

From this time forward no serious endeavour was made to drive out the 
English and though there have been several disturbances they were speedily 
suppressed. In January 1857 there was an outbreak amongst the Kareng 
but judicious measures were immediately taken by the Deputy Commissioner 
apd within a week they were twice routed and utterly dispersed by the 
Bassein Talaing Corps raised some time previously by that officer. No time 
bad been given for the disease to spread and the district immediately resumed 
its usual quiet. This outbreak was an offshoot from the Kareng rebellion 
then going on in the hills of the Shwe-gyeng district one of the leaders of 
which was connected with Bassein and his emissaries worked upon the 
feelings of the Kareng who had settled here and who were induced to rise 
in order to afford aid to one who, they were led to believe, was destined to be 
ruler of Pegu. 

Population. , inhabitants of the Bassein district as it then 

existed, according to the census of 1872, were : — 

Burmese 
Kareng 
Talaing 
Shan 

Arakanese . . 

Khyeng 

Hindoos, including those of mixed parentage . . , , 

Mahomedans , , 

Chinese 

C^er races, Europeans, Indo-Europeans, Malays, &c. V. 


Total .. 322,689 


2,08,551 

92,061 

14,540 

1,601 

1,056 

780 

711 

2,649 

454 

288 




la 1875, the Shwe-loung and Pantanaw townships were taken from Bassein. 
The population in 1874 and in 1876, according to the Thoogyee’s rolls, was:— 


RITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


97 


1874. 



Total. 

Shwe-loung 
and Pantanaw. 

District as it 
now exists. 

1876. 

Burmese and Arakanese 

221,331 

29,251 

192,080 

198,247 

Kareng 

108,393 

22,635 

85,758 

87,093 

Talaing 

11,024 

1,591 

9,433 

9,435 

Shan 

i 1,602 


1,602 ! 

1,785 

Khyeng 

953 


953 

925 

Hindoos 

1,267 


1 1,267 

1,264 

Mahomedans 

2,609 

161 

: 2,448 

2,638 

Chinese 

1,160 

229 

1 931 

1,033 

Other races 

319 

11 

1 308 

438 

1 

Total 

348,658 

53,878 

1 

294,780 

302,858 


In former years the Taking mustered strongly but the Burmese conquest 
by Aloungbhoora and still more the measures adopted by the Burmese when 
they returned to the delta of the Irrawaddy on the evacuation of Pegu by the 
British after the first Burmese war drove many into exile and more than 
decimated the number of those who could not or did not escape from the 
anger of their rulers whom they had irritated by siding with the English. 
The Kareng in this district differ from their brethren in the hills in Tenasserim 
from having adopted the Burmese custom of cultivation but still retain 
their dress, language^ customs and religion except where converted to Chris- 
tianity, yet many are, at least nominally, Booddhists. The Shan are settlers 
from the north, whilst many of the Mahomedans and most of the Hindoos are 
sojourners who come to make money to be spent in their own country. The 
Khyeng live mostly in the hills to the north-west, the tribe or race stretching 
far away north and west into Upper Burma and Arakan {vide sub tit : Khyeng), 
Here, as everywhere else in the Province except in Mergui, the males exceed 
the females. In 1876 there were 157,142 of the former to 144,715 of 
the latter. The ratio is materially affected by the town of Bassein and is 
largely due to immigration. The Madrassees, Chittagonians and others from 
India bring no women with them but, like the Chinese, take to themselves * 
wives from the women of the country whom they can and do leave behind if 
they return, whilst large numbers of Burmans come down from Upper Burma 
for the season only, to work in the rice mills in Bassein and even those who 
come to settle in the rural tracts do not, to any considerable extent, bring 
women with them. 

The principal occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture and fishing, 
the large plains afiPording occupation to the one class and the seacoast and 
numerous ponds, rivers and tidal creeks in the south to the other. 

The number of towns and villages in 1876 was 1,455. The most import- 
ant are : — 

Bassein in about 16° 14' N. and 94"^ 46' E. on the banks of tbe Nga-woon 
river some 75 miles from the sea ; the head-quarter station. The three largest 
quarters of the town are on the left bank of the river surrounding the fort built 
since the annexation of Pegu and enclosing the conspicuous Shwe-moo-htaw 

13 


98 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETXEER* 


Pagoda, viz.^ the Atbaygyee quarter to the south, the Talaing-khyoung quarter 
to the north and the Myothit to the east. The small Theng-bhaw-gyeng suburb 
is on the right bank. Within the walls of the fort are the principal public 
buildings — the Courts, Treasury and Police Office. The population has 
rapidly increased since its occupation by the British and in 1876 numbered 
22,417 souls. In the year 1860-61 the value of the exports and imports 
was Es. 941,710; in 1861-62 it rose suddenly to Rs. 1,623,250 (imports 
Es. 550,280, exports Es. 1,072,970) ; in 1872-73 it amounted to Es. 3,499^10, 
of which Es. 2,823,630 was on account of exports (Es. 2,763,120 on account 
of exports to foreign countries other than India) and in 1876-77 reached 
Es. 5,582,458, that is : — imports Es. 447,641 exports to India including other 
ports in Burma Es, 65,510, to the Straits and ports to the eastward 
Es. 12,961 and to Europe and ports west of India Es. 4,956,224. The 
principal trade is in rice, grown in the district and imported from higher up 
the valley of the Irrawaddy, and husked for export in the mills erected by 
European merchants. This trade gives employment to a large number of men 
from Upper Burma who come down for work, leaving their families behind 
them, and return at the end of the season. Small quantities of timber, cotton, 
tobacco and oil-seed also are exported ; the principal imports are piece-goods, 
cotton stuffs and crockery. Chinese junks bring small consignments of tea and 
silk but mainly for the use of the Chinese community. Native craft from 
the coast of Madras bring cocoauuts and other articles used chiefly by the 
natives of that country who are employed largely in loading and unloading 
ships. 

Lemyet-kna in 17° 35' N. and 95° 13' 30'^ E. on the bank of the Bassein 
river had a population of 5,635 souls in 1867 and of 4,986 in 1876. 

Myoung-mya in 16° 35' N. and 95° E. is on the river of the same name 
partly on one bank and partly on the other : in 18 T6 it had a population of 
of 1,717 souls. 

Ngapootaw in 16° 32' N. and 94° 46' E. is on the island of the same name 
in the Bassein river, built on the side of a low range of hills and reaching down 
to the water^s edge : the population in 1876 was 1,010. 

Regyee Pandaiv in 17° 19' 30" N. and 15° 10' E. is on the creek of the 
same name, which flows between the Bassein and Daga rivers, and is <!bmposed 
of the once separate towns or villages of Regyee and Pandaw : it had a popula- 
tion in 1867 of 4,695 and in 1876 of 3,506 : it is a place of some importance in 
the rice trade. It was here that the Talaing army in its retreat before 
Aloungbhoora made its last stand before its complete and final defeat. 

Ngathaing-khyoung in 17° 22' 30" N. and 95° 8' 30' E. on the Bassein 
river at the northern entrance of the Regyee creek had a population of 3;,512 
in 1867 nnd of 2,737 in 1876; the inhabitants do a considerable trade in rice 
which is sent to Bassein. For some years a detachment of Native Infantry 
from Bassein garrisoned the town, a duty now performed by the Police. 

Kyoonpyaw in 17° 17^ N. and 95° 16' E. on the Daga river at the southern 
entrance of the Regyee creek had a population in 1876 of 2,551 employ- 
ed in agriculture, in fishing and in trading. 

The area of the district under cultivation has rapidly increased. In 
Agriculture. 1855-56 it was 134,520 acres ; in 1859-60 162,983 

acres ; in 1864-65 186,129 acres; in 1869-70 220,160 
acres ; and in 1874-75 305,920 acres. In 1876-77, when a considerable tract 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


99 


on the east had been cut off, the cultivated area was 275,840 acres, or the 
fifteenth part of the whole area, leaving 3,191,040 acres culturable but un- 
cultivated waste. 

The crops cultivated in acres during the last ten years were : — 


Year. 

Rice. 

Oil-seeds. 

Sugar. 

Cotton. 

Tobacco. 

Betel vine. 

Mixed products, 
vegetables, 
fruit trees, &c. 

1867-68 

193,713 

42 

412 

132 

26 


6,759 

1868-69 

202,391 

• • 

46 

110 

20 


7,650 

1869-70 

201,610 


61 

83 

2 

629 


1870-71 

206,370 

64 

224 

f 85 

33 


17,607 

1871-72 

222,423 

10 


183 

67 

.. 

10,399 

1872-73 

212,884 

1 

B 

93 

206 

89 

528 

6,816 

1873-74 

1 239,362 


100 

235 

100 

471 

7,933 

1874-75 

289,395 

B 

67 

303 

40 


13,649 

1875-76 

233,597 

B 


96 

34 

396 


1876-77 

262,060 

16 

201 

209 

66 

781 

31,279 


The staple product is rice and the average crop 1,600 lbs. an acre : the 
gross produce of this cereal in 1876-77 may be taken at 187,183 tons which 
at the then current rates would be worth Rs. 10,295,065. Sessamum 
and tobacco are cultivated to a small extent. The produce of cotton per 
acre is small, averaging 83 lbs. 

The agricultural stock has, like the area under cultivation, increased 
largely year by year. 


Year, 

Cows, bulls 
and 

bullocks. 

Buffaloes. 

Sheep and 
goats. 

Hgs. 

Carts. 

Ploughs. 

Boats. 

1869-70 .. 

33,746 

78,108 

1,281 

23,464 

14,074 

23,253 

12,623 

1874-76 . . 

67,327 

1,00,339 

1,609 

30,086 

53,635 

26,433 

16,184 

1875-76 . . 

55,600 

91,772 

1,421 

26,973 

24,728 

23,347 

12,274 

1876-77 .. 

66,475 

93,753 

1 

2,015 

26,098 

26,480 

1 

21,174 

12,857 


Thus, notwithstanding the loss of two extensive townships, the district has now 
a larger agricultural stock than it had eight years ago. The average size of 
individual holdings is about fifteen acres, a larger area considerably than is 










100 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


held further north, as in Thayet for example where about four acres is the 
average size of a cultivator's land. Hired labourers are rarely employed ; 
their wages vary from about eight rupees and board to ten rupees without 
board. In almost all cases the owners cultivate their own land and renting 
out is not common. 

Nature has provided the district with lines of communication by which 
the produce can readily be transported to the most favourable market : intersect- 
ed by a net- work of creeks, easily navigable for some months after the rains 
till the hot weather sets in, the country requires but few roads : in the dry season 
a cart track leads from village to village ; in the rains a boat can pass almost 
anywhere. Whilst, however, these creeks afford excellent means of communi- 
cation and fertilise the country they are not without their inconveniences. 
Annually on the rise of the Irrawaddy large areas of country are flooded 
and the crops too often destroyed. To remedy this and afford protection to 
tracts of valuable rice land small embankments were erected by the inhabi- 
tants, but these were too weak and too much localized to be of any great or 
permanent benefit. Since 1865 large embankments have been and are still 
being made by the State along the banks of the Irrawaddy in the Henzada 
district to confine that river to its natural channel whilst a similar line is 
being carried along the left bank of the Bassein from its northern mouth and 
is complete as far as Ngathaing-khyoung. 

The principal manufactures of the district are Salt, Ngapee and Pottery ; 

Manufactroes. mainly on the seacoast in the Nga- 

pootaw and Myoung-mya townships and the last in the 
Bassein, Myoung-mya and Regyee townships. Within a distance of eight 
or ten miles of the seacoast and in the alluvial delta several plains occur 
the soil of which is more or less saline and where these are in the vicinity 
of creeks salt is prepared. The salt is made by solar evaporation and 
boiling. About the month of January a salt tract measuring about 5,000 
square yards is dammed in and divided into eight or more beds, carefully 
constructed drains running between them. These beds are then ploughed up 
to a depth of from 12 to 18 inches, all lumps broken up and the top soil 
reduced to powder, a work which takes about 25 days. By this time the 
water in the neighbouring creeks has, owing to the cessation of the rains 
and the gradual running off of the fresh water, become brackish and is 
pumped into the salt- beds by means of a wheel worked by buffaloes. This 
is left for some days until, partly by subsidence partly by evaporation, the 
beds are dry and a thin layer of salt is left on the surface. More water 
IS then pumped iu ; not into all the beds simultaneously but passed from 
one to the other in regular order till all are filled ; the water in the last having 
^us passed through all the preceding ones. In the meanwhile tanks have been 

^Berally ateut 40' x x 5' deep, and the water after remaining 24 hours 
oa the sm-beds w turned into them. The same process is repeated until 
ttere ^ks are full or the workers think that they have a sufficient quantity 
for them pu^se. From the tanks the water is carried to the boiling place 
and pour^ into ^ts underneath which a fire is kept continuaUy burning: as 
“u evaporated it is cleared of the salt and re-filled 

Bdt being thrown into a general heap and exposed to the 
sun on shelving boards to allow the bittern to drain off^ a process which is 
complete .» fiem t.o t. feu, day,. The pot, me aS of and 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


101 


contain about 4i*gallons of brine eacb and at each evaporation yield about 
71bs. of salt. Each, pot is replenished twice in 24 hours and as the boiling 
continues for some four months (the fire being put out and the pots examined 
and cracked ones replaced three times in that period) the average produce of 
one pot during the season is about 1,350 lbs. The boiling places as a rule 
contain from 100 to 230 pots each, but some are smaller. The salt is 
sold on the spot for the preparation on the coast of salt-fisli and ngapee. 
The expenditure during a season of from four to five months for a boiling 
place of 200 pots is about as follows : — 


Rs. 


Hire of buffaloes . . . . . . , . . . 80 

Six hundred pots fallowing for breakage &c.) , , , , 180 

Fuel . . . . , , . . . . . . 600 

Cocoanut fibre . • . , , , , . . . 150 

Wages of six men for fiye months . , . . . . 450 

Provisons for ditto . . , . . . . . 200 

Earth-oil for feeding fires . . , , . . . . 76 

Cost of sheds . . . . . . . , . . 50 

Tax . . . . . , . , . . . . 100 


1,886 

The value of the salt made (about) . , • . . . 2,500 


Kett profit . . 615 


Several kinds of ngapee are made of which Dhameng” is the most import- 
ant. It is manufactured on the seacoast on the spot where the fish are caught 
and consists of a mixture of all kinds of fish and prawns which, as they are 
caught in the traps, are thrown en masse on to a raised platform made of 
bamboos and left there for about eight hours until all the water has drained off. 
By this time decomposition has generally set in. The mass is then sprinkled 
thickly with salt and the whole thoroughly crushed and mixed together by 
hand. It is then ready for the market and if not sold at once is stored in large 
wicker baskets and more salt occasionllay added as putridity advances. About 
4,700 lbs. of salt are required for 100 baskets of ngapee. 

Large pots and other kinds of heavy glazed pottery are manufactured prin- 
cipally in the Myoung-mya township at a village near the town of Bassein called 
Thit-gnyo-goon. The earth used is a kind of red clay with a slight admixture 
of sand in it which is collected and brought to the site before the season^s work 
commences. The clay is dried and pounded in wooden mortars and mixed 
with water till it has attained the necessary consistency, A lump is taken up 
by hand and moulded into the form of a cylinder which is set upon the centre 
of a wooden wheel revolving horizontally and the clay is fashioned by the 
hand by one man or woman as the wheel is worked by another. Two persons 
can turn out from 15 to 20 large or 40 to 60 small pots in a day. When 
turned the pots are left for a day to dry and the glaze is then applied and 
the pots at once put into the kiln where they are burned for three days. The 
glaze is made from the slag obtained in smelting silver ore and is brought 
from Upper Burma ; it is pounded in a mortar, sifted, mixed with thick rice 
water and applied with a brush. In one season, that is from January to April, 
two men can turn out about 1,000 pots of sizes which are generally sold to 
traders on the spot for from Es. 120 to Rs. 130. The ordinary water and cook- 
ing-pots — unglazed — are somewhat differently made. The clay is thoroughly 
mixed with fine sand and water in a pit and is then placed on hides and kneaded 
by being trampled with naked feet. The pot is not at once formed on the wheel 



102 


BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


as in the case of the glazed jars but as soon as a globe has been formed by 
turning it is enlarged by hammering with a flat piece of wood with a rough 
surface. It is, when in this stage, exceedingly moist and is dried in a shed 
for three days and again beaten out. The salt pots are made in the same 
way but are much thicker. About 100 small or 20 large pots of this 
description can be made in one day by two men. 

The actual revenue raised prior to the annexation — when the district 
BeTenues. include the tract west of the Arakan Romas 

but extended further eastward into what is now 
the Thoon-khwa district — cannot be accurately ascertained. The amount 
remitted to the capital or to the officer about the Court to whom the 
revenues had been granted — the Myo-tsa or Eater of the Revenues of the 
Myo^’ — is known but the amount exacted by the local officials for their own 
share is no where recorded. A certain sum they were justly entitled to by 
way of salary, as fees &c., but no record even of this can be found much lesS 
of the sums which they extorted from the people whom they ruled. The 
amount which they received in various forms as fees on the administration of 
justice, fines in criminal cases &c., may safely be put down at a sum equal to two- 
thirds of the remittances to the King^s Government or to the Myo-tsa. The 
amounts due were always calculated by viss and tickals and were in Rwetnee^’ 
silver, supposed to contain five per cent, only of alloy. For all practical pur- 
poses of comparison with the existing revenue a viss or 100 ticals may be 
taken as worth Rs. 130. From the local records found in the various offices 
it appears that the annual revenue furnished by this district, as it existed 


in the Burmese times, was : — 

Rs. 

1. House and Family Tax— Burmans and Kareng . . . , 122,730 

2. Yoke of oxen or rice land tax . . . , , . , . 35,980 

3. Fisheries . . . . . . . . , . 92,030 

Salt .. .. .. .. 13,380 

5. Transit duties . , . . . , , . . . 18,380 


Total 282,500 


Adding two-thirds for the share of the local officers the amount paid by the 
inhabitants was at least Es. 470,800. 

For the first year or two after the annexation the revenues were neces- 
sarily irregular, and 1855-56 is the first year which it is safe to take 
as shewing the taxation at first imposed on the people who had passed under 
our rule. In that year the revenue was : — 


1, Capitation 

2, Land 

3. Fisheries 

4. Salt 

6. Forest Produce 
6. Excise 
7- Sea Customs . , 

8. Port dues and Marine receipts 

9. Fees and Fines 

10. Sale of unclaimed property 

11. Postage Stamps 

12. Miscellaneous . . 


Rs. 

194,650 

215,170 

81,570 

17,040 

1,650 

65,390 

13,560 

10,270 

16,250 

1,020 

650 

10,700 


Total . . 617,910 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


103 


The increase was very largely due to indirect taxation, which was felt but 
slightly, whilst the inhabitants were relieved from the numerous exactions 
which were all the more burdensome from being indefinite and dependant 
upon the wants and caprice of the local officials. The result was soon shewn 
in an increase of the population by immigration, and by the extended area 
brought under cultivation. Without any extraordinary and sudden increase 
in the rate of taxation, and indeed the general tendency has been to keep it as 
low as possible, the amount of revenue derived from the land has year by year 
increased. Excluding toungya or hill gardens the area under cultivation, 
the revenue derived therefrom and the rate of taxation per acre in 1875-76 as 
compared with 1855-56 was : — 


Year. 

Land under 
cultivation. 

Land Revenue. 

Average, 
rate per acre. 


Acres. 

Rs' 

Rs, A. P. 

1855-66 

134,620 

212,220 

19 0 

1876-76 

264,320 

437,320 

1 10 6 


The capitation tax represents the House and Family tax of the former 
rulers, with this great difference, that under the Burmese the total demand 
was ordered annually by the Governor of the district, the assessment per circle 
being left to the Akhwonwon and the assessment per house to the Thoo- 
gyee, the hitter fixing it according to his estimate of the riches of the 
bead of the house, in some cases counting several families as one Revenue 
house,’ ^ whilst under the English rule each married man and each bachelor 
between 18 and 60, except priests, cripples and some others, pays a fixed 
amount, fixed not with reference to his circumstances but the same for all viz. 
five rupees and two rupees eight annas respectively. In 1855-56 the yield of 
this tax was Rs, 194,650, in 1876-77 Rs. 305,300. The Fishery Tax is imposed 
upon nets and traps used in the sea and in the rivers, and the ponds are leased 
out for a term of years to the highest bidder, care being taken that, as far as pos- 
sible, the bidders are bond fide fishermen residing near the ponds which they 
wish to rent, a system lately introduced in supersession of one by which no 
bidding was allowed but the fisheries were given from year to year to inhabit- 
ants of neighbouring villages, the Deputy Commissioner exercising his dis- 
cretion in selecting the worker from amongst the always numerous applicants, 
a system which itself was successor to one of open auction. In 1855-56 the 
Revenue derived from both classes, fishermen and fisheries, was Rs. 81,570, in 
1876-77 Rs.108,985.* 

The salt tax, levied on the pots in which the brine is boiled after being 
subjected to solar evaporation, is an exceedingly fluctuating source of revenue, 
but is, on the whole, decreasing owing to the importation of foreign salt 
which undersells that made in the country except for fish-curing. The system 
of taxation has been to a certain extent copied from the Burmese who taxed 
each pot but they, in addition, raised a revenue from shipping dues, about eight 

♦ In this district and in Henzada the receipts varied periodically on account of certain 
border fisheries which, situated partly in one district and partly in the other, were lea^ 
alternately by one Deputy Commissioner and by the other, the revenue derived therefrom being 
credited in the district the Deputy Commissioner of which held the auction. 





104 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


annas being paid in this way for every 365 pounds of salt placed on board a boat. 
In 1855-56 the proceeds of the tax amounted to Es. 7,040 ; in 1856-57 it fell to 
Es. 8,170; in 1859-60 it rose to Rs. 15,170 and in the following year fell to 
Bs. 14,420 ; in 1871-72 it was Es. 12,290 ; in 1872-73 only Rs. 7,800 ; in 
1875-76 Rs. 8,783 and in 1876-77 Rs, 7,037. In 1855 the selling price of salt 
in the Bassein market was about thirteen annas, in 1873 rather over one 
rupee two annas and in 1876-77 one rupee six annas per maund of 80 lbs. 

The excise revenue, derived from licenses to sell intoxicating liquors and 
drugs, has increased considerably. Under the Burmese rule the use of these 
stimulants was prohibited but after the annexation it was recognized that as 
intoxicating liquors and drugs were undoubtedly used their use should be 
turned to the benefit of the State. The excise revenue in 1855-56 amounted 
toRs. 55,390; in 1860-61 to Rs, 61,040; in 1870-71 to Rs. 49,490; in 
1872-73 to Rs, 57,600 and in 1876-77 to Rs. 127,895. Sea customs have 
afforded a continually increasing, but naturally to some extent a fluctuating, 
revenue, the amount depending not only on the fluctuation of trade but upon 
the rates of import and export duty levied. In 1855-56 the amount realized, 
including fines and confiscations, was Es. 13,560 ; by 1872-73 it had risen to 
Rs.392,270; in 1874-75 to Es. 385,763 and in 1876-77 to Rs. 546,542 an increase 
due largely to increased exports of grain. The other items of revenue vary 
considerably year by year, but the receipts from the sale of postage stamps 
increase steadily but not rapidly for hitherto the post office has not been 
extensively used by the indigenous population. 

The gross Imperial and Provincial Revenue of the district and the 
expenditure for officials of all kinds during the ten years ending with 1876- 
77 has been : — 


Year. 

Bevenue. 

Expenditure. 


Rs. 

Bs. 

1867-68 

1,071,890 

139,260 

1868-69 

1,255,660 

148,34a 

1869-70 

1,184,640 

151,370 

1870-71 

1,186,730 

138,850 

1871-72 

1,278,720 

166,190 

1872-73 

1,388,962 

104,310 

1873-74 

1,571,860 

145,680 

1874-75 

1,724,486 

164,871 

1876-76 

1,706,062 

129,613 

1876-77 

1 1 . ^ . 

1,666,466 

196,729 


revenues raised m the distnct in 1876-77, over and above the 
Impenal and Provincial revenue and excluding the Port (Rs. 26,614) and 




BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 105 

Dispensary funds (Rs. 8,059) and the local revenue of the town of Bassein 
(Rs. 97,784) which is a Municipal Town with a Committee administering its 
Revenues, was Rs. 60,051. 

The trade of the Bassein district, like that of every other part of the pro- 
vince, has - largely increased since the British occupa- 
tion. The values of the imports and exports, together 
with the tonnage of the vessels which cleared out, for each year from 1855-56 to 
1876-77 are given in the following table : — 


Year. 

Value of 
grain 
exported. 

Value of 
timber 
exported. 

Value ol all 
other 
exports 
including 
treasure. 

Value of all 
imports in- 
cluding 
treasure. 

Tonnage 
of vessels 
cleared out* 

1855-66 

Es. 

435,053 

'Es. 

2,505 

Rs 

87,891 

Es. 

243,007 

tons. 

2,847 

1856-67 

863,987 

1,861 

61,073 

363,912 

13,295 

1857-58 

1,165,642 

2,359 

61,755 

974,404 

37,403 

1858-59 

1,437,025 

5,017 

i 

99,362 

932,879 

83,008 

1859-60 

258,731 

2,645 

98,143 

247,838 

12,987 

1860-61 

584,689 


49,155 

307,969 

16,615 

1861-62 

1,010,568 


62,402 

550,282 

29,571 

1862-63 ^ 

1,087,116 

797 

52,412 

500,808 

29,986 

1863-64 i 

1,133,351 


79,530 

289,763 

35,126 

1864-65 

2,672,822 

7,956 

59,746 

166,519 

51,635 

1865-66 

2,852,464 

3,520 

43,670 

328,761 

42,163 

1866-67 

1,806,960 

1,160 

25,811 

163,671 

24,737 

1867-68 

1,542,646 

2,516 

29,519 

1 205,886 

83,749 

1868-69 

2,619,524 

7,455 

317,048 

242,331 

47,077 

1869-70 

2,160,514 

1,055 

119,010 

247,135 

41,615 

1870-71 

1,798,648 

210 

331,174 

438,538 

33,633 

1871-72 

2,135,371 

... 

11,452 

220,735 

41,376 

3872-73 

2,80‘2,770 

... 

20,863 

676,076 

67,088 

1873-74 

3,765,640 

8,03 

522,242 

2,093,628'i^ 

63,202 

1874-75 

4,067,845 

3,327 

67,079 

440,035 

71,020 

1875-76 

4,820,864 

... 

22,006 

499,023 

88,450 

1876-77 

5,000,426 

11,447 

22,822 

447,641 

81,297 


♦ The increase was in treasure on account of the State and was duo to the demand for rice 
for the famine -stricken tracts in Bengal. 


14 


106 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The most important article of export is rice, of which by far the larger 
quantity goes to Europe. The local price of the unhusked grain depends 
very much upon that at Rangoon for both draw their supplies to a great 
extent from the large rice-producing country between and north of them. The 
great demand for this cereal for export stimulates its production and the 
embankments along the Irrawaddy and the Bassein rivers protect, and will 
as they are carried on still further protect very extensive areas of excellent 
rice land. 

The quantities of this grain shipped in each year since 1861-62 was 
in tons : — 


1862-63 


. . 38,639 

1870-71 


.. 44,291 

1863-64 


. . 39,366 

1871-72 


. . 55,274 

1864-65 


. . 64,225 

1872-73 


. . 74,927 

1865-66 


.. 62,649 

1873-74 


. . 88,495 

1866-67 


. . 26,690 

1874-75 


.. 89,743 

1867-68 


. . 37,160 

1875-76 


.. 113,957 

1868 - 69 

1869 - 70 


. . 60,549 
.. 51,063 

1876-77 


.. 104,516 


Lying in the delta of the Irrawaddy with the surface of the country 
intersected by a vast number of creeks the mud dy banks 
of which are left exposed for the greater part of the 
24 hours and with a heavy rain-fall during the monsoon the climate is relax- 
ing and favourable to animal and vegetable decomposition. Cholera and 
fever are reported to be endemic, whilst bowel-complaints, dropsy and 
rheumatism are common. Small-pox is much spread by inoculation. 

The rain-fall and average temperature during the last ten years were : — 





r* 


'V ' - 
^ . 

ir. 

f-' 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


107 



•j9qni0O9a oi J9q(Xjoo 



W 

s 

5? 

525 



p4 

OQ 

w 








52? 



525 


p4 

5^ 









CO 



Iz; 




CD 

Q 



a 

: 








a 





o 

> 







QQ 


a 

> 



•J9qTnO!jd9g 9UIlf 

Sb 


OG 





CO 


‘£b 


a 

1 


43 

o 

525 

CQ 

S. W 

co’ 

CO 

CO 

» 

CO 

w 

cd 

o 

525 


> 



1 











« 










525 




Ph 

•iC-BpC 0^ ^j'bhu'Oj^ 






OQ 











p4 


p2 

R 


525 

525 








52; 

525 

525 

525 

525 

525* 

525 





'!^98nng 


P 

t- 

8 

8 

oa 


s 

c« 

8 

•b 




? 

3 


• 




00 

tr- 


c- 

t- 






s 














«o 

g 

•H M -g 

g 

8 

8 

8 


8 

8 

8 

8 


P 


« 

CO 

c- 


8 

CO 


8 

8 

c- 

t- 

3 


<M 

C- 



H 













n 


'oauung 


8 

S 

8 

g 

8 

ia 

t- 


8 

TP 

t- 

8 

8 




8 

8 

a 

n 

H 

s 


•!j9sn:ng 


o 

p 

Cl 

8 

§ 

00-08 


? 

8 

t' 




8 

8 

a 

P5 

0 


'iZ z 

o 

o 

o 

p 

1 

8 

o 

8 

8 

p 

p 

a 

<0 

1 

H 

s 


00 

s 

00 

00 

u 

o 

C5 

X 


X 

’S; 









___ 

c 







W 

P4 

a 

a 

H 


•©siJiing 


8 

o 

8 

00 

8 

525 

8 

b 

8 

S 



O 

525 

8 

3 














a 














0 

< 

tf 


:>9Siiiig 


8 

8 

o 

p 

CO 


8 

Cl 

8 




8 

a 




00 

X 

00 . 


CD 





8 

> 













1 


Si 

c 

'K J Z 

1 ^ 

8 

8 

o 

o 


8 

o 

o 

8 

X 


? 




1 Cvl 

oc 

GO 

00 

8 

Cl 

oo 


8 

8 

8 

X 


T!« 

t* 



■asutrag 


8 

1 

8 


8 

o 

o 



, 

8 




8 


8 


X 

c- 

00 

l> 




3 


'mojj 


CO 

«5 


p 


c- 

« 

8 

8 

« 

8 

OT 

00 

a 

ca 

1 

$ 

GO 

t- 

00 



a> 

a 

b 


g 

i 

o 














g 

M0qni9O9(i o!^ laqoijoO 

00 

p 

o 

oo 

oi 

00 

C9 

« 

s 

p 

Ol 

b 

P 

d 

ec 

o 

b 

8 

b 

2 














a 

a 



S 

8 


8 

p 

p 

8 

8 

P 

C75 

X 

a 

2 

'J9qra9:jd0g o:j 9nnp 

0^ 

; t- 

o 

Cl 

c- 

3 

l> 

3 

b 

O 

X 

>’o 

Oi 

i 

< 














P3 

'X«PI o;> X.iunn-Bjp 

Cl 

§ 

Cl 

s 

00 

Cl 

CO 

8 

b 

p 

8 

o 

p 

P 

r- 

b 









t-4 


Cl 





a 












• 


a 














>* 


? 

!'• 

o 

o 


Cl 

n 



o 

t- 







o 


Cl 



s 

b 

a 




g 


8 

X 

L- 

X 

r- 

X 

X 

X 

t4- 

X 

« 






rH 






.~l 




108 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


On the auuexation of Pegu the Bassein district was formed out of what 
had been the Bassein Governorship during the Bur- 
Administration. mese time but there was added to it a strip of country, 

up till that time a portion of Sandoway, extending along the seacoast west of 
the Arakan mountains as far north as tSe Kyientalee stream which falls into 
the Bay of Bengal in about 18° N., divided into two townships. In 1864 
it* was found that the northern of these two could better be supervised from 
Sandoway and westward of the mountains the boundary was brought south to 
the Khwa where it has since remained. To the west of the Arakan Romas the 
district remained for several years unaltered but in 1875 the Shweloung 
and Pantanaw townships in the extreme east were taken from it and in 
1876 further slight changes were made in its limits, the existing boundaries 
being those given at pages 84 and 85. In the first year of the British occupation 
a Deputy Commissioner was placed in charge with one Assistant and 
eleven Goung-gyoop who replaced the Paineug and Mjothoogyee of the 
Burmese time but with considerably less authority and with two peons each 
by way of Police for the whole district. Up to the middle of 1853 the country 
was in a very disturbed state and the civil ofiicers^ aided only by the few troops 
that could occasionally be spared from the weak garrison in Bassein and by 
seamen from the Zenobia and the Nemesisj were continually engaged in hunt- 
ing down and dispersing large gangs of armed marauders. The necessity 
for strengthening the civil administration was soon felt ; the Deputy Com- 
missioner was empowered to punish with death all persons convicted of parti- 
cipation in open and armed insurrection (an authority subsequently withdrawn 
when quiet was restored) and a Police force was raised of a total strength of 
646 men (with two European Non-commissioned Officers) the large majority of 
whom were recruited from those who had been employed in a somewhat 
similar capacity under the Burmese rule and had in many cases acted with the 
gangs only just dispersed and were thus turned to good use and given an 
occupation suited to their habits, whilst the discipline enforced eventually ren- 
dered them of great service. Amongst others who volunteered and were accept- 
ed was a man who had acted as a petty chief under the rebel Myat Htoon up 
to the final dispersion of his band, who brought eighty men with him. 
In 1857 an outbreak took place amongst the Kareng led by a man who, 
though a Kareng, spoke a different dialect from those settled in the district, 
and who was connected with the leader of the Kareng rebellion then going 
on in the hill country of the Shwe-gyeng district. They occupied Myoungmya 
but escaped on the approach of the Deputy Commissioner and were followed 
in the direction of Labwotkoola and overtaken and dispersed. They assembled 
again in Wakamay where they were attacked and finally defeated, 40 of their 
number being taken prisoners ; the leader escaped but was captured somewhat 
later.^ With occasional changes in the civil establishments the administration 
remained the same until 1861, when the Police Battalion was disbanded and 
a regular Police force for the whole Province under an Inspector-General and 
District Superintendents was organized. The main evil with which this force 
has had to contend has been dacoity, confined mainly, especially of late years, 
to thf Shweloung township, now a portion of Thoon-khwa (q.v.). In 1868 there 
was a serious disturbance in the town of Bassein which was immediately sup- 
pressed. Nga Kyaw Tba, a native of Upper Burma who had been residing for 
some four years in Bassein, combined with a new arrival, a soothsayer named 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


109 


Nga Shwe Wa, and with a petty local official and succeeded in enlisting secretly 
some fifteen or twenty men (persuading them that he was of royal descent) and 
by forged documents induced them to believe that he had been appointed Prince 
of Bassein by the King of Upper Burma. On the night of the 27th April he 
collected his fifteen followers and about a hundred up-country men who had come 
down for the season to work in the rice-mills and who up to this moment seem to 
have known nothing of the plot. The whole party went before daylight in the 
morning to the Pagoda within the fort and, after worshipping, suddenly rushed 
on the Treasury guard. Tlie Deputy Commissioner speedily arrived on the spot 
with about fifteen policemen and on their firing the robbers broke and escaped 
in all directions, having been in possession of the treasury for about twenty 
minutes only and without even opening the doors. Nearly the whole of the 
attacking party was captured that day including the leaders except Nga Kyaw 
Tha who was seized in Eangoon in June following. 

Very soon after the occupation of Pegu it was deemed advisable to remove 
the head-quarters of the district southward from Bassein to a position 
unrivalled as a port in the Bay of Bengal ” near the mouth of the river on the 
right bank, which was named " Dalhousie^ after the Governor-General to 
whom was due the annexation of Pegu. The site thus selected had for 
“ many years attracted the attention of naval officers as supplying all that is 
required for a harbour of refuge. From its natural position it was admir- 
ably adapted as a port of call ; and placed at the natural outlet of a vast tract 
of fertile country it was hoped that it would become a mart of importance.’^ 
In 1855 all preliminary arrangements had been completed, the main roads of 
the city had been traced out, a strand road had been made, the site of public 
buildings determined on and a pier was in course of construction. The crest 
of a rock was levelled to admit of the erection of a battery which should 
command the passage of the river, and the blocks and allotments in the town 
were marked out. Beyond a few fishermen’s huts the site had been found 
entirely vacant. In 1856-57, however, the whole site was submerged by a 
sudden rise of the sea consequent on a cyclone. Almost every building was 
swept away and several lives were lost but the idea was not abandoned and the 
Courts and the Gaol were transferred hither from Bassein ; but the same year 
they were retransferred to Bassein where they have ever since remained and 
" Dalhousie” has sunk into its former state of waste and jungle. No attempt 
has since been made to build the city for it was found by practical experience 
that Bassein was by far the better site. 

The district is now divided into eight townships. Adjoining the Henzada 
district is Le-myet-hna, divided into eight Revenue circles, with the head- 
quarters at the town of the same name on the Bassein or Nga-won river ; 
to the south-east of this is Eegyee with the head-quarters at Eegyee Pandaw, 
containing twelve Revenue circles ; and still further to the south Tsam-bay- 
roon, with the head-quarters at Kyoon-pyaw on the Daga river, containing 
eight Revenue circles. These three townships form the Nga-thaing-khyoung 
sub-division, under an Assistant Commissioner whose head-quarters are at the 
town of the same name. South of Le-myet-hna and extending across the 
hills to the seacoast is the Thaboung township, with the head-quarters at a 
town of the same name on the Bassein, divided into fourteen Revenue circles ; 
and below this Bassein, the head-quarter township, with eight Revenue circles, 
and including the town of Bassein ; extending soutlnvard to the coast and 



110 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


including the lower portion of the tract west of the Arakan Romas is Ngapoo- 
taw, divided into eleven Revenue circles, with the head-quarters at Ngapootaw 
on the Bassein river on an island of the same name. Immediately south 
of Tsam-bay-roon and east of Bassein is Thee-kweng with the head -quarters 
at Kan-gyee-doung, containing ten Revenue circles : to the south of 
Thee-kweng the country, which is generally flat and highly intersected 
with creeks but with a low range of rising ground running through it on the 
west, forms the Myoungmya township, with nine Revenue circles and the 
head-quarters at Myoungmya. To the eastward is the Thoon-khwa district. 
The actual administrative staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner with two 
Assistant Commissioners, one stationed in Bassein and one in Ngathaing- 
khyoung, eight Extra Assistant Commissioners, a Superintendent of Police, a 
Civil Surgeon, a Collector of Customs, a Master- Attendant, and a Deputy 
Inspector of Schools. 

Ever since the occupation of Pegu this district has enjoyed considerable 
educational advantages. Almost immediately after the annexation the 
American Baptist Missionaries, who had for many years devoted much 
attention to the education of the Kareng in Tenasserim and who found 
large numbers of this race here, established village schools and at Bassein 
a Normal School to which both boys and girls were admitted, and in 1858-59 
they started a school for Burmese and put up a printing press at Myoungmya 
to supply their Kareng converts with books. 

In 1860 a Kareng Normal and Industrial Institute was opened, also by 
the Baptist Missionaries, to which both boys and girls were admitted : 
in 1875-76 the average daily attendance was 160. Of late years a handsome 
new building has been added for the accommodation of the increasing numbers. 
In 1861 the Roman Catholic Mission established St, Peter’s Institution in two 
departments, English and Vernacular, which have since been amalgamated 
and, with a few special exceptions, English is taught throughout the School. 
In 1875-76 the average daily attendance was 75 ; of the pupils about one- 
half were Kareng, 16 Burmese, and the rest Eurasians, Chinese, &c. In 
1868 a Pwo Kareng Normal School was opened by the Baptist Missionaries 
and in 1875-76 the daily average attendance was 46. All these receive grants- 
in-aidfrom the State. In 1874 the Government established a Middle Class 
School and, with a view of attracting pupils from the interior, a boarding 
establishment was subsequently attached to it. The number of pupils on the 
rolls on the 31st March 1876 was 144 of whom 99 were Burmese, one Kareng 
and the rest principally Natives of India. The average daily attendance in 
1875-76 was 117, and the total charges Rs. 6,050 : the cost to the State for 
^h pupil was Es. 35-10-5 : the school fee is Ee. 1 a month. In 1873 the 
Government established a Cess School at Nga-thaing-khyoung, that is a school 
cost of which is defrayed from the Education portion of the Five per CeTit. 

le’ded on the land and fishery revenue, which is for both boys and girls. 
M the Examination in 1876, when the school was favourably reported on, 
* girls attended. The monthly fees are eight annas for boys 

and four annas for girls. The cost to the Government in 1876 for the educa- 
tion of each pupil was Rs. 47-12-0. 

T> in every part of Burma primary education is in the hands of the 

laymen who start a school to gain a livelihood 
o oys and girls. The schools, monastic and lay, of those masters 


BKITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


Ill 


who will allow it are examined yearly, and prizes given. In 1875-76 133 
schools had successful pupils ; of these schools 34 were lay and 99 monastic. 

The Gaol of this district was at first a mat building ; in 1858 a wall 
round it was commenced which was not completed until 1861 ; in 1863-64 
a new ward and a new hospital were constructed and during the following 
year a new Gaol was commenced. It was in this year that an Inspector- 
General was first appointed and a commencement made in a more effective 
and more regular system of prison management. The new Gaol, which 
cost Rs. 172,600, was not completed until 1868, up to which period the 
buildings used were temporary structures raised on piles with wooden floors. 
Four wards radiate from the main guard in the centre, the necessary offices 
being between them, and the whole is surrounded with a high wall ; the build- 
ings are brickwork structures with iron roofs and earthwork floors, the prisoners 
sleeping on benches two feet off the ground. There is accommodation, at 36 
superficial feet per head, for 405 males and 16 females. In 1855 the average 
number in confinement was 317 of all classes. The daily average number of 
prisoners confined in 1876 was : — 

Males. Females. Total. 

Convicted prisoners . . . . • . 343 3 346 

Under -trial ,, .. .. .. 5 1 6 

Debtors, excise^ prisoners, and revenue defaulters . . 17 . . 17 

Total of all classes . . 365 4 369 

The cost to the State was : — 






Rs, 

A, 

P. 

Rations 




, . 9,436 

15 

1 

Establishment 




. . 6,961 

15 

2 

Police Guard 




. . 4,858 

13 

4 

Hospital charges 




530 

13 

6 

Clothing 




690 

11 

7 

Contingencies 




806 

10 

5 




Total 

.. 23,285 

15 

1 


Adding the amount expended on the Gaol buildings and deducting the 
profits from Gaol labour (Rs. 12,313-15-11), on which an average of 209 
prisoners were regularly employed, the cost of each convict to the State in 1876 
was Es. 67-8-9. On the 5th July 1876 a small Lock-up was opened at Nga- 
thaing-khyoung in which prisoners who are sentenced in that sub-division to 
one month^s imprisonment and under work out their sentences. The average 
number of prisoners of all classes confined was 16 and the nett cost to the 
State Es. 64-1-6 for each. 

The Police force numbered, in 1876, 355 men (of whom 37 were boat- 
men and river police and 72 employed in^ the town of Bassein) under a 
Superintendent and 36 subordinate officers (of whom 11 were employed in 
Bassein town). The total cost was Rs. 85,776 of which Rs. 70,131 was 
chargeable to the Provincial Revenues, the rest being chargeable to the 
Bassein Municipality. The strength gives one policeman to every twenty- 
three square miles and to every 898 of the population. 

In the town of Bassein there is a charitable dispensary and two hospitals 
one for Europeans and the other for natives, all three being under the Civil 
Surgeon. A new Hospital, which is to cost about Rs. 8,000 — of which 

» 



112 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Rs. 4,000 are provided from the Dispeusary Fund, Es. 2,000 by the Muuicipa- 
lity, Rs. 1,500 from the Port Fund, and the remainder collected from private 
individuals — is now being built. It is to be of teak with a shingled roof, and 
is to contain two large roomy wards, each to hold 10 beds and each having a 
bath-room. In the centre will be a dispensary, an operation-room and an 
office : a fine portico will provide a waiting-room for out-patients. In 1866-67 
the private eontributions, including fees from patients, amounted to Es. 1,380 
and 1,086 persons were treated. In 1876 the gross receipts amounted 
to Es. 7,022, of which Es. 981 were from private contributions, and the 
expenditure to Es. 2,520. The total balance at credit of the fund at the close 
of the year was Es.7,785. The total number who received aid that year was 
3,461, of whom 264, including 10 Europeans, were in-patients. Most of the 
Europeans are sailors whose cases it is difficult to manage on board ship. 

The postal communications are : — 

(1.) A four-weekly service by the steamers of the British India Steam 
Navigation Company between Chittagong and- Penang, and vice versa, the 
steamers calling at Akyab, Kyouk-hpyoo, Sandoway (during the N. E. 
monsoon), Bassein, Rangoon, MauJmain, Tavoy River, Mergui and Malewon in 
British, and Eenoung, Kopah, and Junk Ceylon in foi'eign, territory. 

(2.) A service twice a week by the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla 
Company between Rangoon and Bassein and vice versa, calling at Maoobeng, 
Shwe-loung, Myoungmya and, when practicable, at Pantanaw. 

(3.) A service, maintained out of the District Dak portion of the Five 
Per Cent Cess Fund, three times a month between Bassein and Ngathaing- 
khyoung and vice versa, via the Daga river ; three times a month 
between Bassein and Ngathaing-khyoung and vice versa, via the Ngawon or 
Bassein river and three times a month by land from Ngathaing-khyoung to 
Lemyethna and Henzada, and vice versa. 


BASSEIN. — A township in the district of the same name on the left 
bank of the Nga-won or Bassein river extending southwards from the Daga 
to the mouth of the Tabeng which for some distance forms its south-eastern 
boundary. Towards the north the ground is undulating but the country 
to the south is flat and highly cultivated wdth rice. The town of Bassein 
lies in the west centre. In 1876 the population numbered 17>695 souls and 
the gross revenue was Rs. 58,795 of which Rs. 38,865 were derived from the 
land and Rs. 17,974 from the capitation-tax. 


-BAWBENG. A small stream in the Henzada district which has its 
TOurce in the western slopes of the Pegu mountains in the south of the 
^^pwon township and, fed by numerous mountain torrents, unites with the 
Thayet to form the Wet, The banks are for the most part steep and rocky, 

BAWDEE.— A revenue circle in the north-eastern portion of the Pan- 
tanaw township of the Thoon-khwa district the greater portion of which is low 
^ound. The inhabitants who number 6,756 are mainly fishermen, petty 
traders and cultivators. The land revenue in 1876 was Rs. 3,395 and the 
capitation-tax Rs, 7,458 : the gross revenue (very largely derived from the 
fisheries) being Rs. 56,864. This circle now includes Kaloung. 

REELING. — See JSheeleng, 

village in the Thamboola circle, Myedai township, 
inayet district, contaming about ninety houses. 



BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


113 


BENTINCK. — An island in the Mergui Archipelago between IP 30' and 
12° N. and a little to the east of 98° E. To the eastward is Domel Island 
and between the two is a good harbour where ships can lie land-locked and 
secure from all swells in good holding-grouudj mud and sand. 

BGHAI. — One of the three great Kareng families, occupying the whole 
country between the Tsittoung and Salween, north of the latitude of the 
Thouk-re-khat stream as far as the Shan State, of Mobye beyond British 
territory. The family comprises the following sub-divisions : Red Kareng 
Tunic Bghai or Bghai-ka-teu, Pant Bghai or Bghai-ka-hta, Lay-may or 
Brek or Pray, Tshawko and Man oo- man aw ; some wearing tunics and some 
trowsers ; the women all wearing the ordinary Kareng female dress. In this 
family marriages are always contracted between relations, third cousins being 
considered as too remote and first cousins as too near : beyond third cousins 
marriages are prohibited. 

The dead are invariably buried and their funeral ceremonies are, therefore, 
peculiar to themselves ; they have been so fully described by Dr. Mason that 
the following account is taken verbatim from one published by him in the 
Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society ; — 

‘‘When an elder among the Bghais with a large number of descendants 
“ dies the people build a place in the hall for the deposit of the corpse and they 
hew a coffin out of the body of a tree and hew a cover for it, like the Chinese 
coffins. 

“ The body lies in state three or four days and during the time men blow 
pipes and the young men and maidens march round the corpse to the music. 
At night the piping is discontinued and singing is substituted. 

When the piping and marching is not going forward the exercises are 
diversified by weeping and mourning ; or by the men knocking pestles 
together and others showing their dexterity by putting their hands or heads 
“ in between and withdrawing them quickly before the missiles come together 
again.* 

“ Before the burial an elder opens the hand of the dead man and puts 
into it a bangle or some other bit of metal and then cuts off a few particles 
“ with a sword saying : ‘ May we live to be as old as thou art.’ Each one in the 
company goes through the same ceremonial and the fragments gathered are 
looked upon as charms to prolong life. 

When about to bury the corpse two candles made of bees-wax are lighted 
and two swords are brought. A sword and a candle are taken by the eldest 
son and a sword and a candle by the youngest ; and they march round the 
bier in opposite directions three times, each time they meet exchanging swords 
and candles. After completing the circuits one candle is placed at the foot 
of the coffin and the other at the hcad.t 

“A fowl or a hog is led three times round the building in which the body 
is placed and on completing the first round it is struck with a strip of bam- 
** boo once ; on completing the second round twice ; and at the third round 
it is killed. If a fowl it is killed by twisting its head off. The meat is set 
before the body as food. 


• Cf. the account of the dances amongst the tribes in the Arakan Hill Tracts ; page 69. 
t Cf. Sgaw funeral ceremonies sub. tit *‘Sgaw,’' 


15 




114 


BRITISH BURMA UAZKTTEER. 


Young people are buried iu a similar manner but with some abridgement 
of the forms. 

When the day of burial arrives and the body is carried to the grave four 
bamboo splints are taken and one is thrown towards the west saying : ‘ that is 
the east another is thrown to the east saying : ' that is the west a third 
is thrown upwards towards the top of a tree saying : ' that is the foot of the 
tree and a fourth is thrown downwards saying : ‘ that is top of the tree/ 
The sources of the stream are then pointed to saying ; ‘ that is the mouth 
‘‘ of the stream / and the mouth of the stream is pointed to saying : that is 
the head of the stream/ This is done because in Hades everything is upside 
down in relation to the things of this world. 

The body is then buried and the grave filled in without further ceremony 
and when the top of the grave has been neatly smoothed off a little fence 
of trellis- work is built around it. Within this fence boiled rice and other 
food are placed for the dead. 

On returning from the grave each person provides himself with three 
little hooks made of branches of trees and calling bis spirit to follow him at 
short intervals as he returns he makes a motion as if hooking it and then 
thrusts the book into the ground. This is done to prevent the spirit of the 
living from staying behind with the spirit of the dead.* 

After the funeral the grave-digger washes his clothes or the neglect to do 
so renders him unfortunate. Married children may dig the grave for a parent 
but young ones are prohibited. They must hire some one to do the work 
and give him five rupees. 

Like the Chinese the Bghais make annual feasts for the dead for three 
years after a person's death. The feast is made at the new moon near the 
close of August or the beginning of September ; and all the villagers that 
have lost relatives partake in it. 

Before the new moon they prepare food, plantains, sugarcane, tobacco, 
betel-nuts, betel leaves and other articles of consumption, A bamboo is laid 
across one angle of the roof of the room and on it are hung up new tunics, new 
" turbans, new petticoats, beads and bangles ; and at the appropriate time when 
" the spirits of the dead are supposed to be present, having returned to visit 
“ them, they say : ^ You have come to me, you have returned to me. It has ’ 
^ been raining hard and you must be wet. Dress yourselves, clothe yourselves ’ 
^ with these new garments and all the companions that are with you. Eat ' 
" ‘ betel together with all that accompany you, all your friends and associates’' 
‘ and the long dead. Call them all to eat and drink.’' 

After dark all the people eat bread made of boiled rice beaten in a 
mortar, The bread is spread out and the people are invited : ‘ all who are ' 
" ^ hungry eat bread here.’' 

‘‘Next morning, the first day of the moon, which is deemed the proper 
** feast day the previous last day of the month being regarded as the day of 
preparation, all who have kyee-zeef hang them up and beat them. Then 
they kill a bog and make thirty bottles of bamboos. Into one bottle they put 
" honey, into another water, in a third native spirit, in a fourth salt, in a fifth oil, 
** in a sixth chillies and into the seventh turmeric. The other twenty-three are 


• Cf. La” flub. tit. “ Kareng.” 

t A kind of gong peculiar to the Kareng and very highly valued. 



BBITI8H BURMA GAZETTEER. 


115 


laid aside. Loopholes are made to each bottle through which a string, dyed 
yellow, is tied. 

“ After setting apart the seven bottles that have been filled the remaining 
" twenty-three are filled with food indiscriminately, some with pork, some 
“ with boiled rice, some with rice bread, some with native spirit and some with 
" betel. When these are filled rice bread is rolled up in leaves and the rolls 
piled up together ; and then a large basket of open work is woven, into which 
all these bamboo bottles and the rolls of bread are put, 

** When the rice and meat are cooked for the feast, after the above arrange- 
ments have been made, the food is placed on kyee-zee or on little bamboo stools 
if they have no kyee-zee ; and they have to be very particular to spread out 
all the food at the same instant lest some of the spirits of the dead, being 
" delayed in eating, should be left behind by their companions. 

So soon as the food is arranged ou the tables the people beat the kyee- 
zee and begin to cry, which they say is calling the spirits to come to eat. 
Each one calls on the particular relative for whom he has prepared the feast 
as father, mother, sister, or brother. If a mother he says ; weeping : ‘ 0 prince- * 
' bird mother it is the close of August Oh ! It is the new moon in September ’ 
' Oh ! You have come to visit me Oh ! You have returned to see me Oh ! ' 
^ I give you eatables Oh ! I give you drinkables Oh ! Eat with a glad heart ’ 
" ^ Oh ! Eat with a happy mind Oh ! Don'^t be afraid mother Oh I Do not"' 
** ‘ be apprehensive Oh ! ^ 

After the weeping exercises are over the spirits are supposed to have 
finished their repast and the people sit down to cat what is left. 

More food is then prepared and put into the basket with the bamboo 
bottles that the spirits may have food to carry away with them ; and at coek- 
crowing next morning all the contents of the basket including the bamboo 
bottles are thrown out of the house on the ground ; when the same scene of 
crying and calling on the spirits of the dead is repeated as detailed above.'* 
Once a year in February or March every Bghai family holds a festival 
in which every personas wrist is tied with a thread and prayers are 
addressed both to the fowl offered and to Thie-keu, Mo-khie or Indra. The 
rite is called " The good to do but of its origin and object the natives can 
give no account beyond what is found in the forms themselves. 

When the time approaches the people prepare beforehand ardent spirits 
and buy hogs and fowls and get everything ready. When the time actually 
comes the villagers perform the ceremony, two or three or four families a 
“ day till it has gone through the whole village. 

The first thing done is to bring up two jars of arrack and secure 
^^them by tying them to a bamboo and the next is to bring up a hog and 
fowls. Then an eating dish is washed and filled with water and set by the 
" side of the jars with spirits. 

" An elder is now called or any one skilled in interpreting fowl's bones 
^^and a fowl is put into his hands. He cuts off the bill of the fowl dips its 
head and feet in the water and then drops the blood from the bleeding head 
on the forehead of the oldest man of the family that is performing the 
ceremony. 

The master of the ceremonies then addresses the elder and says : ‘ The 
* hand-tier devours thee ; thou hast the jaundice ; thou art shrivelled up thou' 
not strong; thou art weakly. Now we give food and drink to the hand-' 



116 


BKTTISH BURMA OAZKTTEKR. 


‘'Hier. Mayest thou be strong ; mayest thou be vigorous; mayest thou be’ 
'‘'established as the rock^ iudestraotible as the hearth stones; mayest thou’ 
‘"have long life; mayest thou have a protracted existence/ 

" After besmearing the elder’s forehead with the fowl’s blood the master 
"of the ceremonies pinches a few feathers and a little down from the fowl’s neck 
"and sticks them on the blood, where they adhere perhaps for the whole day. 

" He next addresses the fowl and says : ' Arouse, arouse, Thie-keu’s fowl,’ 
^ Mo-khie’s fowl, we give thee food, we afford thee sustenance. Thou drinkest’ 
' in a knowledge of the future, thou eatest superhuman power. In the morning’ 
' thou seest the hawk, in the evening thou seest man. The seven heavens thou’ 
“ ' ascendest to the top, the seven earths thou descendest to the bottom. Thou’ 
'"^arrivest at Khu-the, thou goest unto Tha-ma, [i. e. Yu-ma the judge of the 
" dead], ‘ Thou goest through the crevices of rocks thou goest through the’ 
"^crevices of precipices. At the opening and shutting of the western gates’ 
^ of rock thou goest in between, thou goest below the earth where the sun’ 
" ^ travels. I implore thee, I exhort thee. I make thee a messenger, I make’ 
' thee an angel. Good thou revealest ; evil thou revealest. Arouse thee’ 
'^^fowl arouse; reveal what is in thee. Now I exhort thee, I entreat thee.’ 

' If this man is to live to an old age, if his head is not to be bent down,’ 
^"if he is not to come down crash like a falling tree, let the right hand bone’ 
" ' come uneven, let the bones be short and long. Thou art skilled in the words’ 
“ ' of the elders ; thou knowest the language of old men. The good thou fully’ 
" ' knowest ; with the evil thou art perfectly acquainted. Fowl I exhort thee,’ 
'"I entreat thee ; reveal whatever is in thee. And now if this man’s head is’ 
“ ' to bend down, if he is to come down crash like a falling tree, if he is unable’ 
' to rest himself from incessant trouble, if unable to overcome obstacles which’ 
‘‘ ‘ shall meet him on every hand, if unable to rise up or lie down, if his life’ 
' is not to be prolonged, if he cannot live ; then fowl come up un propitious, come’ 
" ' up with the tendon short on the right side, come wrong end foremost. If he’ 
" ^ be able to obtain sufficient to support life, if he be not overcome by feuds,’ 
“ ^ fowl come up even. Thie-keu’s fowl, Mo-khie’s fowl I pull out thy feathers,’ 
' I pull at thy skin, I dip thy head, I dip thy feet. Arouse fowl, reveal what’ 
^ is in thee.’ 

“Every one in succession is then besmeared on the forehead with the 
blood of a separate fowl ; and then every one marks his own fowl by tying 
'^a string to it that he may recognise it after being cooked. Some tie a string 
on the neck, others on the leg, others on the wing and others elsewhere. 
They next scorch off the feathers and boil the fowls. 

" The hog is taken if the gall bladder be deemed a good one otherwise 
^^it is rejected. When the rice and meat is cooked they bring the rice and 
the pork and the fowls and the threads and the bamboo tubes to suck up 
*^the drink and the spirits and all are placed together. 

‘‘The master of the ceremonies then goes and pufcs two bamboo tubes into 
the left hand of one and the gall bladder of the hog and the head of the 
« right hand ; and then the elder of the family takes the thread 

« his wnst. Each one in succession takes the articles mentioned above 

in h^ or her hands and the elder ties every one’s wrist, at the same time 
tc wth each ; ‘ Mo-khie the hand-tier, the good -to-do, we offer thee food^ 

a « 1 prepared, a great hog. Defend us ; when we go to and’ 

tro ook after us. If we fall raise os up. WTien we go or return, when we’ 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


117 


‘ walk on a branch or a beam, when the branches or creepers break down, when’ 
* we go among the Burmese or other tribes, when we climb trees or descend^ 
‘ into the waters, when we go up into the house or return to the paddy field,' 
may no accident befal us, stretch forth thy hand and help us ; put forth thy' 
‘ foot and assist us. Go before us, follow behiud us. Deliver us from demons,’ 
' deliver us from ghosts.’ 

"After this the person whose wrist is tied changes the things in his 
hands from right to left and left to right. Then each one tastes the spirits; 
“ after which each one tastes the fowl ; and when this is done an elder is called 
upon to pray who prays thus : 

‘ Mo“khie of mountain Kie-ku Mo-khie of the seven heavens Mo-khie’ 
^^^of the seven earths assemble together even the blind the deaf and the’ 
“ Mame ; and eat and drink the food.’ 

A libation of spirits is then poured out ; and after this the drama closes 
with spirits being served out for all to drink”,* 

In sickness the Bghais like other Kareng (resembling in this respect the 
Kakhyen of the north) trust to divination and propitiation of the spirits 
but the ceremony of invocation is somewhat different. The whole family 
assembles and an elder leads a dog round them, praying as he goes. The 
dog is then killed and the elder sits opposite to the family with a green 
bamboo held horizontally three or four feet from the ground between him 
and them; over this the dead body of the dog is thrown by the legs towards 
the family who catch it and throw it back. After this has been donfe three 
times the animal is cooked and eaten. 

' Their villages consist of a single house with a passage down the centre and 
rooms on each side for each family, some houses containing as many as seventy- 
five of such rooms : below are the pigs; above in the rafters the fowls. The 
village is surrounded by a fence and round many are planted pointed bamboos 
at an angle of 45°. When a stranger visits them a spot for him is pointed 
out and if he moves from it he is speared. In many villages the men sleep 
on the ground to be ready to resist an attack. A new village is built every 
year when the inhabitants move to a new spot, on which occasion there is a 
feast and an ox or a buffalo is sacrificed to the spirits guarding the country. 

When about to make a foray, to which the head of the war ” i. e. the 
person on whose account the foray is made never goes, volunteers are called for 
either from the head of the war’s village only or from surrounding ones also and 
each individual has his duty allotted to him, some as guides and some as mem* 
bers of the storming party, whilst others are appointed to form the rear guard. 

Another peculiarity of this family is their love of dog’s flesh which the 
other Kareng will not touch. One sept is remarkable for its want of family 
affection : a sickly child a grumbling widowed mother or in times of scarcity 
an orphan nephew or niece is remorselessly sold into slavery. If an uncle 
dies they often sell the widow and if a married brother dies his widow has to 
pay ten rupees to her brothers-in-law or be sold. If a married woman dies her 
relatives demand a large price from the widower which he must pay or be sold 
or fight ; the majority of those who cannot pay adopting the last alternative. 

Except amongst the Red Kareng the animal sacrified to the spirits of their 
ancestors is a hog, the hierophant being the oldest woman of the family and no 
men taking part in the ceremony which has been described as follows : — 


Dr. in tho Bengal Asiatic S<>cict\V Jonnial. 



118 


BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


''The first thing is to brew or distil spirits for three days. Then a 
"little table is made with four bamboo posts. Leaves of a plant of the ginger 
"tribe are next rolled up in a sugar loaf form^ and three joints of bamboos are 
"cut off even. Spirits are then poured into these three bamboos, and the 
" conical rolls of leaves with bamboo bottles of drink are all set upright on 
" the table. Then a living hog is put on a fanning basket. 

" The head of the offering or priest is a woman and she takes one of 
" the conically rolled leaves and turning to the table she prays to Yau as if 
" he were present there. She prays thus.* 

" 'O Yau-peu thou dost now devour the whole family. We feed thee’ 
" ‘ with old spirits and a great hog. Heal us, watch over us, defend us. When’ 
" ^ we fall raise us up, when we slip down set us up again. Make us strong,^ 
" ‘ make us' vigorous, all of us. When we fall on the wood hew it through,’ 
" 'when we fall into a coffin split it open’ [L e. raise us up from the point of 
death]. 'Establish us, make us immoveable. Let not plots let not devices^ 
^ against us succeed. Let us have large crops, let us have good paddy. Let^ 
" ^us have little grass, let us have few weeds. Let our labour be light, let’ 
" ^us eat whatever we want. Let us succeed in our works, let us eat with little’ 
" 'work. Let the effects of our labours increase, let our produce swell up’ 
"'like rice in boiling. Let us ascend to the tops of the mountains, let us 
" ' descend to the depths of the valleys. Let us spear hogs, let us seize’ 
" ' captives. Let us purchase kyee-zee, let us dig out the pangolin’ [i, e. let 
" us accomplish difficult things] . ' In the water let us be great rocks, on land’ 

" ' let us be large wood-oil trees. Let not the tiger seize us, let not the tiger’ 
'kill us. When the tiger would leap on us may he gi’owi, when man woul(? 
" ' seize us may he cough. When tigers would leap on us may they wait for’ 
" ^ each other, when men would seize us may they feel abashed. Let us devour’ 
" ^ a stream to its source, let us eat a creek to its mouth’ [i. e. get possession 
" of the whole valley] . ' Let us eat up the rock to atoms, let us eat the sand’ 

" ‘to dust’ [i. c. overcome every difficulty]. 

" The priestess next lays her left hand on the neck of the hog and with 
" her right she grasps the hand of the oldest person in the company and shak- 
" ing it slowly up and down she repeats the above prayer. In this way she 
" goes round the whole company from the oldest to the youngest, repeating 
" the prayer with each. 

" The hog is killed next but it is not killed with a knife or spear ; a 
" sharpened bamboo is forced into it on the right side, under the fore leg. 
" When the bristles have been singed off a part of the flesh is cooked with 
" rice flour in a chatty and a part in joints of bamboo ; but the head is hung 
" up whole on the posts of the table. 

" When the rice and meat is spread out the priestess shakes hands again 
" with each one and prays as before. She then tastes the food and after her 
** the others taste it in succession from the oldest to the youngest. 

" This done, they rise up and the priestess tastes the spirits ; and as before 
" all the rest follow her example according to seniority. After this they all 
" return to the food again. 

" At evening the stomach of the hog is roasted and all taste of it in the 
** manner described above. 

Alluding to the “ supposed duties'’ of these spirits tus servants of the Lord of the Castle, 
an account of whom is given sub tit, “ Karen” Q. V. 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


119 


Next morning at dawn, they take the posts of the table and throwing them 
away endwise, as they would throw a javelin, into the eai'th without the village 
they say : ^ now it is done, it is finished. Go thy way, return to thy place.'' 

“ After it is lig^t, they cook the head of the hog and eat it with any meat 
that may be left. Ou that day the people do not go away from the house.''* 
In addition to this offering to the manes of their ancestors they have a 
custom of making a sacrifice to the lord of the earth'’ in July, usually once 
in three years, but in calamitous times once in two and in prosperous times 
once in four or five only. 

The first thing done is to take a hog to a central position in the village 
lands and placing it under an Eugenia tree, there erect a booth. The Eugenia 
is chosen because regarded as a more holy tree than any other. The booth 
is for the four ^ heads of the sacrifice' or priests, and elders to occupy. 

When the booth is built every man cuts three bamboos, one long one 
to represent a post in his barn, and two short ones, which he ties to the long 
" one, to represent the height to which he wishes his crop of paddy to reach 
when it is gathered into his barn. Then he makes, in miniature, a paddy-bin 
a long pen, a hen-coop, a trap, and a snare. 

When these preparatory measuz-es have been taken one of the heads of 
the sacrifice calls the people together and all the men assemble about the 
booth. The most wealthy elders sit together with the heads of the sacrifice 
the booth, but the young people and the poor stay without. No women 
are allowed to be pi’esent. 

The ceremonies are introduced by tbe bead of the sacrifice taking a 
small branch of the Eugenia tree in his hand, when all present imitate him 
and take a leafy sprig of the tree. The leader lifts his clasped hands to 
^‘heaven with the spi’ig between them and prays ; when all follow his example, 
each asking in his prayers for whatever he most desires. 

After the prayers, the head of the sacrifice rises up and, taking a spear, 
spears the hog to death. So soon as the blood begins to flow all the people 
^‘jump up and each one seizes his bamboo which had been set against tbe tree 
and calls out with a loud voice : ^ may my barn be filled with paddy as high' 
^ as my bamboo.' Some cry out : ^ I have caught many rats in my trap and 
others : ^ I have snared many wild fowls in my snare.’ Some dance with 
shields that they have prepared for the pui'pose, and others beat drums and 
^^blow pipes. 

They next take the hog to the village and every man, young and old 
who is able, kills a fowl ; and, after they have cooked the hog and fowls and 
prepared the food and drink properly, they carry the whole to the booth. 
There they place the food on a raised platform prepared for the purpose, and 
^'taking again sprigs of the Eugenia tree between their clasped hands, they 
all pray, saying ; ^ Lord of the seven heavens and seven earths, lord of the' 
^ water, lord of the land, Thie-kho-mu-kba, all of you, eat our property, eat' 
‘ our pork, eat our fowls, make our paddy good, our rice good ; make our' 
^ daughters handsome, our sons skilful ; give us food, give us drink, give us’ 
'to become governors, give us to become elders; enable us to buy kyee-zee/ 
' to spear with fatal effect ; make our names famous, heard above and below ;' 
^ make us joyous and happy with our wives and children.’ 


* Dr. Mason in the Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal. 


m 


BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


After praying*, they rise up and dance again. When the dancing is 
** done they set the food in order in the booth, to remain there all nigiit as 
not a bit of it is to be eaten before the next day, and then return to their 
houses, dancing all the way home. The remainder of the day is spent in 
'' their houses, drinking, dancing, and beating kyee-zee and gongs. 

The next morning they all repair again to the foot of the Eugenia tree, 
" when the heads of the sacrifice and the elders commence eating the food and 
^ drinking the spirits that have been prepared and placed in the booth. All 
are allowed to partake that choose, but the food is considered holy, and none 
^^but the holy, clean, and upright persons are considered as proper persons to 
partake of it. The question of fitness is left, however, for every one to 
decide for himself. If a man feels persuaded in his own mind that he is 
guilty of no transgression but is upright and holy he goes forward and 
“ partakes of the food ; but if his conscience reproves him for some wrong 
deed or word he joins the throng outside the booth and occupies the time 
** with others in dancing. Nor is unfitness to partake of this holy food coufin- 
ed to immoral acts there are certain ceremonial uncleannesses which are 
regarded as unfitting a man to partake. For instance, if a man’s wife is preg- 
'^nant he is deemed unclean and unfi.tted to eat of this holy food. 

After the feast is finished the company returns to the village, dancing 
all the way as before ; and on arriving at the houses one or two of the heads 
‘‘ of the sacrifice, go to the brook and draw two bamboos of water for every 
family in the village. After the water has been drawn the heads of the 
sacrifice call all the members of each family to the hall or verandah — men, 
" women, and children — and then he sprinkles or throws the water from one 
** bamboo upon them. Those who get wot are said to be free from evil, be^ 
cause the water is ‘ holy water.' One bamboo-full remains in the house till 
^^next morning when the owners go to the fields and sprinkle it on their 
growing paddy ; and they say because it is holy water,' the paddy that 
“ is wet by it will be good and abundant. 

In all these ceremonies women are carefully excluded, except in partici- 
pating of ^ the holy water.' 

^‘The four eiders that are called the ^ heads of the sacrifice' or priests have 
^‘special names or titles given them to distinguish their office. 

‘‘ The first is called Deu-sai, L e. Lord of the village. 

„ second ,, ,, Pghai-sen „ The Messenger. 

,, third ,, „ Ywa-san ,, Keeper of the village. 

„ fourth „ „ Sa-kai „ Signification uncertain. 

These offices are strictly hereditary. The fathers of the present occu- 
pants held them, and their places, when they die, will be held by their sons. 

When the priests officiate they have embroidered tunics given them by 
the people. Sometimes these are embroidered with silk and often with red 
** silk, and are made longer than ordinary garments. The people give them 
also ear knobs and beads, and think that it is very meritorious to do so."* 

BGHAI«KA“HTA. — A subdivision of the Bghai Kareng tribe, called by 
the English Pant Bghai from their wearing trowsers and not tunics. The 
Burmese name for them is Kareng Ayaing" or '^Wild Kareng" Their 
distinguishing dress is a pair of a short white trowsers with red radiating 


* Dr. Mftsou in Bengal Asiatic Society’s Joumal, 





\. 

/ 

y 






BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


121 


lines worked in them near the bottom, as the rajs of the rising sun are 
sometimes represented”.* 

They inhabit the western slopes of the hills between the Salween and 
Tsittoung rivers from the frontier down to about five miles north of the 
latitude of the town of Toung-ngoo. Those whose villages are near the 
Burmese are comparatively civilized and rear silkworms but those living 
in the interior are rude and their women, like those of the Wewas, do not know 
how to weave ; they have, therefore, to get their cloths from their neighbours, 
and generally by begging or stealing. They are fond of dogs’ flesh which 
they eat without salt, 

BGHAI-KA-TEU. — A subdivision of the Bgbai family of Kareng called 
by the Burmese Lieppyagyeeov big butterflies ” and by the English Tunic 
Bghai to distinguish them from another clan of the same division who wear 
trowsers. Their distinguishing dress is a white tunic or smock frock with red 
perpendicular stripes. They have but few villages all situated in the Toung- 
ngoo district of the Tenasserim division on the right bank of the Thouk-re- 
kbat stream. 

BGHAI-MOO-HTE. — A sept of the Bghai tribe of Kareng, so called by 
the other Bghai . — See Kareng-nee, 

BHA-LA. — A small river in the Hpoungdeng township, Rangoon district, 
which has its source in the Pegu Romas and flowing southwards falls into 
the Poozwondoung through a mouth 150 feet broad ; the banks are 
steep in some places and sloping at others, except in the hills the bed is 
muddy and sandy. At low water it is fordable just above its junction with 
the little Afcaroo a few miles from its mouth. The name is Talaing and means 
Arrow River. 

BHA-LA-TADA-GYEE. — A village in the Betho circle, Hpouug-leng 
township, Rangoon district, on the Pro me road between eleven and twelve miles 
from Rangoon. The inhabitants, who are mostly agriculturists, numbered 788 
in 1877. The name is partly Talaing and partly Burmese and means literally 
the great bridge over the river ArrowT The village was so called from 
the existence at this spot of a large bridge across the Bhala. 

BHA-LE.~A village in the Gnyoung-beng circle in the south of the 
Pegu township, Rangoon ' district, on the east bank of the Pegu river, 
a little south of the mouth of the Paing-kyoon stream. The inhabitants 
are almost entirely agriculturists and in 1877 numbered 789 souls. The 
name is Talaing and means Gourd River. 

BHAN. — ^A revenue circle in the Shwe-gygeng district extending south- 
east from Shwe-gyeng to the hills and bounded on the south by the Mootta- 
ma or, as it is more commonly pronounced, Madama river. Over 235 square 
miles in extent it is sparsely cultivated and inhabited by a small population 
of 8,846 souls mostly Kareng. The gross revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 4,951 
of which Rs. 3,205 was derived from the laud. 

BHAN-BHWAI-GOON, — A small revenue circle in the Poungday town- 
ship, Prome district. In 1876 it had a population of 246 souls and a gross 


* Burma ; by Dr. Mason, second Edition, page 8S. 


16 



122 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


revenue of Rs. 781 of which Es. 376 were derived from the land aud Rs. 335 
from the capitation -tax. 

BHAN-BHWAI-GOON. — A rising village in the Hmaw-bhee circle of 
the township of the same name in the Rangoon district. In 1868 it had 
rather over 100 inhabitants and in 1877 502. 

BHAN-BOUNG. — A small river in the Prome district, not navigable 
by boats, which rises in the Neepa-tshe spur and flowing in a north-westerly 
direction joins the Teng-gyee a little to the west of the village of Myodoung. 
The bed of the stream is sandy and muddy and the banks are moderately steep. 
In the country which it traverses are found several kinds of valuable timber 
as Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolahriforrnis) y Reng^daik {Dalbergia cultrata)^ Htouk- 
kyan ( Terminalia crenata ), Thabye ( Eugenia sp, ) and Cutch {Acacia 
catechu ) . 

BHANBYENG. — A little village of only thirty houses in the circle of 
the same name, Thayet township, Thayet district, on the Pwon stream about 
sixteen miles north-west, by the present road, from Thayetmyo. It does not 
appear amongst the villages registered in the Burmese Domesday Book’*^ of 
1838 A, D. It is important only in that near it several earth-oil wells have 
been sunk whence a clear oil is obtained unlike the thick and viscid product 
found at Padoukbeng and at Renankhyoung the site of the prolific earth-oil 
wells in Upper Burma. 

BHANBYENG. — A revenue circle in the Kama township, Thayet dis- 
trict, stretching up westward to the Arakan hills and occupying the valley 
of the Nga-wet river and the country on the left bank of the Toung-goung- 
doon. To the east, beyond the end of the Kyouk spur, the country is fairiy 
level but the whole of the western portion of the circle is forest-covered moun- 
tain, the unculturable area being no less than 110 square miles out of the 
114 of the whole circle. The regular cultivation measures about 500 acres 
the remainder being hillside clearings. The population in 1876 numbered 3,373 
souls and the gross revenue, derived mainly from capitation tax, amounted to 
Rs. 5,405. The only village is Thayet-kyoung containing rather under 
100 houses and situated at the south-eastern foot of the hills. In 1872 
Kyoukpyoot and subsequently Tsee were placed under the Bhanbyeng Thoo- 
gyee. 

BHANBYENG. — A revenue circle in the valley of the Pouk-khoung 
in the Prome district eastward of Prome, on the lower slopes of the spurs 
of the Pegu Roma mountains and south of the Naweng. The neighbouring 
Tsheng-gaw circle has been joined to it and in 1876-77 the united tracts had 
a population of 1,261 souls and produced a gross revenue of Es. 1,996 of 
.^ich Rs. 755 were derived from the land and Rs. 836 from the capitation 

BHAN-GOON. — A revenue circle in the Thayet township, Thayet dis- 
trict, which formerly belonged to the Kama township but was transferred in 
1859 as being near Thayetmyo and inconveniently distant from Kama. It 
has an area of 24 square miles of which about 16 are unculturable 
waste and about two under cultivation^ the remainder being culturable 
waste. The population in 1876 numbered 2,716 souls, all Burmans. The pro- 
ducts are nee, sessamum, cotton, maize, plantains, chillies, cutch and silk. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


123 


In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 1,763, the capitation-tax Rs. 2,867 and 
the gross revenue Rs, 4,744. 

BHAN-LAW. — A revenue circle in the Mergui district occupying the val- 
ley of the Tenasserim river above its junction with the little Tenasserim. 
In 1876-77 it had a population of 1,997 souls, a land revenue of Rs. 1,525 and 
produced Rs. 1,347 as capitation-tax. 

BHAN-OUNGr. — A revenue circle in the Toung-ngoo district north of 
Toung-ngoo and on the right bank of the Tsittoung river. Regular rice culti- 
vation is carried on to a small extent only, the inhabitants, being mainly Toungya 
cultivators or gardeners. Towards the north of the circle is the Tseeloung 
lake, five feet deep in the dry weather and eight feet in the rains ; at the latter 
season it can be entered by moderately sized boats. In 1876-77 the land 
revenue was Rs. 2,253, the capitation-tax Rs. 3,150, the gross revenue Rs. 7,632 
and the population 4,135. 

BHAW, — A stream in the Rangoon district. Leaving the network of 
streams and creeks which occupies the central portion of the Than-lyeng town- 
ship it flows westward and falls into the Pegu river about a mile above Syriam. 
Throughout its course it forms the boundary between the Poo-gan-doung 
and the Thanlyeng circles. At its mouth it is about 100 feet wide and 
about 16 feet deep and, with the tide, is navigable throughout by the largest 
boats, which bring to the Rangoon market the rice produced in the fertile 
tract which it drains. 

BHAWDEE. — A stream in the Thoonkhwa district which collects, 
through numerous creeks, a good deal of the drainage of the Douabyoo 
township west of the Irrawaddy and falls into that river through a mouth 
130 feet broad and 13 deep. It is navigable by the largest class of boats 
for 14 miles, .to Shwe-hle. 

BHA WKATA. — A stream in the Shwe-gyeng district, which has its 
source in the western slopes of the Poungloung mountains and falls into the 
Kyouk-gyee a few^ miles above its mouth. 

BHAW-LAY. — A revenue circle in the Hlaing township, Rangoon 
district, on the north of the Pan- hlaing creek. Rice is cultivated in the north 
and east but the centre of the circle is covered with tree forest and the western 
portion consists of low plains liable to inundation. In 1876 the land 
revenue was Rs. 9,602, the capitation-tax Rs. 5,880 and the gross revenue 
Rs. 24,994: in the same year the population numbered 4,822. 

BHAW-LAY. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Hlaing 
township, Rangoon district, on the Bhaw-lay creek a little south of its junc- 
tion with the Pa-khwon. The inhabitants, who in 1877 numbered 527, are 
mostly rice cultivators. Bhaw-lay is a corruption of the Talaing Bhoung- 
lee’^ which signifies a progress.’^ The place was so named from having 
been specially visited by king Narapadee-tseethoo during one of his royal 
progresses^’ circa 1190 A. D. A fine kind of matting is made here which 
finds a ready sale in Rangoon. 

BHAW-LAY. — A creek in the northern portion of the Rangoon dis- 
trict which leaves the Hlaing a little above Hle-tshiep and after flowing 
west and then south rejoins it a little above Htan-ta-boug. Boats of from 
400 to 500 bushels burden can traverse it from end to end. The banks are 



124 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTKER. 


somewhat steep and are sandy and covered with grass and tree forest. 
During the dry weather the tide, at springs, is felt as far as its northern 
mouth ; during the rains it is navigable by river steamers. 

BHAWMEE. — A river in the Khyoung-tha township, Bassein district, 
which has its source in the western slopes of the Arakan mountains and falls 
into the Bay of Bengal near the village of the same name. It is tidal as far 
as Thoonkhwa, a distance of some 20 miles: its bed is sandy and gravelly 
and at the mouth are several rocks which make the entry difficult for large 
boats. At Shwe-tsheng-kho, twelve miles from the mouth, there is a 
depth of five feet of water and at Toung-tsakhan, nearly four miles further up, 
of four feet. The banks are covered with Bamboo and Neepatshe. 

BHAWMEE. — A revenue circle, 250 square miles in extent in the 
Thaboung township, Bassein district, immediately to the south of Khwa-letya 
(now under the same Thoogyee) between the Bay of Bengal on the west and 
the Arakan mountains on the east. The whole circle with the exception of a 
little plain cultivated land near the villages of Kyoodaw and Thaigoon consists 
of a mountain tract covered with dense forest. From the mouth of the 
Magyee river, the southern boundary of the circle, for five miles northward a 
sandy beach is found with the hills and forest coming close down to the 
wateris edge : above the mouth of the Oon a rocky headland projects, thence 
sand and rock alternate to about 1 J miles south of Matha whence, up to the 
Bhawmee in the north, the coast is rocky and abrupt. The villages are small 
and the population is sparse. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 525, the 
capitation-tax Es. 1,152, the gross revenue Es. 2,011 and the population 1,406. 

BHAWNEE. — A revenue circle in the Shwe-gyeng district lying on 
the eastern slopes of the Pegu Eomas and extending from the Toung-ngoo 
district in the north to the Rangoon district in the south. The whole area 
of 800 square miles, except in the east where there are a few patches of rice 
cultivation, may be said to consist of a mass of hills covered with dense forest. 
Id 1876 the population numbered 4,738, the land revenue was Rs. 2,039, the 
capitation-tax -Rs. 3,082 and the gross revenue Rs. 5,432. After the 
annexation of Pegu this tract was divided into two circles and attached to 
Rangoon; subsequently the two were amalgamated and the tract attached to 
the Toung-ngoo district from which, in 1866, it was transferred to Shwe-gyeng. 
None of the streams are of any importance ; the principal are the Re-nweand 
the Bhien-da. A considerable quantity of silk is spun from silkworms reared 
on the spot and exported mainly to Prome and Shwedou ng. 

BHAWNEE. — A small village of about 400 inhabitants on the Bhaw- 
nee river in the southern part of the circle of the same name in the Shwe- 
gyeng district. 

BHAW-THA-BYE-GAN.— A village in the Poo-gan-doung circle, Than- 
lyeng township, Rangoon district, on the Bhaw creek, a few miles from its 
month in the Pegu river, easily reached by boats which bring away the un- 
huAed rice largely produced in the surrounding country. The inhabitants are 
almost all agriculturists and in 1877 numbered 767 souls. The village is 
generally ^^own as Bhaw Thabyegan to distinguish it from the numerous 
other Thabyegan in the same circle. The name is derived from a tank (kan or 
gan) in the neighbourhood near some Tha-bye trees {Eugenia sp.) 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


125 


BHAWTHAIK. — A revenue circle in the Amherst district. See Thamhhaya* 

BHAYAI. — A petty and decreasing village in the Shwebandaw circle, 
Myedai township, Thayet district. About ten years ago it contained 80 
houses which have now decreased to about 16. Moung Kyouk-kai, a follower 
of the Tsekya Meng, set up his gold umbrella here in the rebellion of 
1209 B. E. (1847 A.D.), 

BHEELENG. — A revenue circle in the Tsan-rwe township, Henzada 
district, now joined to the Tsan-rwe Myoma circle. 

BHEELENG. — A small stream in the Henzada district which rises in 
the western slopes of the Pegu Romas and after a south and west course of 
about 24 miles falls into the Hlaing or Myitmakha at Bheeleng, During 
the rains boats of 100 bushels burden can ascend for about six miles as far as 
Kyeedaw ; in the dry weather it is not navigable. The banks are steep and 
the bed muddy. 

BHEELENG. — A village on the right bank of the Hlaing at the mouth 
of the Bheeleng river. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 1,057. They are 
principally petty traders and fishermen. 

BHEELENG. — A revenue circle in the Tsittoung sub-division of the 
Shwe-gyeng district on the right bank of the Bheeleng river and including 
the town of Bheeleng. It has an area of about 220 square miles. In 1876 
6,047 acres were under cultivation and in 1876-77 the gross revenue, 
including the local revenue of the town of Bheeleng, was Rs. 19,009 of which 
the capitation-tax furnished Rs. 6,460 and the land revenue Rs. 5,878. The 
population in that year was 8,716. 

BHEELENG. — A river in the Shwe-gyeng district. It has its source 
in about the latitude of Kyouk-gyee, west of the head waters of the Rwonzaleng, 
in the mass of mountains which lie between the Tsittoung and the Salween 
and flows southward for about 282 miles, falling into the sea at the head 
of the Bay of Bengal a few miles to the east of the mouth of the Tsittoung. 
For many miles it is a shallow rocky stream with a rapid current ; as it enters 
the plain country it deepens but does not materially widen and after flowing past 
Yeng-oon and Bheeleng and receiving the waters of numerous creeks it 
becomes very tortuous and finally spreads out into a bell mouth two miles broad 
up which a bore rushes with great velocity, in the dry season felt as far as 
Shwe-le a few miles below Bheeleng, the tide ascending considerably higher : 
during the rains the current increases and except near the month of the river 
the bore makes no way. At this season the waters spread over the banks 
and inundate the bordering plains, but the Thein-tshiep and Tha-htoon plains 
in the south-east which formerly suflfere^l most are now to a great extent pro- 
tected by the Doonwon and Kamathaing embankment which has been raised a 
few miles south of the Kyoon-iep, the southern boundary of the Shwe-gyeng 
district east of this river. From May to September a short portion of its 
course, from the mouth of the Shwe-le creek to the mouth of the Kyoon-iek, 
forms part of the main route from the Tsittoung to Maulmain. 

BHEELENG. — A town on the right bank of the Bheeleng river, the head- 
quarter station of the Bheeleng Kyaik-hto township, Tsittoung sub-division, 
Shwe-gyeng district, containing a Court-house, Circuit-house, Police station and 
a wooden market. It is well laid out in straight steets crossing each other 



126 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


at right angles. In 1824 Oozana, Governor of Martaban, when he retired 
before the British settled here with a number of Burman followers and built 
a stockade and was confirmed as Governor by the King of Burma. Six years 
later he was murdered by one of his officials and the extent of territory under 
the Governors control was then reduced. During the second Burmese war the 
town was surrendered without resistance to the commander of the British column 
which advanced from Martaban to Toung-ngoo, After the annexation of the 
country in 1853 an insurrection broke out headed by a Shan of Keng-rwa, 
a village to the westward, who had been made a Thoogyee. Troops were sent 
from Kyaik-hto and the insurgents, after some sharp fighting, driven 
out ofBheeleng and dispersed. Since then it has more than once been attack- 
ed and plundered by dacoits, the last occasion being in 1863, and has twice 
been burned down and rebuilt. In 1877 it had a population of 2,074 souls, 
principally Barmans traders with a small admixture of Taking. In 1876-77 
the local revenue realized was Rs, 1,709. 

BHEELENG KYAIK-HTO. — A township in the Tsittoung sub-division 
of the Shwe-gyeng district bounded on the north by the lower range of the 
mass of mountains which form the Salween Hill Tracts, on the south by the 
sea, on the east for the most part by theBheeleng river which separates it from 
the Tha-htoon township of the Amherst district but in the north-east by the 
Doonthamie several miles to the eastward of the Bheeleng, and on the west by 
the Kadat stream which separates it from the Tsittoung township of the same 
sub-division. The general aspect of the country is that of a wide alluvial plain 
stretching southwards from the base of the hills to the seacoast and traversed 
by streams or rather drainage -ways which carry ofip the rain-fall of the 
southern slopes of the hills and the plain and, from the formation of the 
country and of the coastline, admit the full rush of the tide which rapidly 
covers the coast for miles and rising into a bore in every channel sweeps up 
almost to the foot of the hills. The fact that at no very remote period the sea 
covered the whole plain is attested by the geological formation and by the 
occasional discovery of cables of large size at Kyoiik-loon-gyee, Taik-koola and 
other places : to these local traditions add their testimony. The only river is 
the Bheeleng. On its banks, near the town of the same name, porcelain 
clay is found and is used by Shans, who come down for the season only 
bringing another kind of clay and other minerals from the Shan States, which 
they use with the local mineral in making pottery. The vessels made are 
variously ornamented but the designs are rude and inartistic. The principal 
towns and villages are Bheeleng with a population of 2,074 in 1876, the head- 
qmrters of the township, Kyaik-hto the head -quarters of the sub-division 
with 8,011 inhabitants, Keng-rwa, Taing-kaw and Kaw-ka-dwot. The inhabit- 
ants who in 1876 numbered 40,625 souls are principally Taking except in 
the town of Bheeleng where the Burman element largely predominates. There 
is a Toni^gthoo settlement at Kyouk-ta-loon and Shan villages are found along 
the bank of the Bheeleng. During Burman rule members of this race, of which 
great numbers are now immigrating, were, on account of their predatory habits, 
forbidden to enter Burman territory. The Bheeleng river annually over- 
flows its banks and the rich alluvial mud deposited favours the growth of a 
variety of vegetable products and especially sugarcane which is extensively 
cultiva^ round about Bheeleng. The land i*evenue jn 1876 was Rs. 37)844 
the capitation- tax Rs. 31,142 and the gross revenue Rs. 86,638. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


127 


BHEELOO. — A sub -tribe of Pwo Kareug so called by the Burmese. 
— See Taroo. 

BHEELOO-GYWON. — An extensive island lying* in the mouth of the 
Salween 107 square miles in extent and about 30 miles long and stretching 
from Martaban to Amherst. It forms a township of the Amherst district. 
The western portion of the island was formerly cut off from the rest by a large 
creek called the Tsaibala ; of this the northern end has entirely silted up. 
This western portion, in the Burmese time, formed a separate ^ Myo^ or town- 
ship called Daray. The middle of the island from north to south is occupied 
by a range of wooded and pagoda topped hills which sends out spurs eastward 
to the river and westward to the sea ; these traverse rich rice land and their sides 
and lower slopes are covered with orchards of mango, mangosteen and other 
fruit trees. The alluvial plains to the west of these hills, between them and 
the sea, are extensive and fertile ; those to the east are narrow and less pro- 
ductive. The head-quarters are at Khyoung-tshoon lying in about the centre 
of the island in a dip of the hills. Here there is an artificial reservoir, an 
embankment, lined with flowering trees, having been thrown across the lower 
end of a small valley. The villages, which with few exceptions are all situated 
at the foot of the hills, are generally large and straggling. This is chiefly 
owing to the Taking prejudice against living in a house which does not face 
the north. The houses are large and well raised. 

The island is intersected with creeks which enable the produce to be 
exported with but little expense. There are two short roads both made by 
Major Broad foot about thirty years ago : one about three miles long from 
Kalwee at the northern extremity of the island across a plain to the central 
range of hills which has been allowed to fall out of repair : the other about 
three miles long from Natmaw on the Salween to Khyoung-tshoon ; this has 
been kept in repair and is much used. 

In the Burman time this township, exclusive of Daray, was divided into 
twelve difierent Ewa’'^ which in this instance meant tracts of country divided 
oflP for fiscal purposes and each placed under one Thoogyee. The boundaries 
of each Rwa, however, do not appear to have been laid down with any great 
degree of exactitude. When the township came to be re-peopled, after the 
cession of Tenasserim to the British, immigrants arrived in parties each under 
its own leader ; these leaders continued to exercise authority irrespective of 
the old boundaries and were naturally acknowledged as the Thoogyee of 
the villages they established and as the collectors of the taxes due by their 
followers, but it frequently happened that some of the followers cultivated 
land at a distance from the village in which they lived and amongst the lands 
of inhabitants of another village yet they still payed the land revenue through 
their own leader and the revenue divisions of the country then became tribal 
instead of territorial. Such an arrangement was no doubt politic and con- 
venient in the early years of our occupation but its inconvenience when a 
closer check upon the Thoogyee became advisable was great. 

In 1848 Captain (now Sir Arthur) Phayre, then the Deputy Commis- 
sioner, carefully examined the township and fixed the boundaries of the circles ; 
he retained as much as possible the ancient limits of the old divisions but when 
it was found that two or more Thoogyee had exercised authority within the 
limits of one of these divisions for twenty years, when new interests had sprung 
up or where the reduction of a Thoogyee’s office was likely to be felt as a 



128 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


hardship by the people he divided the old Rwa. The thirteen Rwa of the 
Rurmese time were thus made into eighteen circles. Since then some of the 
smaller circles have been joined to others but the boundaries laid down by 
Captain Phayre have been adhered to except in one instance. In 1868 the 
number of circles had thus been reduced to fifteen and in 1876 to twelve. 

The cultivation has very considerably increased : — 


In 

1848 

it was 

^ * 

.. 15,225 acres. 


1853 

>y 


21,049 do. 


1858 



27,606 do. 


1863 

>> 


28,002 do. 


1868 

1* 


32,545 do. 

19 

1873 

»» 


42,318 do. 

11 

1876 



141,274 do. 


Between Kbyoung-tshoon and the northern end of the island, amongst 
the hills at Ka-hgnyaw, there is a hot saline spring the water of which is used 
on the spot in cases of rheumatism and skin diseases. The township in 1876, 
when the population numbered 24,141 souls or a little over 225 to the square 
mile, produced a gross revenue of Es. 78,866. The name, which means 
^^Cacodemon island,” is derived from traditions of its having formerly been 
inhabited by anthropophagous monsters.* 

BHENG-BYAI. — A river in the Toung-ngoo district which rises in the 
Poungloung range and after a south-westerly course falls into the Tsittoung 
about 30 miles north of Toung-ngoo. It is not navigable by boats at any season 
of the year ; during the rains a considerable quantity of teak is floated down 
it. 

BHENGLAING. — A river in the Amherst district, formed by tbe junc- 
tion of the Doonthamie and the Kyouk-tsarit, which falls into the Salween 
in about 16° 45' N. It is navigable throughout and flows between high 
and wooded banks. During the rains it forms a portion of the ordinary 
route between Maulmain and the Tsittoung river. Across the mouth is a 
sand-bar which in the dry season is impassable at low water except by small 
boats. 

BHENGLAING.— A revenue circle in the Hpagat township in the 
Amherst district, lying in the angle formed by the junction of the Bheng- 
laing with the Salween. This is the only circle in the district in which tobacco 
is grown except for home consumption. In 1876, the land revenue was 
Rs, 2,497, the capitation-tax Rs, 3,325, and the population 3,265. 

BHETRAI. — A large village in the Henzada district on the bank of the 
Fala river about 12 miles in a direct line inland from the Irrawaddy, contain- 
ing some 700 inhabitants who are principally cultivators, petty traders 
and foresters ; taree-drawers are numerous as the circle in which the village is 
situated produces a considerable number of taree-trees. 

BHETRAI. — A revenue circle in the Kyan-kheng township, Henzada 
u^tnct, extending southwards down a valley between two subsidiary spiirs of 
theTazoung-gyee and drained by a small tributary of tbe Kwon. Near 
village of Bhetrai there is some rice cultivation but elsewhere the country is 


* See page 44, lines 8 and 9, and note on page 75. 

t There were &,840 more acres oi rice land left fallow in 1876 than in 1873. 



BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


129 


hilly and covered with dense tree forest in which are found Pyeugma {Lager- 
$troemiaRegince)jVyeug-gdAo {Xylia dolabriformis) and Eu g (Dipterocarpus 
tuberculatus) . The land revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 6^750, the capitation-tax 
Rs. 4,700, the gross revenue Es. 11,484 and the population 4,622. 

BHET-EAI. — A creek in the Bassein district forming the western 
boundary of the Takaiug circle. It extends northwards from the Thandwai 
to the Thoodan, parallel to the Bassein river. The largest boats can ascend 
as far as the Thoodan. 

BHIEN-DA. — A small stream which rises in the eastern slopes of the 
Pegu Roma mountains in the Bhaw-nee circle of the Shwe-gyeng district 
and after an easterly course of about 45 miles falls into the Re-nwe. 
Towards the source the banks are steep but towards the mouth flat ; the bed 
is rocky and sandy. In the rains small boats can ascend as far as the village of 
Bhien-da. The principal trees found on the banks are Teak, Sha (Acacia 
catechu)^ Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolabrifoi'mis) and Pyeng-ma (Lagerstrcemia 
Regina), 

BHIEN-DA W-TSHIE P. — ^A lake in the Donabyoo township, Thoonkhwa 
district, connected by watercourses with the Hlaing river ; it is from 2 to 2i 
miles long and 10 feet deep in the hot weather. 

BHODAW. — A township in the Bassein district which now forms a 
portion of Regyee. 

BHODAW. — A small river in the Bassein district which rises in the 
Arakan mountains. After a course of about 14 miles, nearly due east, it falls 
into the Bassein a mile or so south of Gnyoting-maw village, where it is 
about 70 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The bed is sandy and muddy ; the 
banks are covei’ed with fine timber and teak is found near its source. With 
the flood boats of 100 bushels burden can ascend for about two miles. 

BHODAW KANNEE. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-khyoung-galc 
township (now joined to Le-myet-hna) Bassein district, about 126 square miles 
in extent, stretching eastwards from the Arakan mountains to the Bassein 
liver and lying to the north of the Bhodaw stream. Formerly Bhodaw and 
Kannee were separate circles, both in the Bhodaw township; some years ago they 
were united and subsequently were transferred to Kyouk-khyoung-gale. 
The western part is hilly and covered with tree forest including teak but 
between the lower slopes of the hills and the Bassein river there is some level 
land where rice is cultivated. At the village of Tsha-daw, at the mouth of 
the Kwon, pottery for various purposes is manufactured. The felling and sale 
of the timber and bamboos found to the westward afford a means of livelihood 
to the inhabitants of the villages in the interior; fishing, cultivation and 
trading to those of villages farther east. The land revenue in 1876-77 was 
Rs. 3,652, the capitation-tax Rs. 4,860, the gross revenue Rs. 9,036 and the 
population 8,963. 

BHODOOP. — A tidal creek in the Tlioon-khwa district uniting the To 
with the Pantabwot and forming the head of the Pyapoon river. Its northern 
mouth is shallow and it is only at high water that large boats can pass 
through. The banks are steep and covered with dense tree forest. 

BHO-HTIET-RWA. — A large village of some 700 souls or more in the 
Myoung-mya township, Bassein district, in 16"^ 33' N. and 95"^ 7' E. 


17 



130 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


BHOMBADEE . — See Bhoominawadee, 

BHOOMMAWADEE. — A township of the Toung-ngoo district on the 
left bank of the Tsittoung extending north from the Shwe-gyeng district to 
the Thit-nan-tha river and divided into three revenue circles. The whole 
of the eastern portion is mountainous and covered with thick forest, in which 
is found teak and other valuable timber, the only regular cultivation being in 
the more level country along the bank of the Tsittoung, It contains several 
lakes the largest of which are the Engwon and the Zengdoon, both in the south- 
west corner. The inhabitants are Burmese, Kareng and Shan with a few Talaing 
and in 1876 numbered 184B1 : in that year the land revenue was Es- 4,491, 
the capitation-tax Es. 8,062 and the gross revenue Es. 19,327. 

BHOOMMAWADEE* — A revenue circle in the township of the same 
* name in the Toung-ngoo district on the left bank of the Tsittoung river and 
adjoining the Shwe-gyeng district on the south ; it is now joined to the 
Maipalan circle. 

BHOOMMAWADEE EEGYAW. — A natural channel joining the 
Eouk-thwa- wa, which it leaves at the village of the same name, to the Tsittoung 
at Kegyaw. During the hot season its bed is in some places dry but during 
the rains it is navigable throughout for boats of from 25 to 30 feet in 
length. The banks are here and there high and the bed is muddy and 
sandy. 

BHOON'MAW. — A highly-venerated Pagoda in Talaing ThoURg-goon 
village, about three miles north-east of Tavoy, on a bluff called Kyet-tsha- 
maw, built in 1341 A.D. by an exiled Peguan Prince. It is 41 feet high, 
octangular in shape and 117 feet in circumference at the base and still carries 
a Talaing htee. 

BHOORA-GYEE. — A village in the Angyee township of the Rangoon 
district, south of Khabeng, which takes its name from one of the 3? great 
Pagodas of Angyee, now a ruin. See Htaw-koo, 

BHOORA-HLA. — A revenue circle in the Ngapootaw townships Bassein 
district, with an estimated area of 95 square miles, occupying the Southern 
angle between the Arakan hills on the west and the Bassein river oU the east 
as far noi*th as the Bhoora-hla stream. The general aspect of the country 
is hiliy, the hills being spurs from the Arakan Eomas. In this circle is 
included Haing-gyee or Negrais island, lying in the mouth of the Bassein river 
and separated from the mainland by a channel 1,500 yards broad at its widest 
and 800 yards at its narrowest part. The island is about 11 miles in circum- 
ference, much intersected by creeks, flat and shelving towards its southern 
end but abruptly hilly towards the northern, where is the site of the old 
fectory. 

The Alguada is a long and dangerous reef 15 miles from the Raainland 
on which now stands a light-house. 

Diamond Island or Thamee-hla Kywon, the station of the light-house 
kee]^T8 not on duty at Alguada, is low and covered with brushwood and lies 
outside the mouth of the Bassein river. It abounds with turtle and is leased 
out as a turtle bank, the revenue derived therefrom being large. 

The inhabitant of the circle are mainly Burmese and Ka^^ug with 
a few Talaing, and in 1876 numbered 2,004 souls who are chiefly engaged in 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


131 


fishing and in making gnapee. In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 2,647, 
the eapitation-tax Rs. 2,142 and the gross revenue Rs. 18,520. 

BHOORA-HLA. — A small river which rises in the eastern slopes of the 
Arakan Romas about 15 miles from their southern extremity and after a 
course of some 12 miles E.S.E. falls into the Bassein river at Bhoora-hia village. 
Boats of 500 bushels burden can ascend for three miles ; beyond this the tide 
is not felt. 

BHOOEA-TSHIEP. — A village with a population of about 750 souls 
on the right bank of the Bheeleng river a few miles above Bheeleng. 

BHOO-EO. — A stream in the Prome district with a rocky bed and steep 
banks which rises in the Arakan mountains and after an E.S.E. course of about 
35 miles, almost immediately on its leaving the hills, joins the Thanee near 
the village of Gnyoung-beng-tha ; shortly after the latter rounds to the 
southward the spur which forms the water parting between the two. In 
the rains small boats can ascend a short distance. The hills amongst which 
it flows are richly timbered ; the most important trees are Teak, Pyeng-gado and 
Htouk-kyan. 

BHOOT-KHyOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Myenoo township — now 
united to Eegyee — in the Bassein district on the left bank of the Bassein river 
with an area of 45 square miles. There is some rice cultivation towards 
the east and in patches elsewhere but the major portiou of the circle 
consists of low swampy ground covered with grass and tree forest. The 
inhabitants are largely engaged in fishing. There are no proper cart roads 
but merely footpaths from village to village used only during the dry season 
and tracks to the rice-fields. In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 1,881, the 
capitation-tax Rs. 6,825, the gross revenue Es. 10,367 and the population 
5,466. 

BHOOT-PYENG. — A village in the Mergui district of the Tenasserim 
division on the right bank* of the Bhoot-pyeng, a narrow muddy stream, 
situated in 11° 12' N. lat. and 98°42'E. long. It was a somewhat important 
place in the Siamese time but it has dwindled to a village of about 500 
inhabitants of Malays, Siamese and Chinese. The two former cultivate rice 
and employ themselves in fishing, the latter in sugar-planting. 

BHOOT-PYENG. — A mountainous revenue circle in the Mergui district 
occupying the whole of the southern portion of the Be-gnya township. In 
1876-77 it had a population of 1,848 souls and produced a gross revenue 
Es. 2,524 of which Rs. 137 were derived from the land. 

BHOOT-PYENG. — A small stream in the Le-gnya township, Mergui 
district, traversing a generally mountainous country from south to north till 
it suddenly turns westward and falls into the sea. Boats can aseend as far 
as Bhoot-pyeng village. 

BHWAI-BENG-GAN. — The northern portion of the town of Poungday. 

BHWAI-BENG-GAN.— A revenue circle of the Prome district north 
of Poungday of which the village of Bhwai-beng-gan forms a portion. The 
Kyadaw and Hmaw-daw circles are now joined to it. In 1876-77 the 
land revenue was Es. 2,597, the capitation-tax Es. 2,572, the gross revenue 
Rs. 5,259 and the population 2,738. 



132 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


BHWOT-GYEE. — A lake in the Henzada district north-east of the 
great Htoo lake three miles west of the Irrawaddy. It is about two 
miles long and quarter of a mile wide. In the rains it is feet deep and 
in the dry weather from 3 to 4 ; the banks are flat and the water always clear 
and fresh. According to local tradition this lake was formerly the bed of the 
Irrawaddy, 

BHWOT-LAY. — A river in the Thayet district flowing into the 
Irrawaddy from the eastwards. It is formed by the junction of many 
streams, the largest of which are the Fade and Khyoung-goung-gyee. 
The volume of water which enters the Irrawaddy by this channel is, 
during the rains, considerable but the creek is useless for navigation on 
account of the force of the current and the rapidity with which the water 
rises and falls. Near its mouth it is spanned by a substantial wooden bridge 
crossed by the main road between Rangoon and Myedai. During the 
rains a large quantity of teak is floated down to the mouth of the river 
where it is rafted for the Rangoon market. 

BHWOT-LAY. — A revenue circle in the Myedai township, Thayet 
district, partially cultivated, principally with rice, and with a population of 
2,975 souls. The more important products are rice, sessamum and maize. 
Within the limits of the circle are, amongst others, the villages and village 
tracts of Bhwot-lay and Toung-na-tha, over each of which was a Thoogyee 
in the Burmese time, and Htouk-kyan-daing and Pouk-aing joined to it since 
the annexation of Pegu. In 1876-77 the united circles produced a revenue 
of Es. 5,534 of which Rs. 2,251 was derived from the land. 

BODA-MAW. — A revenue circle in the Kyailet township, Akyab district, 
forming a portion of the town of Akyab. 

BO-KHY^OOP. — Two villages, distinguished as North and South, in the 
Syriam circle, Syriam township, Rangoon district, lying in the plain and well 
cultivated country between the Pegu and Rangoon rivers and the laterite ridge 
on which stands the Syriam Pagoda. South Bo-khyoop is a mere hamlet 
with 250 inhabitants ; North Bo-khyoop had a population of 1,208 souls in 
1877, almost all agriculturists. The name, which literally translated means 
Coramander-in-Chief, was given to the village because it sprang up on the site 
on which the army of the Burman Commander-in-Chief encamped during the 
last siege and capture of Syriam by the Burmans. 

BOODOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Ooreetoung east township, Akyab 
district. In 1876 the population numbered 973 souls, the land revenue was 
Rs. 3,468, the capitation -tax Es. 1,095 and the gross revenue Rs. 4,772. 

BO-TA-HTOUNG. — A small Pagoda in the town of Rangoon on the 
bank of the river below the principal wharves, which, according to local 
history, was built in 359 B. E. (997 A.D.) by one thousand (ta-htoung) oflScers 
(BoJ by the order of Okkalaba King of Twante on the spot where was burned '' 
the body of his son Minhanda who had been drowned in the Pegu river. 
It gives its name to a quarter of Rangoon. 

BREK. — A small sub-tribe of Bghai Kareng called by the Burmese 
Laymay : q, v. 

BUFFALO ROCKS (Liep Kywon or Turtle Island )* — A group of 
detached rugged rocks extending nearly N. and S. for about three miles, situated 



BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


133 


29 miles from the shore and bearing N. from the western extremity of Cape 
Negrais. The North Buffalo is a little more than half a mile to the S. W. 
of the other island, Perforated Rock and Pillar Rock lying between them. 
On the west side of the Rocks the soundings are regular, 20 fathoms about 
a mile from them and 50 or 60 fathoms at 5 leagues distance. Lat. 16° 19^ 
to 16° 22' N. Long 94® 12' E. bearing nearly S. J W. from Calventura 
Rock and distant 10 or 11 leagues. 

BYEE. — A small and unimportant stream in the Sandoway district 
which has a generally southerly course and falls into the Sandoway river a few 
miles below Sandoway. 

BYEE-WA. — A village at the mouth of the Byee stream with from 500 
to 600 inhabitants, mainly Arakanese, on the right bank of the Sandoway 
river about two miles below that town. 

BYOO-GAN, — A village of about 60 houses in the Kyan circle, Meng* 
doon township, Thayet district, on a small affluent of the Ma-htoon. In the 
Burmese time it was one of the registered villages of an hereditary Thoogyee- 
ship. 

BYOO-GOON. — A revenue circle in the Prorae district about ten miles 
east of Prome : the larger part is under rice cultivation. In 1876-77 the 
land revenue was Rs. 242, the capitation -tax Rs. 87 nnd the population 95. 

BYOO-GOON. — A village in the Prome district in the middle of a 
large rice tract in 18® 48^ 50' N. and 95® 28^ E. about eleven miles east 
of the town of Prome. 

CALVENTURA {Hnget-toung or Bird's feather).— A group of rocks off 
the coast of Arakan forming two divisions bearing from each other north-west 
and south-east, distant five or six miles, the body of them being m lat. 16 53' 
N. The north-west group consists of seven black rocks in lat. 16 55' N., long. 
94® 15' 30"' E. of different magnitudes and forms ; one of them resembles an 
old church with a mutilated spire, another is much larger near the top than 
it is near the small base on which it stands. The south-east division consists 
of two high rocky islands, covered with trees and bushes and connected by a 
reef of rocks with five to seven fathoms water upon it ; about half-way 
between the islands there is a single rock, dry at low water. 

CAP ISLAND.— A small round bushy island off Tavoy Point called 
Hnget-thaik (Bird’s nest) by the Burmese. 

CAVENDISH ISLAND.— An islet one third of a mile long surrounded 
by a reef, a little to the south of Kalegouk. 

CHEDUBA . — See Manoung. 

CHINA-BAKIR.— To. 

CRAB ISLAND.— Pyeng-gyee. 

DAGA. A creek in the Pegu division which leaves the Basse! n or Nga- 

won river three or four miles from its northern mouth in the Irrawaddy in the 
Henzada district and flowing in a generally south-westerly direction but with 
many windings, it rejoins the Bassein seven or eight miles above the town ot 
Bassein bringing with it the drainage of the country through which it flows 
and much of the rainfall and spill in the delta poured into its channel by the 



134 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


numerous anastomosing creeks which reticulate over the country. The 
northern entrance has in a great measure silted up and is now completely closed 
by the reclamation embankment thrown up along the bank of the Bassein : 
the bed for about eight miles down, as far as Ewathit, is dry during the hot 
season. In the rains there is a strong current downwards but in the dry 
season the tide is felt as far as Thabye-hla at neaps and fifteen miles further at 
springs. It is navigable by river steamers during the rains for thirty-six 
miles from its southern outlet as far as the mouth of the Meng-ma-Imaing 
creek but during the dry season those vessels cannot ascend more than 
ten or twelve miles. Large native boats can go up as high as Kyoon- 
pyaw at all seasons of the year and small boats still higher : here the 
river is from 200 to 300 feet wide and 10 to 15 feet deep, A few miles below 
Kyoonpyaw on the right or western bank is the Eng-rai-gyee lake which it has 
been supposed was formerly a portion of the Daga and now communicates 
with it by a small channel. 

DAGA. — A revenue circle in the Bassein district to which is now joined 
Shwe-gnyoung-beng. In 1876 the population of the united circles was 
2,227, the land revenue Es. 4,153, the capitation-tax Ks. 2,045 and the gross 
revenue Es. 6,418. 

DA-GYAING. — A river in the Amherst district having its source in the 
Dawna spur and flowing westward to the Hlaingbhwai which it joins about half 
way between Khazaing and Hlaingbhwai. An impetuous torrent, the course is 
obstructed by numerous rocks and it is not navigable even near its mouth except 
by small canoes. In the rains it brings down a considerable body of water. 

DAI-DA-KAI . — A village in the Thoonkhwa district on the right bank 
of the To river about fifteen miles from its mouth. The inhabitants are Ta- 
laing and Burmans and are principally engaged in rice cultivation, fishing and 
wood-cutting. Lat. 16° 26^ 30' N. long. 95° 4! E. 

DAI-DA-EAI. — A revenue circle in the north-western portion of the 
Pyapoon township, Thoonkhwa district, on the right or southern bank of the 
To river. In 1876, when it had a population of 5,319 souls, the land 
revenue was Es. 21,976, the capitation-tax Es. 6,525 and the gross revenue 
Es. 31,062. It was formerly included in the Wakamay circle of the same 
township. 

DAING-BOON. — A revenue circle on the Le-mro river on the northern 
borders of the Mye-boon township of the Kyouk-hpyoo district, with an area 
of 117 miles and a population in 1876 of 4,111 souls. Its southern portion is 
divided into numerous islands by inter-communicating tidal creeks. The land 
revenue in 1876 was Es. 5,083, the capitation-tax Es. 3,900 and the gross 
revenue Es. 31,087. 

DAI-PAI. — A lake in the Matoungda circle of the Kanoung township 
in the Henzada district, near the foot of the eastern slopes of the Pegu Eoma 
mountains, covering an area of nearly a square mile : in the rains it has a depth 
of nine and in the dry season of four or five feet. It is supplied princi- 
pally by the drainage from the neighbouring hills but before the embankments 
were constructed it received some of the spill of the Irrawaddy during the rains. 

DALA. — A creek in the Eangoon district which empties itself into the 
Bangoon river opposite Eangoon. On the west side of its mouth are dockyards 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


135 


and the Dala suburb of Eangoon and to the east timber yards and steam saw 
mills. In the dry season it is not navigable for more than two or three miles 
but during the rains boats can traverse its whole length. 

DALA. — A creek in the Thoonkhwa district forming one of the mouths of 
the Irrawaddy ; so named in the charts but more properly called Kyoon-toon. 

DALA . — K suburb of Kan goon on the right or western bank of the 
Eangoon river. In ancient times the Dala district included the present Angyee 
township of the Eangoon district and the Pyapoon township of Thoonkhwa and 
was sometimes annexed to Burma^ sometimes to Thanlyeng and sometimes to 
Pegu, at others it was under an independent Governor. In 1650 A.D., accord- 
ing to an inscription on a stone at the Koung-hmoo-daw Pagoda near Ava 
which was completed in that year, Dala formed a portion of Kamanya, a 
province subject to the King of Burma, At the end of the last century or 
the beginning of this Pyapoon was separated from it and subsequently 
Angyee. 

DALA-NWON. — A river in the Shwe-gyeng district which rises in the 
eastern spurs of the Pegu Roma mountains and, flowing towards the south- 
east, falls into the Tsittoung a few miles below Thooyaithamee (commonly 
called Thayet-thamien). It is navigable for large boats as far as Thoonkhwa. 

DAN-DOUNG. — A village on the Kyoung-goung-gyee stream some 
four miles above its junction with the Pade, in the Thamboola circle, Myedai 
township, Thayet district, containing about sixty houses. 

DA-NWON. — A tidal creek in the Shweloung township, Thoonkhwa 
district, forming, with the Irrawaddy, an island on which stands the village 
of Kywonpyathat in 16^ 25' N. and 95° 12' 30' E. It is navigable by river 
steamers. 

DA-PYOO-KHYAING. — A revenue circle 220 square miles in extent in 
the south-western portion of the An township, Kyouk-hpyoo district, cut up 
into numerous islands by inosculating tidal creeks. In 1876 it had a popula- 
tion, principally of Arakanese, of 3,617 souls. The land revenue was Rs. 2,418, 
the capitation-tax Es. 2,814 and the gross revenue Ks. 5,490. It now includes 
the formerly separate Ma-ee circle. 

DARAY. — A revenue circle in the Amherst district in the extreme 
north-west corner of Bheeloo island, having the sea on the west, the Daray- 
bouk on the north, the Kalwee circle on the east and the Kwonraik circle on 
the south, with a small Talaing population and a good deal of cultivation. 
In 1876 the population was 544, the land revenue Rs. 4,024 aqd the capita- 
tion-tax Rs. 595. In the Burmese time Daray was a separate Myo’" or 
township and included the present circles of Daray, Kwonraik and Tawkama, 
that is the whole of the western portion of Bheeloogywon which was cut off 
from the east by a large creek called the Tsaibala of which the northern portion 
has now silted up. It could not, however, have been a very populous or pro- 
ductive township as in 1808 A.D., the Governor had only twelve families under 
him and was dismissed on account of his inability to raise any revenue. It 
was divided into circles in 1848 by the Deputy Commissioner Captain 
(now Sir Arthur) Phayre. 

DARAY-BHYOO. — A creek in the Kweng-bouk-gyee circle of the 
Bassein district forming one of the entrances from the sea to the Ewe. The 



186 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


mouth, iu 15° 51' 20" N. and 90° 41' 20' E., is so filled by sandbanks as 
scarcely to aflPord a passage for the smallest sea-going craft but the remaining 
portion of the river affords easy navigation to river steamers. 

DAEAY-BOUK, — The name given to the northern mouth of the Sal- 
ween from Martaban to the sea. Several centuries ago it was the ordinary 
entrance for ships coming to Martaban, then a great trading port, but for 
many years it has been so filled with sandbanks as to be impassable for sea- 
going boats. 

DAEAY-BOUK. — A village in the Labwotkoola circle, Myoungmya town- 
ship, Bassein district, on the Tha-ran-boon which reaches the sea by numerous 
channels the principal of which are the Ewe and the Daray-bhyoo. To the 
north-west and south are rich rice-fields and the inhabitants, over 600 in number, 
are principally engaged in cultivation and in trade. 

DAEIEN. — A revenue circle in the extreme south-western corner of the 
Martaban township, Amherst district, bounded on the west by the sea and on 
the south by the Daray-bouk. The circle consists of low highly cultivated 
plains liable to inundation on the west during high tides, the sea water penetrat- 
ing into the low land inside the protecting drift-covered beach through a drain- 
age way cut by a villager some years ago. In 1876 the population numbered 
3,181, the capitation-tax was Es. 8,277 and the land revenue Es. 24,784, 

DATTAW. — A small stream which rises in the Khyee-ba spur on the west 
of the Irrawaddy and falls into that river near Pienthalien. Its banks are 
moderately steep and its bed sandy and muddy. In the rains and then only 
boats can ascend for a short distance. On its banks are found Teak, Cutch (Aca- 
cia catechu) Eng-gyeng (Pentacme siamensis) much used in house building, 
Thenggan (Hopea odorata) which is scarce, and Pyengma (Lageratrcemia 
Regina). 

DA WLAN. — ^A revenue circle lying between the Dawna hills and the 
Hlaingbhwai river in the southern portion of the Thanlweng Hlaingbhwai 
township, Amherst district, opposite Gyaing. Its inhabitants are principally 
Kareng. In 1876 it produced a land revenue of Es. 1,925, the capitation -tax 
amounted to Es. 2,912, the gross revenue to Es. 4,837 and the population 
numbered 2,836 souls. 

DETANAW. — A small but once a large and flourishing Taking village 
in the Lawadee circle, Angyee township, Eangoon district. At the close of 
the first Anglo-Burmese war numbers of the inhabitants who had sided with 
the British escaped to Tenasserim and the rest were seized and massacred by the 
local Burmese authorities for their adherence to the English. In the neigh- 
bourhood are the ruins of a large and ancient Pagoda, one of the 37 great 
Pagodas of Angyee. 

DHABIEN. — tidal creek in the Eangoon district running between 
the Poozwondoung and Pegu rivers, past the village of Dhabien where it is 
fifteen feet deep at high tide : the largest boats can ascend to this village, a dis- 
tance of a little over a mile, at all times : in the rains its water is sweet and it 
18 navigable throughout its course. 

NOETH. — A revenue circle in the Hpoung-leng township 
of the mngoon district on the right bank of the Pegu river. In 1876 it had 
a population of 3,076 souls and 11,881 acres under rice cultivation. The 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


137 


land revenue in the same year was Rs. 23,938, the capitation-tax Rs. 3,573 and 
the gross revenue Rs. 27,511. 

DHABIEN SOUTH.— A revenue circle in the Hpoun^-leng township, 
Rangoon district, between the Pegu and Poozwondoung rivers immediately 
to the south of Dhabien north of which until a year or two ago it formed a 
portion. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 25,684, the capitation-tax Rs. 3,050, 
the gross revenue Rs. 28,769, the area of rice land under cultivation 12,688 
acres and the population 2,604 souls, 

DHA-GNYA-WADEE. — A revenue circle in the Toung-ngoo district, 
extending eastward from the Pegu Romas along both banks of the 
Khaboung and occupying the whole of the country drained by that stream 
and its tributaries. With the exception of a small tract of rice cultivation the 
whole of this circle is a mass of hills and undulating ground where are found 
Eng {Dipterocarpus tuberculatus), Sha (Acacia catechu) , Thenggan (Hopea 
odorata), Pyengma (Lagerstrcemia Regince), Pyenggado (Xylia dolahriformis) 
and Teak (Tectona grandis)^ On the banks of the Khaboung and on the 
hills there is excellent teak but the forests in the plains are, as regards this 
tree, limited. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 3,787, the land revenue 
was Rs. 717, the capitation-tax Rs. 1,721 and the gross revenue Bs. 2,474. 

DHALET. — A revenue circle 420 square miles in extent on the upper 
course of the Dhalet river in the extreme north of the An township of the 
Kyouk-hpyoo district. The inhabitants, who are chiefly Khyeng, num- 
bered 4,629 in 1876 and in that year the land revenue was Rs. 2,176, the capi- 
tation-tax Rs. 3,083 and the gross revenue Rs. 5,425. 

DHALET. — A river in the Kyouk-hpyoo district which rises in the 
main range and falls into Combermere Bay. It can be ascended by boats of 
considerable burden as far as the village of the same name (in many reports 
and works on the country called Talah) about 25 miles from the mouth ; 
higher up the stream is a mountain torrent navigable only by small canoes. 
From Dhalet there is a pass across the hills to Upper Burma which was par- 
tially explored during the first Burmese war and was found to be almost im- 
practicable for troops. 

DHALET. — A village in the Kyouk-hpyoo district on the river of the 
same name ; a small Police force is stationed here. 

DHAM-BHEE. — A revenue circle in the north-east of the Henzada town- 
ship, Henzada district, on the left bank of the Ngawon or Bassein river. The 
neighbouring circle of Myo-gweng has of late years been joined to it. The 
villages are small the largest having in 1875 a little over 500 inhabitants. 
The united circles had in 1876 a population of 7,471 souls principally engaged 
in rice cultivation. In that year the land revenue amounted to Rs. 8,275, 
the capitation- tax to Rs. 7,547 and the gross revenue to Rs. 16,991. The 
country was formerly subject to inundation from the spill of the Irrawaddy 
but is now protected by an embankment along that river. 

DHAM-MA-THA. — A small village in the Amherst district on the left 
bank of the Gyaing, opposite a large grass and tree-covered island lying about 
sixty yards off, seventeen miles above Maulmain. To the south of the village 

18 



138 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


is an extensive outcrop of limestone rocks covered with dense tree forest 
and pierced by alargfe cave with the walls and roof hi<>*hly ornamented with figures 
in red and gold of Gaudama Booddha and of Rah an and the floor covered 
with images. All are in various stages of decay but a few bear marks of wan- 
ton destruction, as do so many in the other caves in this district more accessible 
to strangers who have no respect for Booddhism or the religious edifices and 
shrines of the inhabitants of the country. These rocks terminate immediately 
below the village in a clifif overhanging the river and crowned with a small 
white Pagoda, reached by a long flight of steps built from the south up 
the western side. From the top there is a fine view of the surrounding 
country, shut in on the east by the distant blue mountains which bound the 
valley of the Thoungyeng and on the west by Bheeloogywon and the Marta- 
ban hills, whilst to the north appear the massive and rugged Zwai-ka-beng 
limestone rocks popularly known as the Duke of York’s nose.” In the dis- 
tance to the westward Maulmain is conspicuous by the gilded Pagodas and 
monasteries on the low hills which traverse the town. Between the cliff and the 
village is the Government rest-house with a flight of steps down to the river. 

DHANOO. — ^An extensive but rambling revenue circle in the north-east 
of the Tha-htoon township on the right bank of the Kyouk-tsarit and 
Bheng-laing rivers and bounded on the south by the Ze-ma-thway, a tributary 
of the latter. The name is derived from Dhanoo the appellation of a people 
who are supposed at one time to have inhabited the tract and who were one 
of the one hundred and one races into which all the people of the world are, 
according to the Burmese belief, divided : at present the population is mainly 
Toungthoo. The surface of the country is hilly and undulating, covered with 
tree forest and annually to a considerable extent inundated, partly from the 
rain-fall and the spill of the Bhenglaing which is banked up by the Salween 
and of late years partly by the overflow from the Bheeleng which is excluded 
from the Thien-tshiep and Tha-htoon plains and forced round the northern end of 
the Martaban hills at Kamathaing by the Doonwon embankment. In 1876 
the land revenue was Rs. 1,454, the capitation-tax Rs. 5,891 and the popula- 
tion 7,661. It now includes the Meng-lweng circle. Many of the inhabitants 
cultivate land in the neighbouring circles. 

DHANOOT BHOORA-OYEE. — A very large Pagoda, now in ruins, in 
the Kodoung circle, Angyee township, Rangoon district, about one mile 
from the entrance of the Tha-khwot-peng creek. This was formerly the 
site of a flourishing village but no habitation has existed within the memory 
of any one now living nor are any records traceable which throw light upon 
the history of the Pagoda. 

DHATHWAI-KYOUK. — A river in the Prome district which rises in 
the southern slopes of the Tshenglan subspur, to the north of which is the 
valley of the Shwelay, and flowing for some distance southward and thenturn- 
ing west falls into the Zay just above the entrance of this stream into the 
Engma lake. It is not open for boats at any time ; its banks are moderate- 
ly steep and its bed is sandy and gravelly. 'J^he lower portion of its course 
is through rice-fields but higher up, amongst the hills, it flows through forests 
producing valuable timber : Pyenggado (Xylia dolahriformis ) , Eng-gyeng 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


139 


{Pentacme Siamensis), Bh an bh wai (Car^^a a ri^orm) and Eng {Dipteroca/rpus 
tuherculatiis), ^ 

DHATHWAI-KYOUK. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 41 
N. and 95° 84' 35'' E. on the river of the same name, at the mouth of the Kya- 
thoung-myoung one of its affluents, twenty miles in a direct line S.E. from 
Prome. It lies about four or five miles east of the edge of the great rice tract 
occupying the centre of the valley between the Pegu mountains and the 
Prome hills and at the western foot of the spurs of the former. It is in- 
habited mainly by agriculturists engaged in garden and miscellaneous culti- 
vation. 

DHATKE.— A small pagoda, now in ruins, on the hills in the town of 
Maulmain. Of its early history nothing is known. It is supposed to contain 

one of Gaudama^s hairs. 

• 

DIAMOND ISLAND, — A low tree covered island about one square 
mile in extent and visible at five leagues distance lying off the mouth of the 
Bassein or Ngawon river, in lat. 15° 51' 30" N. and long. 94° 18' 46"^ E., 
distant 50 miles from Pagoda Point and about 8 miles from Negrais Island or 
Haing-gyee. In shape it is quadrilateral having the angles facing the points 
of the compass. During strong southerly gales landing is difficult. It does 
not appear ever to have been inhabited by the Burmese but was and is visited 
by those engaged in collecting the eggs of the turtles which frequent it in 
large numbers. For some years it has been occupied by the Light-house 
establishment as the home station of the detachment in charge of the Alguada 
reef Light-house. It is connected with Bassein by a telegraph line for the 
use principally of the masters of ships calling for orders. By the Burmese it 
is known as Miemma-hla-kywon. 

DOMEL. — An island in the Mergui Archipelago between 11° 26' and 
11° 28' N. and 98° 2' and 98° 11' E., forming a portion of the Mergui district of 
the Tenasserim division and lying due west of Kissering island from which it is 
three or four miles distant, the navigable channel between the two, however, 
being very narrow. Its extreme length, from north to south, is about twenty- 
eight miles and its breadth, from east to west, about four miles. 

DONABYOO MYOMA. — A revenue circle in the Donabyoo township 
Thoonkhwa district on the right bank of the Irrawaddy. The upper portion 
has long been under cultivation ; the southern part was formerly forest 
waste subject to inundation but is now protected by embankments along the 
Irrawaddy. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 5,550, the capitation- tax 
Es. 6,860, the gross revenue Es. 15,183 and the population 7,328 including 
the inhabitants of Donabyoo town who numbered 4,331. This circle now 
includes Thaboung. 

DONABYOO. — A township in the. Thoonkhwa district lying principally 
on the right bank of the Irrawaddy with a small portion on the left bank and 
adjoining Henzada on the north and Rangoon on the east. It was formerly in 
the Henzada district and included the A-hpyouk circle on the left bank of the 
river : some three years ago the Thoon-tshay circle, also in the left bank, was 
added to it from Rangoon. In 1875, on the formation of the Thoonkhwa district, 
A-hpyouk was cut off and joined to the Za-lwon township of Henzada. Almost 
the whole township was subject to inundation on the rise of the Irrawaddy but 



140 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


is now protected by extensive embankments along the west bank of tlmt river. 
The principal town is Donabyoo where the Extra Assistant Commissioner in 
eharge is stationed. In 1876 it produced a land revenue of Rs. 55,431, 
the capitation-tax amounted to Es. 34,448, the gross revenue was Es. 1,08,564 
and the population 36,122. 

DONABYOO. — A town in the Thoonkbwa district on the right bank 
of the Irrawaddy about 35 miles south of Henzada, containing a Court house, 
a Police station and a bazaar or market-place. The population in 1876-77 
was 5,800 and the local revenue during each of the nine years ending with 
1875-76 were:— 


Year. 

Population. 

Revenue. 

Tear. 

Population. 

Revenue. 



Bs. 



Rs, 

1867-68 

[ 3,186 

1,296 

1872-73 

3,950 

2,537 

1868-69 

3,136 

1,468 

1873-74 

3,950 

4,412 

1869-70 

3,950 

2,096 

1874-75 

4,155 

4,289 

1870-71 

3,758 

2,817 

1875-76 

4,331 

4,252 

1871-72 

3,921 

2,028 

.... 

.... 

.. .. 


III the first Anglo-Burmese war after the capture of Rangoon the Burmese 
Commander-in-chief, Bandoola, entrenched himself in this town with a force 
of fifteen thousand men. The main work was a stockaded paralellogram 
of one thousand yards by seven hundred which was on the bank well 
above the level of the river. On the river face were fifty cannon of 
various calibres whilst the approach on the land side was defended by two 
outworks. General Cotton’s force carried the first stockade at the point of 
the bayonet but was repulsed from the main work, Captains Cannon and Rose 
being killed and the greater number of the men killed or wounded. General 
Cotton then retreated down the river waiting for reinforcements. Sir 
Archibald Campbell the Commander-in-Chief, who was advancing north up the 
valley of the Hlaing fell back, established his head-quarters at Henzada and 
proceeded down the river. On arrival before Donabyoo he constructed 
batteries of heavy artillery the enemy making numerous sorties with a view of 
interrupting the work ; when the batteries were completed they opened a fire 
of shot, shell and rockets and next day the Burmans were discovered to be in 
full retreat : this was subsequently found to be due to the death of Bandoola 
who had been killed by the bursting of a shell. 

During the second war the Burman general made no endeavour to hold 
the town but evacuated it before the arrival of the British force and retreated 
on Prome. Shortly after this numerous armed bands spread over the country 
and, amongst other places, occupied Donabyoo the leader being one Moung 
Myat Htoon. He was attacked by a force under Captain Hewett I.N. 
defeated and forced to retreat, but on the British retiring reappeared with 
his hand. Captain Loch R.N. in the early part of January 1853 moved up 
the river with a small detachment and finally drove him southwards where he 
was a short time later, after forcing Captain Loch’s party to fall back, over- 
taken by Sir John Cheape and killed. From this time Donabyoo remained in 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


141 


the undisputed possession of the British. The name which is correctly spelt 
Danoo-hpyoo, means ^^White peacock and is partly Pali — Danoo a peacock^’ 
— and partly Burmese — hpyoo “ white.’’ 

DOONEAN. — A tidal creek in the Thoonkh wa district which runs from 
the To or China Bakir in an almost southerly direction to the sea, having a 
total length of about thirteen miles. The depth of the water varies from i 
a fathom to 8 or 9, the northern end being shallow and the southern deep ; the 
water is sweet throughout except at the springs when a high bore is formed 
which reaches far up. It is navigable by boats of 300 baskets burden but 
not by very large boats on account of the numerous shoals. On the right bank, 
in the interior^ are extensive plains abounding in game and oh the left bank 
wild elephants are found. 

DOONEENG. — The name of a peak in the Zwaikabeng limestone hills 
north of Maulmain. The ascent is made with considerable difficulty owing to 
the precipitous nature of the rocks. Almost at the summit a gap is reached 
then descending a few yards the spectator is astonished to find himself on 
the edge of a large basin like the crater of an extinct volcano ; round and 
beyond, on the opposite side of thegulph^ for miles in extent dark precipitous 
crags of every imaginable and unimaginable form fling down their tall 
shadows a thousand feet about the place of entrance enclosing an area of 
several square miles.^’ 

Down a steep descent of one or two hundred feet an uneven plain 
is reached covered with a luxuriant forest. This impregnable natural fortress 
has been a place of refuge for the Karens during many generations. While 
the Burmans, the Shans and the Talaings were contending in the plains below, 
the Karens in this eyrie home peeped out on the belligerents from behind 
" their battlements in perfect security. The great defect is the want of water 
which is obtainable, but not in abundance, from a small stream called Tee- 
reng or the ‘ brook of weeping.’ In the days of the Burman conqueror 
Alompra {Alou7ig-bhoora) before his successes'” in Tenasserim a large num- 
ber of Karens were besieged here by Siamese and tradition says that nearly 
the whole perished for want of food and water. From the sufferings of that 
“ period, or a previous one, the place has acquired the name of Doonreng” or 
City of weeping.” ^ 

DOONEENG.-^ — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, 
"Amherst district, on the western slopes of the Zwai-ka-beng hills inhabited 
mainly by Kareng. In 1876 the land revenue was Es. 2,361, the capitation- 
tax Es. 2,565 and the population 1,881. Included in this circle k the Toung- 
myouk circle. 

DOONTHAMIE. — A river in the Tenasserim division which has never 
been carefully explored or examined. It has its source somewhat below 
the latitude of Shwe-gyeng, between the Bheeleng and the Salween rivers, 
and after a very tortuous course southward unites with the Kyouk-tsarit, 
in about 16*^ 59' 30' N. a few miles south of Dhanoo village, to form the 
Bhenglaing a tributary of the Salween. It is navigable by Burman boats 
for some distance. The upper part of its course is through hills on which 


’ Mason’s Burma ; Introduction, page 11, editn. of 1860. 


142 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


are found a considerable number of teak trees of excellent quality. The 
forests are some distance from the river but several tributary streams facilitate 
the removal of the timber in the rains. 

DOONWON.— Another name of the Bheeleng river, q. v. 

DOONWON. — A village in the Tha-htoon township of the Amherst 
district, on the left bank of the Bheeleng river, on slightly rising ground 
immediately south of the mouth of the Kyoon-iek creek. An embankment 
now extends eastward from the rising ground for half a mile to Kama- 
thaing on the western slopes of the northern extremity of the Martaban 
hills, which keeps out the spill of the Bheeleng river and thus affords pro- 
tection to the Tha-htoon plain. In 1876 the village had a small population 
of 281 souls. In former years it was an important walled city, the principal 
town of the surrounding country though far inferior to Tha-htoon its south- 
eastern neighbour. In 1306, when it formed a portion of the kingdom of 
Martaban, it was attacked and plundered by the King of Zeng-mai, east 
of the Salween, and in 1351 it was again attacked and taken. Shortly after- 
wards Byat-ta-ba, the half-brother or cousin of Ba-gnya-oo the reigning 
sovereign, having risen in rebellion and seized the capital the King retired to 
Boon won : the rebellion was successful but owing to the intervention of the 
King of Zeng-mai Ba-gnya-oo remained undisturbed for six years in the 
retreat he had chosen. Byat-ta-ba then obtained possession of the town by 
stratagem and Ba-gnya-oo fled to Pegu which formed a portion of his 
dominions. By a tacit understanding there was peace between them and Byat- 
ta-ba retained the country east of the Bheeleng. Ba-gnya-oo was succeeded 
by Eadzadierit who, after successfully resisting a Burmese invasion, attacked 
and took Boon won. After this tlie name drops out of history. 

Close to the present village, and within the walls and moat of the old town 
of which the ruins still exist, are two wooden images, evidently from the 
dress, of foreigners one of which has a hole through both cheeks. These 
were until lately considered by all the inhabitants of the surrounding country, and 
still are by some looked upon, as the images of powerful not and it was thought 
to be dangerous to pass them without making some offering of a little rice 
or a bunch of leaves or a flower. According to local traditions they re- 
present two natives of India — Ee-bra-hoon and Oo-le {Ibrahim and Ali or 
Wall) — who were in command and were killed during the assault by the 
troops of Eadzadierit and the hole through the cheeks is intended to 
represent the bullet-wound which caused the death of the elder of the 
two. Sir Arthur Phayre, however, in his History of Pegu (Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1873^ No. 1, pt. 1, page 48) states that two officers 
having these names defended Martaban after the fall of Boonwon and escaped 
to the Koola country and in a foot-note adds : There is no mention made 
*'of firearms in these operations, but immediately afterwards there is in 
the account of the attack on Bassein.’’ 

BOOEA. — A village in the Atsen circle, Ee-Lamaing township, Amherst 
district to the north of Atsen. In 1876 it h^ 588 inhabitants. 

BOORA.— A revenue circle in the south of the Henzada township of 
the Henzada district. It is well cultivated on low ground, preserved from 
inundation by the embankment along the Irrawaddy. In 1876 it had a 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


143 


population of 7,216 souls and produced a land revenue of Rs. 21,374, 
Rs. 7,450 as capitation- tax and a gross revenue of Rs. 31,536. The two 
largest villages are Htantabeng and Aing-gyee each containing a population 
of over 1,000 souls. On the eastern border of the circle is the great Doora lake. 

DOOEA. — An extensive lake or group of intercommunicating lakes in 
the Henzada township of the Henzada district. In the most westerly of these is 
an island which divides it into two called the Doora and the Moshoon : 
half a mile east of this latter and communicating with it in the rains 
is the Engtha-nwot and between this and the IiTawaddy and joined to both 
during the wet season is the Mobalai. The Doora proper is about two 
square miles in extent and united at its northern extremity to the Irrawaddy 
by the Atha-rwot stream through which, during the rains and before the 
Irrawaddy embankments were constructed, boats of from 300 to 400 baskets 
burden could pass. The Moshoon lake, or more properly the Moshoon por- 
tion of the Doora, is 24 miles in length and from 300 to 400 yards broad 
with a depth of from 6 to 9 feet in the dry weather. The Engtha-nwot has 
a length of 1,400 feet and a maximum breadth of 700 with a depth of from 
4 to 6 feet in the dry weather. The Mobalai has about 5 feet of water in 
the dry season. These lakes are fed by the drainage of the surrounding 
country but have been to some extent affected by the embankments 
carried along the Irrawaddy which have closed the mouths of the streams by 
means of which they communicated with this river during the rains. 

DOOEENGABHO. — A village in the Prome district stretching along 
the bank of the Irrawaddy to the south-west of Shwedoung and forming a 
suburb of that town. 

DOOTIEYA KHARENG. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran 
township, Amherst district, occupying a tract of country extending south- 
ward from the junction of the Hlaiiigbhwai and the Houngtharaw. The area 
under cultivation is small and the inhabitants, who are mainly Kareng, are few. 
In 1876 the land revenue was Es. 464, the capitation-tax Rs. 605 and the 
population 477. 

DOUBLE ISLAND. — A small island about twelve miles south of 
Amherst point, well raised above the sea and lying in 15® 52' 30"^ N. and 97® 
36' 30" E. On it stands a stone light-house with an iron tower, containing 
a dioptric fixed light of the first order with a catadioptric mirror visible 
nineteen miles and first exhibited on the 4th December 1865. The original 
cost of the work was Rs. 9,03,400. The principal object in building a 
light-house here was to guide ships making for Maulmain and to prevent their 
running up the Tsittoung river to certain destruction. 

DOUNGBOON. — A village in the Prome district in 15° 33' 55" N. 
and 95® 30' 15" E. on the bank of the Thitneedaw stream, about five miles 
above its junction with the Zay, seventeen miles S.E. of Prome as the crow 
flies. The inhabitants are chiefly agriculturists. 

DOUNGBOON. — A revenue circle in the Prome district to the N. E. 
of the Engma lake, extensively cultivated with rice and including four of the 
old revenue circles. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs, 8,785, the capitation- 
tax Es. 10,372, the gross revenue Rs. 20,787 and the population 9,296. 



144 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


DOUNG-GYEE, — A village in the Henzada district on the right bank 
of the Irrawaddy in 17^ 32' N. and 95^ 37' E., about a mile south of the 
old village of Toungbotara. 

DOUNG-GYEE. — A town in the Le-myet-hna township, Bassein dis- 
trict, on the Bassein river in 17° 22' 30'^ N. and 95^ 8' E. The surround- 
ing country is open waste covered with grass and tree forest and liable to 
inundation. In the hot and dry seasons many of the residents are employed 
in fishing and in manufacturing large pots for boiling salt and for other 
purposes ; these are made from the excellent pottery -clay found in the 
neighbourhood. 

DOUNGMANA. — A revenue circle in the Mahathaman township of 
the Prome district, which in 1876 produced a land revenue of Es. l^OSO ; 
the capitation-tax in the same year was Es. 543, the gross revenue Es. 1,573 
and the population 544. Included in this circle is Tha-ma-wadee, once in- 
dependent. 

ENG-BAW-NGAY. — A village in the Prome district on the edge of the 
Eng-Daing (a long stretch of Eng-forest land between the Prome hills and 
the Myit-makha) thirteen miles in a direct Hue S. S. E. of Prome but much 
further by road. To the westward the country is hilly and covered with 
Eng {Dipterocaryus tuberculatus) forest but to the east, north and south it is 
more open and to some extent under rice cultivation. 

ENG-BHET-TAW. — A village in the Kama township, Thayet district, 
situated in a small tract of rice land about two miles north-east of the Ma- 
htoon river. 

ENG-DAING. — A village in the Toung-ngoo district on the Bhengbyai 
stream, seven miles east of Tsittoung river and five south of the frontier 
line. 

EN6-GA-BH0. — A village of about 1,000 inhabitants in the Kabaing 
circle, Henzada township, Henzada district, containing several Pagodas and 
good public rest-houses. The inhabitants are mainly engaged in cultivation 
and fishing. Lat. 17° 36^ N. Long. 95° 24' E. 

ENG-GA-BOO. — A revenue circle in the Gnyoungdoon township of the 
Thoonkhwa district extending along the Panhlaing creek from its junction 
with the Irrawaddy. The land to the east is low and subject to inundation '; 
the principal rice-fields are towards the west where the land is higher. Many 
of the inhabitants are engaged in fishing, from the tax on which a consider- 
able revenue is derived. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Es. 5,518, the capita- 
tion-tax Es. 6,018, the gross revenue Es. 26,008 and the population 4,736. 

ENG-GA-LOON. — (A Talaing name ; — from ‘ Ank’ a lake and ^ Kaloon’ a , 
kind of reed [Maranta ] ). A village in the Angyee township, Eangoon district, 
on the edge of the Twante Tawgyee a little to the south-west of Tshapoogan, 
inhabited chiefly by Talaing. In the neighbourhood are the ruins of one of the 
thirty-seven great Pagodas of the township (vide Htawkoo and Htawhharan)^ 
There is a tradition in the village that not much more than a hundred years ago 
the sea rolled at the foot of the Tawgyee and the former line of sea coast is 
still pointed oat. Some years ago when a well was being sunk a large ship^s 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


145 


cable was found a few feet below the surface and pieces of wreck are still 
occasionally met with. 

ENG- GOON. — A small stream in the north of the Prome district which 
rises in the southern slopes of the Padouk spur of the Pegu Eoma mountains, 
a few miles east of the source of the Gwe-khyo. Flowing in a south-westerly 
direction it falls into the south Naweng at the same spot as the Gwe-khyo and 
the Khyoung-tsaik, In the lower portion of its course the bed is sandy and 
muddy and higher up rocky ; the banks are steep and clothed with elephant 
grass, bamboos and forest trees. 

ENG- GO ON. — A large agricultural village in the Myedai township, 
Thayet district, situated in an extensive rice plain and on the high road from 
Rangoon to the north. Lat. 19° 16' 10'" N., Long. 95° 18' 20" E, 

ENG-GYEE. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 31' 45'' N. and 95° 
40' 15" E. in a small patch of rice country, about four miles east of the northern 
end of Poungday. It formerly gave its name to an independent circle now 
joined to Zee-beng-hla. 

ENG-GYEE-RWA-BWA, — A village in the Myedai township, Thayet 
district, on the Fade stream, five or six miles from its junction with the 
Khyoung-goung-gyee. 

ENG-GYENG. — A revenue circle in the An township of the Kyouk- 
hpyoo district on the right bank of the An river, about six square miles in extent 
with a population of 791 souls. In 1876-77 it produced Es. 425 as land 
revenue, Es. 733 as capitation-tax and Es. 1,125 gross revenue. 

ENG-LAY. — A village in the Myedai township, Thayet district, on a 
stream of the same name, a tributary of the Fade. 

ENGMA -MYOMA. — A revenue circle in the Prome district ontheMyit- 
ma-kha river just below the Engma lake. The west and centre of the 
circle consists of low hills and undulating ground, the source, in the rains, of 
numerous small streams which flow into the Myit-ma-kha; the eastern por- 
tion is fairly level. A narrow belt of rice-cultivation runs nearly throughout 
the whole length of the circle. The main road from Eangoon to the frontier 
traverses this circle in a westerly direction. 

ENG-EAI. — A town in the circle of the same name, in the Tsam-bay-roon 
township, Bassein district, on the right bank of the Daga river, about seven 
miles below Kyoonpyaw, in 17° 10' 30" N. and 95° 18' 30" E. with a popula- 
tion of some 1,500 souls, who are largely engaged in rice-cultivation and in 
fishing. In former years, before the Kyoung-goon and Tsam-bay-roon town- 
ships were united, this town was the head-quarters of the Extra Assistant 
Commissioner. 

ENG-EAI. — A large revenue circle in the Tsam-bay-roon township of the 
Bassein district on the right bank of the Daga a few miles below the town of 
Kyooii-pyaw. The upper or northern part of the circle consists of rice- 
fields and the southern part presents an open plain, interspersed with patches 
of forest, which affords excellent pasture for cattle. The ground here undu- 
lates slightly. A considerable portion of the revenue is derived from the 
fisheries. In the north (where the great Eng-rai-gyee lake, q, v. is) there are * 
good fair weather cart-roads but in the south footpaths only. The land 

19 



146 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


revenue m 1876-77 was Rs. 11,783, the capitation-tax Rs. 8,018, the gross 
revenue Rs. 86,425 and the population 6,248. 

ENG-EAI-6YEE. — A lake in the Bassein district about five miles in 
circumference with a pretty uniform breadth of 280 to 800 yards and a depth 
of from 20 to 45 feet in the centre ; it is connected with the Daga, a large 
branch of the Gnawon or Bassein river, by a small outlet which at the 
period of the freshes during the S. W. monsoon and on the subsidence of 
that river serves to replenish the water of the lake from the Irrawaddy 
and to carry off the surplus water. Both in the small stream and in the river 
the water is shallower than in the lake whilst the general breadth of the last 
is greater than that of either of the two first. By some it has been supposed 
that it was formerly a portion of the bed of the Daga, by others that it was 
formed by causes totally independent of stream action by a gradual subsi- 
dence of the substratum or by a slip of tbe lower lying beds. It is cer- 
tainly a fact that the water of the lake when relieved of the surcharge from 
the river has a different colour (dark opaque olive) from that of the river 
when uninfluenced by the efflux from the Irrawaddy and its properties are 
such as to cause the fish in it to attain a large size and a greater degree of 
fatness than those of either river or lakes in the vicinity. 

Under the Burman Government this lake had a far-famed celebrity 
from the abundance and excellence of the fish caught on the occasion of 
the annual drawing of its bed during the full moon of J une ; on which occasion 
traders from Ava, from Prome and from the large towns on the Irrawaddy 
assembled to make tbeir investments in smoke-dried fish cured on the spot, 
whilst, as at present obtains, the fish-dealers from Bassein and other towns 
on the lower streams purchased the fish alive, and transported them in bam- 
boo cages immersed in water from which they were sold still in a live 
state; owing to the profits realized in this trade the competition for the 
purchase of the fish at the lake became so great that it was not unusual to 
make advances several seasons previous to the completion of the contract. 

Asa ^‘^preserve^'' for fish to which their natural instincts would direct 
them for purposes of spawning and breeding the lake is eminently adapted 
and after the rains of the monsoon have filled the water-courses and the 
Daga has become swollen and rapid the fish seek the still waters of the 
lake in vast numbers, making their entrance through the small channel 
and shallow water at its southern entrance where the land is low and swampy ; 
this entrance is left open until the fish have passed through, it is then closed 
during the height of the waters and on the subsidence, when the channel 
has become too shallow to admit of the fish escaping, it is again opened. 

So valuable a source of revenue to the Burmese Government as this 
fishery afforded was not allowed to escape easily ; accordingly the sum of 60 
viss of silver or about Es. 7,800 annually was exacted as a Eoyal tax 
from the Paineng ” or hereditary chief of the lake, who exercised sole 
authority over the villagers employed in the fishery and, with his subordinate 
officers, formed a distinct and independent establishment. The conditions of 
tbe payment of this amount of tax were, however, favourable to the villager, 
as he was exempt from all other process of taxation and in proportion to his 
* means had a right of investing his capital in the general working of the 
fishery, the purchase of material for weirs, traps, nets, &c., in proportion 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


147 


with which amount so invested he received a share in the outturn at the 
end of the season. 

On the cessation of the rains of the S. W. monsoon, when the 
waters have fallen to their lowest level, a fixed weir is placed across the 
lake at its shallowest part and another some distance from it shutting 
off between them a small space in which is the mouth of the channel connect- 
ing the lake with the Daga river : this small space, made as small as pos- 
sible, is left un worked. A drag-net of reed and grass, strongly constructed 
with the toughest forest creepers forming from its great length of about 
900 yards a deep concavity and sweeping the bed of the lake, is then placed 
across inside one weir and gradually moved right round the lake towards 
the other. The process of dragging is performed by floating capstans 
worked by hawsers of jungle rope attached to the end of the frame 
which by this tedious process is carried forward during three months at 
about 45 fathoms each day until it is opposite to the village at the further 
end of the lake ; a new weir is now constructed to form one side of the enclo- 
sure into which the fish have thus been driven. The ponderous mass 
of framework is taken to pieces and reconstructed across the water at the second 
of the two weirs first made whence it is dragged up in the same way as 
before to the village driving the fish before it and the ends are gradually 
contracted till an oblong space is included within which the fish are enclosed. 

The taking of the fish from the enclosure into which they are ultimately 
driven is deferred until the full moon of June, by which time the first showers 
of the monsoon have reduced the temperature of the water, and the fish are 
then less subject to die than would be the case with the full blaze of the 
sun, unmitigated by the rain, striking upon the crowded mass ; even with this 
precaution, however, a large number of fish die before the whole has been 
cleared and the stench of their corruption taints the air for miles around. 

On the near approach of the drag-net to the space forming the enclosure 
the fish are observed to be in great commotion, rushing in all directions 
and attempting to force their way through; finding the net too strong 
inany of the larger kind attempt to leap over the barrier which they 
effect only to fall into nets spread to catch them ere they reach the 
water ; as the space becomes more confined the disturbance of the mass of 
fish becomes so great that the noise of the splashing, and especially the 
deep hollow ^‘grunting ” of the larger kinds, is heard at several miles distance 
and although this may appear tinctured with a little exaggeration it will be 
intelligible when it is stated that the number of fish caught is never below 70,000 
to 80,000 of all kinds, some of which weigh upwards of 15 viss or about 
lbs. sd each ; mixed up with the mass it is not unusual to find crocodiles of all 
sizes, from the infant of a month to a grown parent whose skull measures 
three feet in length. Strange to relate no accident or casualty has been 
known to occur from the presence of crocodiles in this lake although the men 
employed in working the drag-net are constantly compelled to dive to the 
bottom in the deeper parts to clear the lower portion of obstructions in 
the bed. 

During the taking and disposal of the fish some 8,000 to 10,000 persons 
are collected at the small village in front of the preserve, a market is formed, 
and temporary sheds for smoking the fish are built where the principal 
amount of business is transacted ; the scene altogether is exciting and, 



148 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


notwithstanding* the fishy odour, fresh and corrupt, which pervades the atmos- 
phere, is well worth the visit of the curious observer. 

The principal fish belong to the following genera, — Cerca, Cyprinus, 
GohiOf Labeo, C'imelodus, Cirrhinus, Cyprinodon and Silurus, some of which 
attain the large size previously noted. In addition to these, however, there is 
a multitude of smaller fry which are converted into the coarser kinds of 
Ngapee,^^ and are only interesting to the Ichthyologist, who would here 
find a large field for observation. Of those named above some 25,000 viss, 
upwards of 40 tons, are annually disposed of on the spot.* 

ENG-KOON. — A river in the northern portion of the* Prome district 
which rises in the Myit-myeng-doung spur and flowing southward falls into 
the Kouk-khwe, itself a tributary of the north Naweng, near Htangoon a 
little below Wet-htee-gan. It is navigable during the rains for a short dis- 
tance by small boats ; the bed is sandy and the banks, on which the Eng tree 
{Dipterocarpns tuherculatus) is - found in great abundance, are moderately 
high. 

ENG-THA-NWOT. — A lake in the Henzada district lying a little to the 
east of the Doora lake with which it communicates by a small channel. 
It is 1,400 yards long and has a maximum breadth of 700 yards : the depth 
in the dry weather is from 4 to 6 feet and in the rains from 12 to 14, 

ENG-TSOUK. — A revenue circle in the Anouk-bhet township, Tavoy 
district, about sixteen square miles in extent of which some three are cultivated, 
mainly with rice. In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 4,338, the capitation- 
tax Es, 1,964, the gross revenue Rs. 6,537 and the population 2,656. 

ENG-WON. — A lake in the Bhoommawaddee township of the Toung- 
ngoo district rather more than a mile inland from the left bank of the Tsit- 
toung river, with a depth of 15 feet of water in the rains and 6 or 7 in the 
dry weather. 

ENG-WON. — A revenue circle in the Anouk-bhet township, Tavoy dis- 
trict, about nine square miles in extent of which a quarter is under cultivation, 
principally with rice. In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 3,993, the capita- 
tion-tax Rs. 2,092, the gross revenue Es. 6,285 and the population 2,730. 

ENG-WON-GYEE. — A lake in the Meng-gyee township of the Henzada 
district on the right bank of the Myit-ma-kha or Hlaing river north-west of 
Meng-gyee. In the rains it is 25 feet deep and can then be entered by 
boats of 100 baskets burden ; in the dry season it is 6 feet deep : the bed is 
muddy and the banks flat. 

ENG-ZAYA, — A large revenue circle in the north-west of the 
Tboon-khwa township, Thoon-khwa district. The principal products are 
tobacco, betel vine leaves and vegetables. The eastern part of the circle con- 
sists of extensive plains and swamps which in some cases constitute fisheries, 
yielding a large revenue to the State. In 1876-77 the land revenue was 
Es. 9,624, the capitation- tax Rs. 7,130, the gross revenue Es. 22,900 and 
the population 3,739. 

EOXJL ISLAND. — An uninhabited island oflP the coast of the Sandoway 
district called by the Burmese Nan-tha-kywon of which the English 

• Taken almost verbatim from a paper by the late Mr. O’Riley, F.B.G.S. [Editor.] 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


149 


name is a translation — lying in about 18° 3' N. six leagues from the mainland 
and seven from BlufF point and visible from a distance of eight leagues. It ia 
about two miles long of conical form sloping from the centre towards the sea 
and the north end terminating in a low point. To the north-east there are islets 
and rocks near the shoi’e and a reef partly above water extending southward. 
The name is derived from a so-called mud volcano which gives the island 
its conical appearance and from which, at times, pours forth a torrent of hot 
mud bubbling with marsh gas. 

GAI-KHO. — A fierce and savage subtribe of Pwo Kareng living north and 
east of the Shoung and like them wearing trowsers which, however, probably 
owing to their habit of rearing silkworms, are often made of silk handsomely 
ornamented. Though a portion of the Pwo branch they wear the same trowsers 
as the Bghai-ka-hta viz , : white with red radiating lines like the rising sun 
embroidered at the bottom. By the Bghai family they are called Kaiy a word 
that is never used alone but with an affix denoting one of the three portions 
into which they divide the clan : — Kai-khew or Upper Kai Kai-la or 
Lower Kai^’ and Kai-pie-ya, or Kai’s people”: the term Oai-kho is the 
Burmanised form of Kai-khew* Formerly they were the determined foes 
of the British but owing to the exertions of the district officers they are 
now our firm friends. They consider themselves as superior to all the other 
Kareng elans : the men are stout tall and muscular, daring in adventure and war- 
like in disposition ; the women large, fair and often with ruddy complexions. 
Burmese schools have been established by the Baptist missionaries and many 
amongst them can speak Burmese. Within British territory there are about 
twenty villages containing an estimated population of 3,000 souls. They have 
two distinguishing peculiarities, their horror of ponies and elephants which 
are not allowed to enter their villages and for which they will neither provide 
nor sell fodder and the barbarous custom, now happily dying out, of burying 
a slave with the dead body of every slave holder and elder, 

GAMOON-AING. — A revenue circle in the valley of the Kyoukgyee 
stream, an eastern tributary of the Tsittoung, in the Kyoukgyee township of 
the Shwe-gyeng district, which includes the formerly separate circle of Kyouk- 
hmaw. It extends over an estimated area of 120 square miles and has a 
population — towards the east composed principally of Kareng — of 6,538 souls. 
A large revenue is derived from fishery and net tax mainly in the old 
Kyouk-hmaw circle : the land revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 4,983, the capita- 
tion-tax Es. 5,712 and the gross revenue Rs. 17,749. 

QKW * — A revenue circle in the Tha-htoon sub-division, Amherst district, 
lying partly in the valley formed by the Martaban hills on the east and 
the Debharien spur on the west and partly in the plain country between 
the hills and the seacoast. A few years ago it extended across the Martaban 
hills eastward to the Bhenglaing but it was found to be too large for 
supervision by one Thoogyee and was, therefore, reduced to its present limits. 
In 1876 it had a population of 4,668 souls, mainly Toungthoo, and 6,567 
acres under cultivation ; the capitation-tax was Rs. 4,327 and the land revenue 
Rs. 12,167. 

QKW - — A small stream in the Tha-htoon township which rises in the 
Martaban hills and flowing westward crosses the head of the Debharien 



160 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEKR. 


valley a few miles south of Tha-htoon and falls into the Tsha or Tha-htoon 
river not far from Kawthan. 

GAWTAMAW. — A small revenue circle in the Mahathaman township, 
Prome district, about ten miles east of Prome ; the major portion is under rice 
cultivation. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Es. 505, the capitation-tax 
Es. 365, the gross revenue Es. 890 and the population 355. United with it is 
the formerly separate Koon-tseng circle. 

GNYOUNG-BENG. — A village in the Thanlyeng township of the Ean- 
goon district on the Poogandoung stream and about seven miles from its 
mouth inhabited chiefly by Taking who are traders and carriers. In 1877 
it had 999 inhabitants. Lat, 16° 59' N, Long. 96° 28' 30' E. 

GNYOUNG-BENG. — A revenue circle in the extreme south of the Pegu 
township, Eangoon district, between the Pegu and the Tsittoung rivers. The 
principal rice cultivation is in the western part of the circle where the coun- 
try is undulating. In 1876 it had a population of 8,339 souls. The land 
revenue in the same year was Es. 57,514, the capitation-tax Es, 10,083 and 
the gross revenue Es. 88,482, 

GNYOUNG-BENG. — A village in the Prome district in a small patch of 
rice cultivation on the bank of the South Naweng river some eight miles 
above the mouth of the North Naweng. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-GYEE. — A village in the Prome district in 18® 25' 50" 
N. and 95® 23' 30" E. a short distance to the N. W. of Poungday and about 
a mile and a half north of the Kyat river, inhabited mainly by rice culti- 
vators. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-HLA. — A. revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo town- 
ship, Kyouk-hpyoo district, eight square miles in extent, with a population in 
1876 of 1,^0 souls. The principal manufacture is salt. The land revenue 
in 1876-77 was Es. 2,007, the capitation -tax Es. 1,770 and the gross revenue 
Ks. 4,421. United with it is the formerly separate Madai-kywon circle. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-EWA. — A village in the Henzada township on the 
north of the town of Henzada of which it forms a suburb. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-EWA. — A small revenue circle in the Henzada 
township, Henzada district, lying to the north of Henzada on the right 
bank of the Irrawaddy, the southern and western portions of which are exten- 
sively cultivated with rice. It is now joined to the Henzada Myoma circle. 

GNYODNG-BENG-THA. — A village in the Toungngoo district on the 
left bank of the Tsittoung in 19° 0' 40" N. and 96^ 32' 40" E. inhabited 
principally by gardeners and Kareng cultivators. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-THA. — ^A revenue circle in the Prome district in 
the extreme north-eastern corner of the Padonng township, separated from 
tiie Thayet district by the little Yathaya streamlet and occupying the whole 
<rf the river bank opposite Prome. The surface of the country is generally 
lully with fruit and vegetable gardens on the hill sides. The villages are 
adl on the bank of the Irrawaddy and are inhabited by eultivatoi’S and fisher- 
men. The land revenue in 1876-77 wasRs. 911 and the capitation-tax Es. 1,147. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-THA.— A revenue circle in the Za-lwon township of 
ike Henzada district on the right bank of the Irrawaddy south of and adjoining 



BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


151 


the Za-lwon Myoma circle. The land is well cultivated with rice an 
embankment on the river protecting it from inundation. The land revenue 
in 1876-77 was Rs. 8^417, the capitation-tax Rs. 3^627 and the gross revenue 
Rs. 12,923. In the same year the population was 4,467 souls. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-TSHIEP. — A large village on the leftbankof the Irra- 
waddy in the Myedai township, Thayet district : in the Burmese time it was 
the head-quarters of a Myothoogyee. It is said to have been founded by 
the Shan King of Ava Mo-hgnyeng-meng-tara, a usurper who was Tsawbwa 
of Mo-hgnyeng, when he came down in 1438 A.D. to make peace with 
the king of Pegu who was besieging Prome. It was originally called Mekha- 
wadee. North of it was founded a small town called Ramawadee and south 
another called Zeya-wadee. Symes who visited it at the end of the last cen- 
tury describes it as a fine village situated in a romantic country.’^ 

During the first Burmese war General Campbell had an interview in 
this village with the Burmese Commissioners but the terms of the treaty into 
which they entered were not ratified at the capital and the British advance 
continued. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-TSHIEP. — A large villageinthe Gyaing Thanlweng 
township Amherst district on the right bank of the Attaran river at its mouth. 
In 1876 it had a population of 1,794 souls. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-TSHIEP. — A revenue circle in the Myedai township# 
Thayet district, six square miles in extent on the left bank of the Irrawaddy : 
included \vithin its limits are six of the old village tracts each of which in 
the Burmese time had a Thoogyee of its own. The population in 1876 num- 
bered 4,115 souls almost all Burmans. The land revenue realized in 1876- 
77 was Rs. 4,437, the capitation-tax Rs. 4,135 and the gross revenue Rs. 10,247- 
Before the annexation of Pegu Gnyoung-beug-tshiep was an independent juris- 
diction and under the Myothoogyee were the Thoogyee of Myo-hla, Tsheng- 
doon, Bwotlay, Pj^alo and Pyenbouk which with the exception of the last 
are still Thoogyeeships but are no longer under the head official in Gnyoung- 
beug-tshiep who has charge of his own circle only. The last Myo- 
thoogyee but one succeeded when four years old in 1798 A.D. and was killed 
fighting against the British near Rangoon in 1852. His son Moung Tet-hpyo 
fled with the defeated Burman army and before the annexation succeeded his 
father in the Myothoogyeeship. On the advance of the British force he 
abandoned his appointment and retired into private life. Subsequently he 
took office under the English as an Extra Assistant Commissioner and was 
placed in charge of the Myedai township. His is the oldest family in the 
district tracing its descent to Myothoogyee in the time of the great Aloung- 
bhoora (Alompra) A.D. 1756, whilst few of the others can go further back 
than the days of his son Mengtaragyee A.D. 1780. 

GNYOUNG-BENG-TSHIEP. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than- 
lweng towmship, Amherst district, east of Maulmain at the junction of the 
Attaran and the Gyaing and on the right bank of the former. The circle 
is noted for the manufacture of earthen pots from the earth brought down 
the Attaran from Kyaikparan : these pots are used on the coast for salt 
boiling and other purposes. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Rs. 4,246, 
the <»pitation-tax Rs. 3,237 and the population 2,999 souls. 



152 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


GNYOUNG-DAN. — A village in the Prorae district on the Gnyoung-dan 
Ro, or wet weather watercourse, which falls into the Waigyee river about 
four miles east of the Engma swamp and twenty-three E. S. E. of Prome 
in a direct line. 

GNYOUNG-DAN. — A village in the Prome district in 11^ 29' 40'' N. 
and 96° 34' 10'' E. on the left bank of the Thien stream, one of the small 
tributaries of the Waigyee, about two miles N. W. ofPoungday and one mile 
north of the main road from Rangoon to the northern frontier of the Province. 

GNYOUNG-DAN. — A revenue circle in the Prome district about a 
mile and a half west of Poungday. Gnyoungdan is its largest village. In 
1876-77 the land revenue was Es. 703, the capitation -tax Es. 890, the gross 
revenue Rs. 1,690 and the population 883 souls. Adjoined to it is the 
formerly separate circle of Thayet-khyeng. 

GNYOUNG-DOON. — Sometimes called Yandoon. A town in the Thoon- 
khwa district with a population of 6,900 souls, 60 miles north-west from 
Rangoon at the junction of the Pan-hlaing creek, here called the Gnyouhgdoon, 
with the Irrawaddy. The town, which extends for about three miles along 
both banks of the creek, has sprung up almost entirely since 1852 ; in the 
Burmese time it was a small village of some 100 houses. It is the rendezvous 
of all the trading boats which run between the upper part of the valley 
of the Irrawaddy and Rangoon and during the rains as many as 1,000 boats 
collect here and dispose of their cargoes, those from up-country to those from 
Rangoon and vice versa* The principal imports from up-conn try are wheat, 
gram, beans, pickled tea, oil, onions, garlic and silk, and the principal exports 
upwards, rice husked and unhusked, piece-goods, crockery, earthen- ware, 
tobacco and betel-nuts ; small steamers occasionally run between Rangoon 
and Gnyoungdoon, making the trip with a favourable tide in one day. 

GNYOUNG-DOON. — A revenue circle in the township of the same 
name in the Thoon-khwa district at the northern mouth of the Pan-hlaing creek. 
In 1876-77 the land revenue was Es. 16,172 the capitation-tax Es. 12,708 
and the gross revenue Rs. 29,666 ; in the same year the population, including 
the inhabitants of the town of Gnyoungdoon, was 12,364. 

GNYOUNG-GOON. — A revenue circle in the Re Lamaing township, 
Amherst district, on the spurs of the forest- el ad hills which border the valley 
of the Re. Its inhabitants are chiefly Kareng and the cultivated area is very 
small and almost entirely on the bill sides. The land revenue in 1876 
was only Rs, 307, the capitation- tax Es. 1,092 and the number of the inhabit- 
ants 834. 

GNYOUNG-KHAEA. — The name of an ancient town two miles north 
of Tavoy built in 715 A.D. after the destruction of Thagara and At-ka-lien- 
oung by the Shans, A few mounds only now remain to mark the site. 

GNYOUNG-'KHYOUNG. — A village in the Henzada district on the 
right bank of the Irrawaddy. The principal occupation of the inhabitants 
is the cultivation of the neighbouring extensive tract of rice land. Long. 95° 
4P 20" E. : Lat. 17° 21' 40" N. 

GNYOUNG-KHYOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Donabyoo town- 
ship, Thoon-khwa district, on the right bank of the Irrawaddy south of 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


153 


Donabyoo Myoma. Un til the embankment along the river was made the south- 
ern portions of the circle were unculturable owing to periodical inundations. 
In 1876-77 the land revenue was Es. 15,401, the capitation- tax Es. 9,345, the 
gross revenue Es. 27,611 and the population 10,212. United to it is the Tha- 
byoo circle. 

GNYOUNG-LE-BENG. — A revenue circle in the Shwe-gyeng district 
to the W.N.W. of Shwe-gyeng with an area of about 70 square miles 
and a population of 5,284 souls, principally Taking. In 1876-77 the land 
revenue was Es. 8,994, the capitation-tax Es. 5,037 and the gross revenue 
Es. 14,480. 

GNYOUNG-LE-BENG. — A large village of 1,082 inhabitants in the 
Shwe-gyeng district a few miles west of Kweug-da-la and about 14 W.N.W. 
from Shwe-gyeng. 

GNYOUNG-EWA-GYEE. — A revenue circle on the southern border of the 
Kanoung township of the Henzada district with some rising ground towards 
the west and extensive rice plains in the centre. The land revenue in 1876- 
77 was Es. 6,730, the capitation-tax Es. 4,370, the gross revenue Es. 11,849 
and the population 4,981. 

GNYOUNG-EWA-NGAY. — A revenue circle in the south of the Kan- 
oung township of the Henzada district extending ^eastwards from the Arakan 
Eoma mountains with extensive rice-fields towards the east, the west being 
mountainous and covered with tree forest. It is now joined to five other circles, 
viz., Eeng-taw, Gnyoung-khyeng, Htien-tlie, Kywai-tslieng and Thanat-khoon. 
In 1876-77 the land revenue of the united circles was Es. 1,412, the capitation- 
tax Es. 2,460, the gross revenue Es. 3,949, and the population 2,556 souls. 

GNYOUNG-TSA-EE. — A village in the Shwedoung township, Prome dis- 
trict, in 18° 30^ &' N. and 95° 13' 41" E. on the left bank of the Irrawaddy 
about four and a half miles above the southern boundary of the district. 

GNYOUNG-TSA-EE. — A revenue circle in the Prome district occupying 
the south-western corner of the Shwe-doung township between the Irrawaddy 
on the west, the Henzada district on the south and the Shwe-nat-toung or 
Kholan hills on the east. Included in this area are the formerly separate circles 
of Tsbeng-rwa, Hmek-khara, Gnyoung-tsa-re, Sha-tsoo-khyoung, Magyee- 
htoon, Sha-daing, Bai-hla and Kyouk-taga. During the rains a tract of country 
in the south is completely separated from the rest by the Doon-koola water- 
course which leaves the Irraw^dy at Shwe-kywon village and joins it again 
just below Gnyoung-tsa-re : in the dry season when the waters of the river fall 
this channel is clos^ up just above Gnyoung-tsa-re and what was an island is 
converted into a long narrow peninsula connected with the rest of the circle 
by a neck of sand. The surface of the country in general is level except in the 
east where the ground undulates considerably. In the centre and towards 
the south-west rice is extensively cultivated. Gnyoung-tsa-re is the only large 
village. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Es. 5,729, the capitation-tax 
Es. 6,115, the gross revenue Rs. 12,465 and the population 5,961. 

GNYOUNG-TSENG. — Arevenue circle in the northern portion of the south- 
eastern township of the Tavoy district, of which about one-third is under 
cultivation, principally with rice. In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 3,249, the 
capitation-t^ Rs. 1,432, the gross revenue Es. 5,457 and the population 1,789. 

20 


154 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


GNYOUNG-TSENG-GYEE. — A small revenue circle in tlie Poungday 
township^ Prome district, which in 1876-77 furnished Es. 281 as land revenue 
and Es. 250 as capitation-tax and had a population of 255 souls. 

GNYOUNG-TSENG-NGAY. — A revenue circle in the Prome district 
close to and to the west of Poungday. Being one of the old circles it is of very 
small extent and in 1876 the population was only 281 souls. The land 
revenue in 1876-77 was Es. 213, the capitation-tax Es, 270 and the gross 
revenue Es. 483. 

GNYOUNG-WAING. — A village of about 500 inhabitants in the Ananbaw 
circle, Kyouk-gyee township, Shwe-gyeng district, on the Kwon river a few 
miles above its mouth. 

GN YOUNG- WON. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 33' 40" N, 
and 95^ 33' 40" E. about six miles N.N.W. of Poungday and a mile N. 
of the Waigyee river a small feeder of which runs past the village. Its in- 
habitants are mainly agriculturists. 

GNYOUNG-WON. — A revenue circle in the Prome district a short 
distance to the north-north-east of Poungday on the right bank of the Waigyee 
just below Rwa-thit-gyee. It is well cultivated with rice in the central and 
western portions. The largest village is Gnyoung-goon. In 1876-77 the land 
revenue was Es. 1,396, the capitation-tax Es. 1,683, the gross revenue Es. 3,115 
and the population 1,750. 

GNYOUNG-WON . 1 — A revenue circle in the Kama townships Thayet 
district, containing but little cultivation. In 1860 the Thoogyee of Thara- 
pee and Kyouk-padoung resigned and their circles were joined to the old 
Gnyoung-won circle to form the present one. The Thoogyee is also in 
charge of the Myo-hla circle. The land revenue in 1876-77 was Es, 991, the 
capitation- tax Es. 1,037, the gross revenue Es. 2,098 and the population 993. 

GOUNG-TSE-KYWON. — A small rocky island in the Salween, at its 
junction with the Gyaing close to Maulmain, on which stand a monastery 
and a few pagodas shaded by trees. 

GWE-KHYO. — A river in the northern portion of the Prome district a 
tributary of the South Naweng. It rises in the southern slopes of the 
Padouk spur some twenty miles west of the main range of the Pegu Roma 
mountains and has a south-westerly course to the Naweng which it joins 
near the village of Khyoung-khwa by the same mouth as the Eng-goon and 
the Khyoung-tsouk ; near its source the bed is rocky but lower down sandy 
and muddy : it is not navigable by boats. The trees most common on its banks 
are Eng {Dipterocai'pus tuberculatus) and Htien (Nauclea sp,) 

GYAING. — A river in the Amherst district formed by the junction in 
16° 34' N. and 98° 3' E. near the village of Gyaing of the Hlaingbhwai and 
the Houngtharaw. The united waters flow west for 45 miles and fall into 
the Salween at Maulmain. A broad but shallow river with numerous sand- 
banks it is navigable only by boats ; these can ascend at all seasons. The 
most important places on the banks are Kado at the month, the Government 
Timber-revenue station; Zatba-byeng, on the same (right) bank a few miles 
higher up, the head-quarters of the Gyaing Than-lweng township ; Tarana on 
the left bank about four miles higher ; Dhammatha a small village remarkable 
on account of a single scarped and pagoda crowned rock and an amphitheatre 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


156 


of limestone hills in which are large caves filled with images of Gaudama 
Booddha and of Kalian ; and lastly Gyaing, 

GYAING. — A village in the Amherst district at the junction of the 
Hlaing-bwai and Houngtharaw rivers where a small Police force is stationed. 

GYAING. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, Am- 
herst district, at the junction of the Hlaiug-bhwai and the Houngtharaw. 
In 1876-77 the land revenue was Rs. 3,506^ the capitation-tax Ks. 2,155 
and the population 2,983. 

GYAING ATT ARAN. — A township in the Amherst district occupying 
the valley of the Attaran river from the hills forming the southern boundary 
of the district northwards to the Gyaing. A tract on the left bank of that 
river eastwards from the mouth of the Attaran has. of late years, for adminis- 
trative convenience, been added to the Gyaing Than-lweng township the larger 
portion of which lies north of the Gyaing. 

The township is sparsely populated especially towards the south where 
the inhabitants are principally Kareng. Above the junction of the Zamee 
and the Weng-raw, which unite to form the Attaran, are large tracts of 
forest-land containing much valuable timber which, except bond fide for pur- 
poses of cultivation, cannot be cut without a license. Teak: was formerly very 
plentiful but considerable damage was done in the first years after the British 
occupation by indiscriminate felling. 

The head-quarters are at a small village called Nga-bye-ma with 233 in- 
habitants in 1876 on the right bank of the Attaran. A few miles above 
this is Re -boo, a hamlet so called from the neighbouring hot spring which 
is described by Dr. Heifer — and his description is accurate — as a semi-cir- 
cular pond 50 feet in circumference perfectly calm except in one or two 
places where a slight ebullition occasionally takes place. ^ * The air 

above the spring was 97° 50 'and the water itself 147° F.; notwithstanding this 
high temperature the borders are deeply covered with vegetation and a species 
^^of ficus has actually its roots in the water. The ground round the springs 
strongly impregnated with iron.'” In 1874-75 a partially successful ex- 
periment in potato cultivation was made in the neighbourhood but beyond 
the reach of the heat of this spring. Between Nga-bye-ma and Re-boo is the 
site of the ancient town of Attaran of which traces of the surrounding 
mound only exist. The Attaran is a deep rapid river flowing in places under 
cliflTs of tree-clad limestone rocks and navigable by vessels of large draught 
for a considerable distance — Mr, Crawford in 1826 ascended in a steamer as 
far as old Attaran — but used only by boats as the country it taps has but 
a small population and no extensive areas of land under cultivation. 

For administrative purposes the township is divided into 15 circles and 
in 1876-77 produced a gross revenue of Rs. 43,184 of which Rs. 20,094 were 
derived from the capitation -tax and Rs. 23,810 from the land. The popu- 
lation in that year numbered 20,496 souls. 

In the dry season parties of Shan cross the frontier at the Three Pagodas 
and come down the valley of the Attaran bringing ponies and cattle for sale. 

GYAING THAN-LWENG. — A township in the Amherst district form- 
ing a rectangular tract extending eastwards from the Salween to the Hlaing- 
bhwai and southwards from the Hpa-an a tributary of the Salween and the 
Kha-zaing a tributary of the Hlaing-bhwai, the sources of which are close 



166 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


together and in the rains are connected by a small stream navigable by canoes, 
to the Gyaing and including a small patch of country south of that river 
round about Gnyoung-beng-tshiep at the mouth of the Attaran on its right 
bank just behind Maulmain, It contains 16 revenue circles. The head- 
quarters are at Za-tha-byeng on the right bank of the Gyaing twelve miles 
above Maulmain. The principal villages are Gnyoung-beng-tshiep^ Kado at 
the junction of the Gyaing and the Salween, the Government Timber-revenue 
station a busy town where many rich foresters and timber traders reside, 
Hpa-an in the N.W. corner at the mouth of the Hpa-an stream the head- 
quarters of the Assistant Superintendent of Police in charge of the northern 
range where there is a Police station and a new market, Noung-loon inhabited 
largely by Toungthoo on the main line of traffic between the Shan States 
and Tha-htoon, and Kha-rai just above the junction of the Hlaing-bhwai and 
the Houng-tha-raw which, united, form the Gyaing. With the exception of 
the three main rivers which bound the township on three sides the streams 
are of little or no importance ; the lai’gest are the Kado with a bar at its mouth 
impassable at low water, the Hpai-ka-ta and the Hpa-an tributaries of the 
Salween and the Kha-zaing which falls into the Hlaing-bhwai. During the 
dry season numerous parties of Shan bringing cattle come in vid Mya-waddy 
and Kaw-ka-riet in the Houng-tha-raw township and crossing the Hlaing-bhwai 
at Kha-rai just above Gyaing pass westwards to Tha-htoon and on northwards 
into the Shwe-gyeng district and at the end of the season return by the same 
route. The halting-places and distances are Kha-rai to Moot-ka-do 8 miles, 
Moot-ka-do to Kaw-ka-da 24 miles, Kaw-ka-da to Noung-loon 15 miles, and 
Noung-loon to Hpa-an 12 miles. Here they cross the Salween and pass into 
the Hpa-gat township. More commonly the distance between Moot-ka-do 
and Noung-loon is divided into three and the halting-places and distances 
then are !^a-rai to Moot-ka-do 8 miles, Moot-ka-do to Noung-goon 10 miles, 
Noung-goon through Kaw-ka-da to Kwon-gnya 16 miles, Ewon-gnya to 
Noung-loon 13 miles, and Noung-loon to Hpa-an 12 miles. 

In the west and south-west the country consists of an extensive plain 
traversed by parallel lines of limestone rocks having a general north and 
south direction with intervening narrow and cultivated valleys. Portions are 
heavily inundated during the rains partly by the slow escape of the rain-fall 
and partly by the spill of the Salween which pours in at and above Hpa-an 
and flows southward through the Noung-loon valley and over the plain 
country between the Salween and the Zwai-ka-beng hills passing out into the 
Salween again at and below Hpai-ka-ta. The eastern and north-eastern parts 
of the township are filled by low laterite hills, covered by open tree and 
bamboo forest, intersecting small grass plains with little patches of rice near 
the numerous Kareng villages scattered over this part of the country. These 
plains are so low that water remains in them in pools throughout the year. 
The southern tract is a long narrow rice-producing plain between the 
.undulating ground on the north and the Gyaing on the south which on the 
west unites with the Noung-loon and Doon-reng valleys. The villages on the 
bank of the Salween and Gyaing are inhabited chiefly by Talaing with a 
few Bunnans, those in the E. and N.E. by Kareng and those in the centre 
by Toungthoo. In the plain country rice is grown and exported, principally 
vid Hpa-au whence it comes down the Salween, and from the villages on the 
banks of the Gyaing. In the more hilly parts where water and fodder are 



BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


157 


obtainable all the year round cattle are extensively bred and are sold to 
purchasers who come from Tha-htoon and from Pegu and other places 
west of the Tsittoung and move about from village to village collecting herds 
which they drive home by the ordinary trade route. In the dry weather 
the cattle wander over the low grass plains and in the rains through the 
forest on the higher ground. In 1876-77 the township had a population 
of 39,524 souls and produced a revenue of Rs. 103,273 of which Rs. 02,156 
were derived from the land revenue and Rs. 41,117 from the capitation-tax. 

GYO-BENG. — A village in the Prome district in 18® 26' 50" N. and 
95® 34' 25" E, on the Myolay creek and on the road from Ta-pwon in the 
Henzada district to Poungday about three miles south of its junction with 
the main road from Rangoon to the northern frontier, 

GYO-BENG-THA. — A village in the Prome district close to and to the 
north of the Wet-poot stream and about a quarter of a mile from the village 
of that name on the main road from Rangoon to the northern frontier. 

GYO-GOON.— In 19® 17' 45" N. Lat. and 94® 52' 50" E. Long.; a village 
in the Ma-oo-daing circle, Mengdoon township, Thayet district, on the bank 
of the Ma-htoon river. 

GYO-WA.— A village in 19° 14' 25" N. Lat. and 94° 48' 55" E. Long, 
in the Pai-myouk circle, Mengdoon township, Thayet district, on the Hlo-wa 
stream a little above the villages of Myouk-pyeng and Kan-ma-naing. 

GYO-YA-THA. — A village in the Prome district six miles east of Prome 
town in the middle of large rice fields. 

GYWON-DOUNG. — A suburb of Kama in the Thayet district lying on 
the south bank of the Made. 

HAING-GYEE. — An island, better known as Negrais, in theBassein or 
Ngawon river near the western bank three and a half miles up from Pagoda 
Point and rendered conspicuous by a hill at its northern end which slopes away 
to the centre : a narrow belt of level ground skirts the shore almost all round. 
The channel between the island and the western bank of the river is one mile 
broad on the south and four and a half on the north opposite the abandoned 
station of Dalhousie. In 1686 A.D. the Governor of Madras, who was anxious 
to push his factories eastward and to open out trade with Burma, actuated by the 
reports of early travellers and by the knowledge that Negrais possessed the 
great advantage of being accessible both by sea and land at all seasons of 
the year, despatched an expedition to survey the island which was believed to 
be a portion of the Arakan dominions, but the vessel in which it sailed had 
to put back. In 1687 Captain Weldon, on his return from Mergui whither 
he had been sent to declare war with the Government of Siam, entered the 
river, landed and surveyed the island and took possession of it in the name of 
the British. The report states that he destroyed some Siamese huts that 
were on the island.’^ There is no trace in Talaing or Burman history of the 
Siamese ever having penetrated so far westward and unless the report is alto- 
gether wrong the huts were probably those of some Shan immigrants who 
were also called Siamese by old travellers and writers. Captain Weldon may 
possibly have confounded Shan with Siamese and have considered that as he 
had just declared war on the part of the British he was justified in seizing a 
portion of the enemy's territory, yet it would be an extreme stretch of imagi- 



158 


BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


nation to suppose tliat an island three miles up a river belonged to a kingdom 
many miles to the eastward because a few subjects of that kingdom were found 
on it. Nothing further was done until 1753 when the Governor of Madras sent ' 
a party under Mr. Hunter to form a trading settlement. The following 
year Mr. Burke reported that the fort which had been erected was built in 
a swamp influenced by the tides and that the inhabitants were suifering 
severely from sickness and want of food and attributed it to Mr. Hunter’s 
incapacity. Mr. Hunter was retained in .charge and dying shortly afterwards 
was succeeded by Mr, Burke, The factory had remained undisturbed mainly 
on account of the war between the Peguans and the Burmans both of whom 
endeavoured without effect to enlist the English on their side. Bassein some 
seventy miles up the river^ where an English out factory had been established, 
was attacked and captured by the Burmans who, anxious to obtain British 
aid, carefully avoided injuring the English inhabitants and after the capture 
sent envoys to Negrais to press for assistance : this was refused as -the 
agent desired to avoid mixing himself up in the quarrel of the two 
kingdoms, hoping, doubtless, to be well thought of by the eventually successful 
Government by reason of his not having aided, the unsuccessful. During the 
absence of the Burman envoys the Peguans retook the town and the envoys 
therefore returned to Negrais. The Burmans having succeeded in annexing 
Pegu a mission was sent in 1755 A.D. to the capital to endeavour to obtain 
amongst other things a formal grant of Negrais: this the King refused. In 
1757 another mission was sent for the same purpose under Ensign Lister with 
no better result as regards the island. In 1759 the establishment was with- 
drawn and three or four persons only were left in charge of some property 
and timber as well as to hold possession of the island and Captain 
Southbey was sent to assume command. The day after his arrival — 5th October 
1759 — Antony, the man who had attended Ensign Lister on his mission to Ava, 
delivered to him a letter purporting to be from the King of Burma. Antony 
dined with Captain Southbey that day and was asked to meet all the Euro- 
pean gentlemen in the station on the following. The guests assembled at 
the appointed hour and were on the point of sitting down to dinner when 
at a given signal a large number of armed Burmese rushed into the house 
and murdered ail except a midshipman who succeeded in escaping to his 
ship and giving the alarm. After the Europeans, ten in number, had been 
killed a general massacre of the natives of India took place. In 1760 Captain 
Alves was despatclied to demand satisfaction for these murders; but far from 
obtaining any redress the King prohibited our returning to the island, though 
he granted a spot of ground for a factory at Bassein and released the few who 
escaped death and were taken prisoners at Negrais. In 1802 Captain 
Symes was sent to claim the island but \ ithout avail and it never came into 
the possession of the British till Pegu was annexed in 1852 by Lord Dalhousie. 

HAN-GAN. — A revenue circle in the Re Lamaing township, Amherst 
district, on the left bank of the Re river reaching from the hills to the sea 
coast. It is inhabited chiefly by Talaing and is well cultivated. It now 
includes Khaw-tsa and in 1876 had 2,066 inhabitants; in that year the land 
revenue was Es. 3,209 and the capitation-tax Rs. 2,137. 

HAN-GAN.— A village in the Amherst district about ten miles up 
the Han-gan river which falls into the Re at its mouth. In 187 6 it had 
1,114 inhabitants. Long. 97° 5T 30" E. Lat. 15° 11' N. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


159 


HA8HWIE. — A clan of the Pwo Kareng family of about 2,000 
souls living in some twenty-five to thirty villages on the hills between the 
Tsittoung and Thouk-re-kliat streams in the latitude of the northern boun- 
dary of the Province. They are a tall, slender, active and warlike race but 
their women are ugly, ignorant and degraded. The caves in their country 
furnish the saltpetre from which they make their gunpowder : to the salt- 
petre, charcoal and sulphur they add, under the impression that it increases 
the strength, alcoholic spirits and, since the advent of the Missionaries, Perry 
Davis^ ‘^ painkiller’’ when they can get it, 

HENG-THA-GAN. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 27 ' N. 
and 95*^ 34 ' 30'' E. There are two villages of this name distinguished 
as North Heng-tha-gan and South Heng-tha-gan both so close to Poungday 
that they form almost the southern end of that town though they are in a 
diiFerent revenue circle. Both, like Poungday, are on the Myolay channel. 

HENG-THA-GAN, — A revenue circle in the Prome district immediately 
south of Poungday. Its largest village is Heng-tha-gan which forms 
the southern portion of Poungday itself. Kanoo further south on the 
Myolay and Thabhangoon, also on the Myolay close to its junction with the 
Kyat or Kan-tha, fire populous places. This circle is traversed by the main 
road from Poungday to Ta-pwon in the Henzada district. It has of late 
years been placed under the Thoogyee of Kook-ko-beng. 

HENZADA. — The head-quarters of the Henzada district, supposed to 
have been founded in the earlier part of the sixteenth century, on the right 
bank of the Irrawaddy which opposite to the town is split into several chan- 
nels by large sandbanks. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 15,307 souls of 
whom about two-thirds are Burmese, the remainder being chiefly Talaing 
though Shan, Chinamen, Madrassees, Mahomedans, Indo-Europeans and 
Chin-Indo-Europeans are represented. It contains Court-houses, a Treasury, a 
Police Station, a Public Works Department Inspection Bungalow, a Telegraph 
Office, a Post Office, a small masonry Gaol or Lock-up with wooden barracks 
in which an average of 72 prisoners were confined in 1876, a Charitable Dis- 
pensary in which during that year 202 in and 2,041 out patients were treated, 
a fine market place or bazaar and three schools, a Kareng normal, a State town 
school and one for Burmese established by the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel. In 1876-77 it had a gross Municipal revenue of Es, 45,648, Lat. 77° 
68' Long. 95° 32' E. 

HENZADA. — A township in the district of the same name on the right 
bank of the Irrawaddy extending westwards to the Arakan Eomas. The whole 
country, which is exceedingly fertile and produces much rice, was formerly 
liable to annual inundations on the rising of the Irrawaddy but has been very 
greatly protected by embankments thrown up along that river and the 
Bassein. The principal town is Henzada with a population of 15,307 
souls, the head-quarters of the district. In 1876-77 the land revenue was 
Es. 1,16,585, the capitation-tax Es. 54,830 and the gross revenue Es. 1,03,698 ; 
this includes Es. 6,518 local fund receipts credited to the district and cess 
funds and expended solely in the district in which raised. The population 
in the same year was 73,664. The township is divided into twelve circles. 

HENZADA. — A district in the Pegu division, covering an area of 4,047 
square miles, in the valley of the Irrawaddy at the head of the delta and 



160 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


lying on both banks of that river. The northern boundary which separates 
it from the Prome district^ leaves the Pegu Roma mountains in about 18° 
48^ N. and following generally natural features runs about E. by S. 
down the Poondoung spur and the Kyat river to the Myitraakha or 
Hlaing and then on past the Irrawaddy and up the Kyouk-piet-tha stream to- 
wards the south to the Ta-zoung-gyee spur, thence westward along that spur 
to the Arakan Roma mountains which it strikes in about 18° 23' N. The 
southern boundary which separates the district from Rangoon on the east and 
Bassein and Thoon-khwa on the west is more irregular in its course ; starting 
from the Pegu Romas it follows the Mee-neng to its mouth in the Hlaing, then 
turning south it follows the Hlaing for about a mile and a half to the Re-nek- 
khyoung where it inclines west and strikes the Irrawaddy at a spot about 
eight or nine miles below Henzada ; following the Irrawaddy southwards for a 
few miles it turns west again along the Pantanaw creek to leave it almost imme- 
diately and trend north-west, almost parallel to and not far from the Irrawaddy, 
to the Bassein river which it crosses and then inclines more to the west to the 
Arakan mountains. From the north to about the latitude of Henzada the district 
stretches right across the valley but below this the Bassein district running 
up north along the Arakan Romas and the Rangoon district along the Pegu 
Romas give the lower portion the form of a truncated cone lying partly on 
one bank of the Irrawaddy and partly on the other, with the newly-formed 
Thoon-khwa district closing it in on the south. The eastern and western 
boundaries are formed by the two ranges of mountains which enclose the 
valley of the Irrawaddy : here the face of the country has a rugged 
character which subsides into undulations and finally into a dead flat in the 
more central parts near the river. In 1861 Henzada on the west of 
the Irrawaddy and Tharrawaddy on the east, which shortly after the occupa- 
tion of Pegu had been separated and had since then formed two independent 
jurisdictions, were re-united and the head-quarters were moved from Henzada 
to Myanoung further north. In 1870 the head-quarters were re -transferred 
to Henzada where they now are. In 1872-73 the Thoon-tshay circle of 
Rangoon was added to it from Rangoon, and in 1875 the greater part of the 
Donabyoo township was taken from it and added to others to form the Thoon- 
khwa district. 

The Arakan Romas forming the western boundary and stretching from 
far beyond the frontier of Pegu to the Bay of Bengal have 
Mountains. nowhere in this district a greater elevation than in the 

latitude of Myanoung where one of the peaks rises to 4,003 
feet above the sea-level: from this point southwards the height rapidly 
diminishes. Towards the north the spurs stretch down to the Irrawaddy 
and one, just within the district, ends at Akouk-toung in a precipitous clifiT 
300 feet high, its feet bathed by the river and its face cavern ed artificially 
to contain statues of Gaudama, the only instance in this district in which a hill 
abuts on the river. Towards the south the course of the Irrawaddy trends 
away from these mountains and leaves room for vast plains. The ascents 
of the range are steep though not generally rocky and the entire surface of the 
tract covered by the main range and its spurs is clothed with dense forest the 
summits of the highest peaks being the only points destitute of tree jungle. 

The Pegu Romas on the east are further removed from the river and 
their spurs do not extend down so far into the valley. The highest point 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


161 


(2,000 feet above the sea) in the whole chain is in this district in 17° 55' N., 
where it branches out southward into several radiating spurs which form the 
valleys of the Pegu and the Poo-zwon-doung rivers and their tributaries. 
The slopes are extremely steep and the valleys sharply excavated, the result 
of the soft character of the shales and earthy sandstone constituting the range 
and partly also of the heavy x’ain-fall of Pegu. The country here as in the 
west is densely wooded and in the hot season is dry and parched. 

The plains are extensive and to some extent cultivated and are almost 
everywhere suited for the production of rice but were, till 
Plains. a few years ago, annually inundated over a considerable 

area. To the east of the Irrawaddy these plains stretch 
from north to south throughout the whole length of the district reaching on 
the one hand from the Hlaing to the Pegu Romas and on the other to the 
Irrawaddy. It is these latter which are most subject to inundation. The 
plains on the western bank of the Irrawaddy extend from Akouktoung in 
the north to the southern limit of the district and widening out in their 
lower portion stretch inland from the Irrawaddy towards the Arakan Romas. 
A great part of this country was subject to extensive inundation but has been 
greatly protected by embankments constructed along the right bank of the 
river so that almost the whole area is suitable for rice cultivation except 
where, here and there, patches of sandy and gravelly soil or lakes and marshes 
occur. 

From the two bounding mountain ranges numerous torrents pour down 
and on reaching the plain Vountry unite to form large 
Rivers. streams which fall into the Hlaing, the Irrawaddy 

and the Bassein rivers, whilst towards the south the 
Hlaing and the Irrawaddy are connected by several creeks, the waters of 
whichever of the two may be temporarily the fullest finding its way thus 
during the rains into the other. The Irrawaddy traverses the district 
from north to south dividing it into two pretty equal parts but having a 
general S.S.E. course, and is here navigable by river steamers at all seasons. 
The Hlaing rises in Prome as the Zay and enters this district as the Myit-ma- 
kba a few miles east of the Irrawaddy, a low range of hills covered with Eng 
forest {Dipterocarpiis tuhercnlatus) and generally known as the Engdaing lying 
between them. Its course is about parallel to that of the Irrawaddy and from 
the east it receives through numerous channels the drainage of the Pegu 
Roma mountains which fertilises the plain on its eastern bank. A little below 
the southern extremity of the Engdaing the Tsheng-khoung creek, navig- 
able throughout during the rains only, unites it with the Irrawaddy, and 
from this point downwards numerous channels exist by which during the 
rains the waters of the two rivers mingle. Its principal affluents from the 
east are the Toung-gnyo in the north, the Meng-bhoo, the Toung, the 
Meng-hia, the Tsheng-aing, the Toung-bho-hla, the Bheeleng, which has 
different names in different parts of its course, and in the south the Thoon- 
tshay, all tapping a country rich in teak and ot^er valuable timber and 
in the lower portion of their lengths flowing through culturable and partly 
cultivated land. On the west innumerable small streams form by their union 
several principal channels along which the accumulated drainage of the 
western half of the district is carried to the Irrawaddy and Bassein rivers. 
Many of these streams are either entirely dry or they contain water to the 

21 



162 


BRITISH BURMA CrAZUTTEER. 


depth of a few inches only during the hot season, and nearly all have high 
precipitous banks and extremely tortuous courses : after heavy rains they fill 
with great rapidity and flow with a very strong current. During the continu- 
ance of the south-west monsoon they become navigable to a distance of some 
miles above their mouths and by taking advantage of the freshets which 
prevail at that season boats of considerable burden can ascend with ease until 
the stream becomes a mountain torrent. The Pouk-taing rises in the 
Akouk-toung spur and has an easterly course of only ten miles,, but receives 
many small tributaries in its course. The Tsanda, the Aloon and the 
Padaw rise in the Arakan mountains and unite to form the Pata-sheng 
which falls into the Irrawaddy a little below Kyau-kheng : the first has a 
south-easterly course of about 25 miles, and the others a north-easterly course 
of about 30 and 40 miles respectively. The Ka-gnyeng rises in the Arakan 
mountains and runs in a south-easterly direction for about 60 miles and 
after receiving the waters of the Shwe-naing and the Tsheng-boon falls into 
the Bassein river about 13 miles from its northern mouth. It communicates 
with the Irrawaddy by the Thambhaya-daing creek which leaves it at the elbow 
formed by the sudden bend w^hich it makes S.S.W, when only a mile from 
the Irrawaddy. It traverses a highly-cultivated country. The Maraya rises 
in the Arakan mountains and for 30 miles flows south-east when, turning 
' north, it falls into the Htoo lake five miles further on, the surplus waters of 
which used to find their way to the Irrawaddy. The Nan-ga-thoo is formed 
by two streams of this name which have their sources in the Arakan mountains 
and unite a little above Kweng-gouk, and falls into the Bassein river about two 
miles west of the mouth of the Ka-gnyeng. The Bassein river is in reality 
a branch of the Irrawaddy recruited by the drainage of the country through 
which it flows. It leaves the Irrawaddy about nine miles above Henzada 
and flows south-west to the sea through the Bassein district. At its entrance 
it is about 300 yards wide but is choked by a sandbank rising above the 
level of the water of the Irrawaddy during the dry season. In the rains the 
largest boats can enter it and river steamers have passed through it. 

Recent alluvium, that is the deposit thrown down by the waters of 
the existing Irrawadi {Irrawaddy) occupies a very small 
Geology. area/^ and from the northern limit of the district to a 

^Mittle above Pantauaw follows very closely the bed of 
^ the river nowhere attaining a greater breadth than six miles. The older 
alluvium * * * j^ay be divided into an upper and a lower portion ; 

the latter of irregular development and consisting of coarse gravels ” 
transported from a distance, with large included masses of silicified wood ” 
derived from the neighbourhood, whilst the former consists of a very homo- 
geneous clay. This clay deposit comprises the entire level plains of Pegu. 

^ In constitution it is very homogeneous, somewhat arenaceous * * * ” 

and of a uniform yellowish colour, in places assuming a more reddish 
colour than usual and under certain conditions of exposure and weathering 
assuming an imperfect^ lateri tic appearance superficially. The last appear- 
ance is usually seen in the sides of wells and is indicated by the peculiar 
mottled appearauce the rock presents from the irregular manner in whi(?h 
the peroxide of iron arranges itself. The whole deposit is very homogeneous, 
a little more swdy in some spots than in others, and with occasional thin 
layers of sand irregularly and sparingly interspersed through it ; the only 



BKITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


163 


recognizable band possessing a distinctive character is a dark layer of only 
a few inches in thickness but of wide distribution. Judging from this 
band the whole deposit would seem to have a gentle slope to the south at 
a somewhat greater rate than the present surface of the country ; for 
whilst above Myanoung this dark band is clearly seen high up in the bank 
and but little below the liigh flood level of the river, in the tidal parts of the 
delta it is found about the level of midwater mark or lower * * * The 

“ older alluvial clay just described rests in Pegu on a considerable deposit, or 
bottom bed as it may be considered, of sand or gravel, varying much with 
locality, and made up partly of the detritus from the nearest rocks, and 
partly of gravel derived from more distant sources. At Nioungdon, ” 
{Guy oimg-doon) at the top of the tideway, this bottom bed consists of” 
clean sand with a few small quartz pebbles sparingly dispersed hex'e and ” 
there through it; and it is the presence of this underbed of sand which so 
greatly favours the abrasion of the channel of the Nioungdon (Gnyoung- ” 
doon vel Panhlaing) stream, and is the indirect cause of the broad shallow, 
“just below the junction of the stream with the Irrawadi {Irrawaddy) 

“ which forms so great an obstacle to navigation. Higher up the river a ” 
few miles above Monyo {Mo-gnyo)^ on the opposite bank, a large stretch ” 
“ of gravel and boulders is exposed, which is about the lowest point to ” 
“ which these very coarse gravels reach. Above this spot coarse gravels, 

“ as a rule, underlie the clay wherever it is cut through In many ” 

places along the western slopes of the Pegu Yoma {Homo) laterite is found of ” 
“ fair quality underlyiijg the sandy soil of the Engdaing forest {Dipterocarpiis ” 
“ tuherculatus) where its position is that of a basal member of the older alluvium.” 
The fossil wood group whicdi formerly extended as far south as Rangoon is 
now but slightly represented in this district. The Nummulitic or Eocene 
group of rocks which extends on the west bank of the Irrawaddy from the 
frontier to the sea along the Arakan range traverses this district ; at Akouk- 
toung it is four miles broad. South of Myanoung the extent of the group 
becomes somewhat irregular and uncertain, being covered and masked on the 
east by a thick deposit of sand and gravel ; while on the west its extent can- 
not satisfactorily be defined. Opposite Myanoung the width is only ten 
miles, and at Henzada not more than two. South of Henzada the Nummu- ” 
" litic beds are much covered up by surface detritus, and their width is incon- ” 
" siderable. ” In about 17° 45' in the bed of a stream falling into the Nanga- 
thoo is an exposed outcrop of a peculiar whitish argillaceous sandstone, 
locally used for the construction of images of Gaudama. The beds of this 
rock, the position of which in I’egard to the limestone of the group is doubtful 
hut, probably, above it, extend still further north but do not seem to 
occur in the Prome district. The Negrais ” rocks which include those 
here met with older than the Nummulitic and newer than the Triassic extend 
throughout the district, as do the latter. The intrusive rocks are in this 
district, as far as it has been geologically examined, mainly represented by 
serpentine, and with this may be considered the steatite veins of the Arakan 
range. There are twenty-one distinct patches of this rock ranged within a 
strip of country twenty-one miles in length, which extends south iuto the 
neighbouring Bassein district. " The first and largest display is a broad belt ” 

of it crossing the Nungathu [Nan-ga-thoo) stream In all localities in this 

“district the serpentine presents the same appearance, and this great unifor- ” 



164 


BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


" mity of mineral character would seem to indicate community of origin. In 
colour it varies somewhat from a pale to a rather dark but not dull green ; 
and it would yield an ornamental stone, but for the fatal defect of being 
“ everywhere seamed by cracks which traverse the rock irregularly in every 
" direction, the largest and soundest-looking blocks falling into numerous 
polygonal or slabby fragments under a few smart taps from a hammer/^ 
Soapstone which is used by the Burmese for writing on parabaik, a material 
still used in many places instead of paper, is largely imported from Upper 
Burma but is found almost everywhere where serpentine occurs, though not 
in such a form as to furnish the ordinary pencils in use, some six inches long. 
It is in all localities essentially the same though it varies in colour from a 
pale grey to nearly black. 

Petroleum was discovered some years ago about twelve miles from Myan- 
oung, but the well that was sunk was almost immediately abandoned. Gold 
occurs in the bed of the Irrawaddy but in too small a quantity to render its 
extraction worth the labour. At a village called Shwe-gyeng just above 
Mo-gnyo a little is occasionally obtained in a coarse gravel bank left dry on 
the subsidence of the river ; but the outturn is insignificant and the metal is 
obtained in the finest possible state of division. 

The forests in this district comprise every variety except the mangrove. 

West of the Irrawaddy in the north, in the tract drain- 
Eorests. ed by the Aloon, the Tsanda and the Padaw which 

unite to form the Patasheng, the hills are steep but the 
top of the ridges is frequently level and here teak of fine and regular 
growth occurs, whilst in the plains it is widely dispersed often alter- 
nating with Eng {Dipterocarpus tuberculatm) , but mature teak of large 
girth does not now abound. The forests hereabouts were extensively 
worked in the Burmese time and the most valuable timber brought away. 
In addition to Eng which grows on the lower slopes of the spurs of the 
Arakan range stretching for miles southward from the northern boundary 
parallel to the bank of the Irrawaddy, Pyengkado {Xylia dolabriformis) used 
for house-posts and bridge-piles, ploughs and boat anchors, and with a heart 
wood as durable as teak and equally safe from the attacks of white ants, 
Htouk-kyan (Terminalia macrocarpa) , Pyengma [Lager sir oemia Regince), 
Eendaik (Dalbergia $p,) furnishing a heavy wood with a red heart used for 
plough and cart poles, Ka-gnyeng, furnishing an excellent oil used as a 
^varnish in situations unexposed to the weather, Bhan-bhwe {Carey a arborea) 
and other valuable trees are numerous ; the Sha (Acacia catechu) from 
which is extracted cutch is by no means uncommon. To the east of 
the Irrawaddy are large areas of lower mixed forest stretching from the 
upper limit of the land subject to inundation from the annual overflow 
of the main river and the Hlaing to the Eng forest. This latter extends 
throughout the district from north to south and here are patches of 
mixed forest with a considerable proportion of teak, especially near the 
margin,^ East of this extending to the foot of the range is a region of low 
undulating hills, varying in breadth from one to ten miles, rich in teak, 
whust the forests on the spurs and ridges still further east are the finest and 
by far the most extensive. In the north the Toung-gnyo and the Meng-boo 
streams, and further south the Toung, Meng-hia, Mok-kha and Bheeleng 
traverse a rich forest country. The principal timber trees are : — 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


165 


Name. 

Description of wood. 

Uses. 

Xylia dolabrifonnis . . 

Dark -coloured, hard 

Too hard to be easily worked. Used 


and dense, strong 

for house-posts, bridge-piles, 

Dipterocarpus tuberculatus 

and durable. 

boat anchors, railway sleepers. 

Light brown . . 

Excellent for every purpose of 
house-building, especiaUy for 
posts. 

Terminalia macrocarpa 

Dark brown , , 

Used in house-building*: strong but 
not very durable. 

Dagerstrcemia reginsB 

Red , 

Strong and adapted for house- 
building, but more especially for 
piles and in situations under 
water. 

Dalbergia sp. 

Sapwood readily decays 
but the heartwood 
is durable. Heavy ; 
will not float. Black, 
sometimes with red 
and white streaks. 

Used for plough and cart poles. 

Acacia catechu 

1 

Light brown . . 

I 

Furnishing cutch. Fotmd growing 
in abundance in places easy of 
access and considerably worked. 

Dipterocarpus alatus 

Timber of great size and strength ; 
much used in boat-building; 
plentiful, furnishing a useful oil. 

Careya arborea 

Red-coloured , , 

Plentiful. Timber large, used for 
carts, &c. 

Barringtonia . . 

Red 

Plentiful east of the Irrawaddy; 
wood hard and of fine grain. 
Used for carts. 


Besides these trees which are valuable for their timber there are others 
which are of some worth on account of their products. A species of 
Bignonia is plentiful^ from the inner bark of which is obtained a material 
much used locally for ropes. Mschynomene palndosa springs up sponta- 
neously in the rice-fields and affords an excellent fibre. Bovibax pentandra 
and B, heterophylla yield an astringent gum resin. Sterculia, of which theft 
are several species, yields a gum probably analogous to Tragacanth, From the 
bark of the Odina wodier, which forms a larger proportion of the forests than 
any other tree, is obtained a gum which may be galbanum, the plant afford- 
ing which is not well known, Dipterocarpus turhinatus already noticed, which 
in the south takes the place of Acacia catechu the two never being found 
together, furnishes an oil which answers excellently as a varnish in uuexposed 
situations. These and other trees of considerable value are spread over the 
face of the country but with the exception of Acacia catechu have never been 
extensively used teak having absorbed the attention both of traders and of the 
Government. This was far from being the case in the time of the Burmese 
rule when, here as elsewhere, no tree which furnished a wood or an extract 
of general use could be felled or tapped without payment. The object then, 


166 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


however, was not forest conservancy but the realization of the largest possible 
revenue for the grantee of the il/^/o^thatis the official at Mandalay or the member 
of the Eoyal family to whom the tract bad been allotted as a strictly pei'sonal 
source of income, or for the officials who were in executive charge. 

The unauthorized felling of teak has always been strictly prohibited and 
in 1873 Thitkha {P enlace Burinanica) and Thit-kado {Schizochiton grandi- 
flomm) were reserved and in 1877 Padouk (Pterocarpus macrocarpus). In 
the early part of 1876 the State set apart a large area as Government forests 
in which unauthorized felling of several other kinds of trees was prohibited* 
and the whole of this district west of the Irrawaddy is included, whilst the 
country east of that river has formed a portion of the Government forest 
tracts for many years. 

The changes in the area of the district render it impossible to give any 
accurate statistics shewing the increase in the number of 
Population. inhabitants in the tracts now included in Henzada. The 

figures below shew the population in Henzada and Tharra- 
waddy from 1855 to 1874-75, and in Henzada as it now exists from that 
date onwards. There are no statistics available which shew the population of 
the Donabyoo township in 1855 : in 1876-77, when it formed a portion of 
Thoon-khwa, it had 36,122 inhabitants. In 1872-73 the Thoon-tshay circle 
was transferred from Rangoon to Henzada and in 1876-77 it had a population 
of 11,263:— ' 


1865 




171,601 

1866 



363,817 

1856 




204,747 

1867 



380,505 

1867 




219,620 

1868 



393,627 

1868 




239,432 

1869 



423,998 

1859 




239,348 

1870 



435,323 

1860 




246,862 

1871 



444,750 

1861 




302,819 

1872 



460,020 

1862 




300,831 

1873 



475,839 

1863 




307,260 

1874 



604,321 

l864 


•• 


313,999 

1875t 


• • 

490,234 

1865 


•• 


347,615 

1876 

*• 

•• 

501,213 


The rapidity of the increase in the early years was undoubtedly due to 
immigration consequent on the gradual settlement of the country, whilst the 
fertility of the soil with its proximity to a ready market and the construction 
of protecting bunds along the Irrawaddy, have kept up the flow. These 
embankments were commenced not many years ago and the balance of immi- 
gration over emigration during the last 10 years has been : — 

See Introduotory Chapter on Forests, 
t In this year Donabyoo was transferred to Thoon-khwa. 


BBITISn BURMA GAZETTEER. 


167 





Difference in 


Emigrants. 

Immigrants. 

favour of 




the district. 

1867 .. .. .. •• •• 1 

13,274 

20,179 

6,905 

1868 . . . . . . . . • ■ 1 

14,572 

24,327 

9,755 

1869 . . 

17,843 

31,510 

13,667 

1870 .. 

18,712 

25,808 

7,156 

1871 .. 

19,043 

20,215 

7,172 

1872 .. 

22,908 

30,596 

7,628 

1873 .. 

19,948 

30,909 

11,021 

1874 .. 

18,285 

31,989 

13,704 

1875 . . 

19,871 

31,162 

11,291 

1876 .. 

5,420 

7,718 

2,498 

Total 



90,797 


Still the inhabitants are only 127 to the square mile whilst there are 1;730,399 
acres of culturahle waste. 

Comparing 1856 with 1876^ the . former year being selected as the first 
for which statistics of this kind even moderately accurate are available, the 
races composing the population of the district were : — 



1850. 

1876. 

Barmans 

80,507 

412,800 

Talaing . . 

91,101 

17,707 

Kareng 

26,132 

53,926 

Shan 

2,927 

1,827 

Arakanese 

11 

* 

Khyeng , . 

1,705 

*6,100 

YaWng . . 

702 

2,113 

Chinese . . 

1 156 

472 

Hindoos . . 

, ^ 1,308 1 

1,042 

Mahomedans 


1.129 

Other races 

I 138 

5,097 

Total 

204,747 

501,213 


According to the latest official returns now available (1876) femalea, 
slightly exceed the males, the former numbering 250,883 the latter 250,330, 
whereas in the province as a whole exclusive of the two Hill Tract districts, 
the males exceed the females, and this was the condition of this district when 
the special census was taken in 1872. The change cannot reasonably be 
ascribed to the transfer of Donabyoo to Thoon-khwa or to the addition of the 
Thoon-tshay circle from Rangoon and it is impossible with the information 
now obtainable to account for it satisfactorily. 

The register of births and deaths for 1876 shew the former at 5,607 or 
10*98 per mille, and of the latter 3,980 or 7*94 per mille, which would give a 
rate of increase from natural causes of 3*04 per mille. The registration of 
vital statistics is of late introduction, and amongst a widely scattered people 
with no regular local registrars whose duty it is to attend to this alone the 


* Included among Barman s, aupra. 



168 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


returns cannot be taken as accurate. It is not at all probable, however, that 
any greater difficulty occurs in the registration of the births of boys than of 
girls or of girls than of boys and the proportion of one to the other which 
the returns give may be accepted as fairly accurate and these shew that 
whilst the births of boys numbered 2,936 those of girls were 2,671. Simi- 
larly the proportion of deaths of males to deaths of females may be taken as 
fairly given in the returns and these shew that in 1876 2,121 males died and 
1,859 females, so that the proportion of births of females to that of males is 
considerably greater than the proportion of deaths : an examination of the 
figures giving the number of males and females at various ages shews 
that the boys and old men are but slightly more numerous than the girls 
and old women whilst the adult males, comparatively, greatly outnumber the 
adult females. 

No returns of diseases later than those of the census of 1872 are available 
and according to these there were, except possibly in the Salween and in 
Northern Arakan where the returns cannot from the nature of the country 
and the wildness of the inhabitants be made out with any approach even to 
accuracy, fewer insane persons than in any part of the province, 0*09 
per cent, whilst the number of deaf and dumb, 0*17 per cent., is large, and the 
number of blind, 0*32, only exceeded in the upper portion of the valley of the 
Tsittoung;of lepers there were 0*12 per cent., principally males. 

Although situated south of the limits of the ancient Burmese kingdom 
the Burmese here as everywhere else in Pegu largely outnumber the Talaing. 
After the conquest of the lower country by Aloungbhoora a steady endeavour 
was made to destroy the Talaing nationality ; the use of the language was for- 
bidden and Burmans were encouraged to immigrate, large bodies coming down 
and settling, as at Kyankheng, 

After the first Burmese war when the British troops retired the Burmans 
by their cruelties still further reduced the numbers, already dwindling, of the 
Talaing people who had generally assisted us against their former masters 
and who fled in numbers to Tenasserim to escape the fury of their oppressors 
under which many succumbed. This diminution has continued but undoubt- 
edly both before and since the annexation it is not due to emigration solely 
but also to absorption amongst the Burmans. The few in this district are an 
exemplification of Sir Arthur Phayre^s remark that — scarcely any one of 
'' Talaing descent calls himself anything but a Burman, so completely has the 
national spirit been extinguished.’^ 

A noticeable feature is the large number of Kareng, Bassein alone 
having more, who as a race are hill-men shy and fearful of strangers and in 
their dealings with others ; but long before the occupation of Pegu large num- 
bers had shaken off their timidity and settled in the plains, retaining their 
own language and customs but adopting the Burmese dress and method 
of cultivation. The increase in their numbers is not readily to be accounted 
for. The census returns shew that it has extended through every district of the 
province, except Rangoon, and cannot therefore be due to intra-provincial 
emigration and immigration whilst no great influx of their people into the 
province has taken place of late years. Though undoubtedly partly due to 
the natural increase it is most probably mainly caused by a more correct 
enumeration now that all troubles and rebellions amongst them are over 
and that they have become less timid and frightened of their rulers than 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


169 


they were during and immediately after the Burmese rule. The increase 
in the number of Khyeng is partly due to the same cause and partly to immi- 
gration from Arakan and the north. The number of Yabaing also has lately 
increased : this is the only district in the Pegu division in which they are 
found. Sir Arthur Phayre states that the term Yabaing or Zabaing is rather 
the description of an occupation than the distinctive name of a race. The 
people so called are breeders of silkworms in the hill districts. The term is 
probably a Shan word^ applied to those who first introduced the worm from 
the eastward, and the meaning of it is not now understood.” 

Situated at the head of the delta of the Irrawaddy and containing 
much fertile land the district has always been extensively 
Agriculture. cultivated with rice which has found a ready sale in the 
Eangoon and Bassein markets communication with both 
being easy by the numerous creeks which intersect the country. In former 
years large tracts were subject to inundation from the periodical overflowing of 
the ' Irrawaddy and this is still case with the country to the east. On 
the west for many years endeavours were made to afford a remedy but there 
was no systematic effort till about ten years after we had occupied Pegu. 
The Civil Officers had constructed petty embankments in various places to 
protect towns or existing cultivation : in 1862-63 these were at 


1. Kyan-kheng. 

2. Myan-oung. 

3. Kan-oung. 

4. Henzada. 


5. Anouk-bbet. 

6. Thara-bo-ta-ra. 
7- Doo-ra. 

8. Za-lwon. 


In 1862 the country was carefully and scientifically examined and it was 
proposed to take over these embankments from the Civil Officers and run a 
line along the right bank of the Irrawaddy from Akouktoung to Pantauaw 
closing up the mouths of nearly all the rivers and leaving only sluices for the 
necessary exit of the drainage of the country. There was considerable doubt as to 
the extent to which erosion of the river bank was taking place and it was deter- 
mined that the line should run some distance inland and not near the river 
bank so as to avoid all risk of its being gradually cut away. The first four- 
teen miles from Akouktoung were to be and are really are only a road, and do 
not reclaim any land. The question of closing the Tham-bha-ya-daing 
creek and the Bassein river was finally settled in the negative and in conse- 
quence extensive embankments along the left bank of the latter have 
become necessary. In 1868-69 an embankment along the eastern bank of the 
river was recommended so as to protect the valley of the Hlaing and the 
intervening country which almost every year is turned into a vast sheet of 
water. 

The Kyan-kheng embankment, "excluding the northern fourteen miles 
which, as has been said, is a road and protects no land, is nine miles long, the 
last five running westward along the left bank of the Pa-ta-sheng and protecting 
the country to the north of it from the overflow of that river which extended 
up behind the first four miles running parallel to the Irrawaddy. The 
whole country protected does not exceed five square miles, and it is the 
opinion of very competent authorities that north of the Pa-ta-sheng the con- 
struction of expensive protecting works was at least hardly necessary, as the 
profits from extended cultivation do not nearly cover the cost. The next section 

22 



170 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


proceeding southward is the Myaaoung, four miles of which run east and 
west along the right bank of the Pa-ta-sheng and the remainder southward 
along the Irrawaddy so far inland as to exclude the large town of Myanoung, 
(in front of which the existing embankment was improved) to the mouth 
of the Tham-bha-ya-daing ; another length runs along the Irrawaddy between 
the Tham-bha-ya-daing and the Bassein river. But as the mouths of these 
two streams remain open and as the embankment north of the Tliam-bha-ya- 
daing stops at the 45th mile with an abrupt ending large masses of water 
find their way into the country behind them. The remedy proposed for 
this will be alluded to further on. South of the Bassein river another embank- 
ment was carried on which now reaches as far as Ee-Iai village below Henzada 
and is to be carried on considerably farther. From the northern end of 
this section and joined to it an embankment has been carried along the 
left bank of the Bassein river past Le-myet-hiia as far as Shwe-guyoung-beng 
in the Bassein district below Nga-thaing-kliyouug and is to be carried farther. 
Some miles inland an embankment has been constructed running about 
N. W, and S, E. along the bank of the Ka-gnyeng or Oot-hpo stream 
from Myeng-goon to Ma-gyee-goon nearly to the Tham-bha-ya-daiug creek. 
It is now proposed to unite the southern end of this with the southern 
end of the Myanoung section near Loo-daw-tsoo village^ and thus afford 
that protection to the country rendered necessary by the spaces which exist 
for the passage of the Tham-bba-ya-daing and Bassein rivers. When the 
works are completed as at present proposed^ they will thus consist of; 1. An 
embankment extending from above Kyan-kheug and turning round west- 
ward along the Pa-ta-sheng. 2. Another stretching along the right bank of the 
Pa-ta-sheng to the Irrawaddy then down that river to Loo-daw-tsoo, thence 
about W. S. W. to Magyee-goon and from that point N.W. along the 
Oot-hpo or Ka-gnyeng. 3. One more flanking the Bassein river from 
Shwe-myeng-deng to its northern mouth in the Irrawaddy and down that 
river to below Zalwon. Before giving an account of the general cultivation 
of the district it may be as well to notice the results of the protective works 
already constructed on the increase in cultivation behind them. The 
area of land cultivated behind the Kyan-kheng section has increased since 
1867-C8 the year before this work became protective from 1,590 to 2,350 and 
no more culturable uncultivated land remains. The Myanoung embankment 
was made in sections : before the Kanoung section was thrown up the acreage 
of cultivation in the land which it protects was 1,761 which in two years rose to 
1,898 : in 1864-65 the Myanoung section became protective and the cultivation 
which, including that behind the Kanonug, was the previous year 13,044 acres 
had increased in 1868-69 to 14,543. The following year the 3rd and last 
section became protective ; the cultivation in the area protected by the two 
upper sections and about to be protected by this one was in 1868-69 16,897, 
acres which in 1873-74 had increased to 32,504. The large increase (in 1872-78 
the area was 17,888 acres) was due to the ten years settlement expiring, during 
which a cultivator was allowed to extend his cultivation to the utmost of his 
^wer paying revenue only on the area he had when the settlement was made 
his lands being then measured once for the whole ten years. The increase up 
represented therefore increased cultivation by new comers or by 
the few who h^ refused the settlement ; whereas the figures for 1873-74 
^ew the real increase the whole cultivated land being measured. The 


V 


BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


171 


Basseia river embankment now protects 519 acres in this district^ where 
before only 427 were cultivated; and the Henzada embankment which unites 
with this protects 65/750 acres where only 22,468 exclusive of those added 
to their lands by settlement holders existed before. In the Burmese time 
the export of rice was prohibited and the inhabitants had but little induce- 
ment to extend the area under cultivation : after the annexation a brisk 
demand arose and prices went up from four to six times the rate before the 
war; 

The progressive increase in the price of rice together with a better 
goveimment under which the cultivator has greater security against arbitrary 
demands and enhancement of rates, the increase in the population and 
the extensive protective works described above have borne fruit in the 
increased area brought under the plough and planted with fruit trees, 
vegetables and other crops. An excellent rice country producing a rice 
which is better suited for long sea voyages than that grown further north 
and possessing in the Irrawaddy and the creeks and rivers which join 
it an easy means of communicating with the two seaports of Rangoon and 
Bassein, the crops find a ready sale and the area under cultivation with this 
cereal has largely increased whilst miscellaneous cultivation — as vegetables, 
cotton, tobacco &c. — has not by any means remained stationary. The fol- 
lowing table shews the incren^e up to 1863 : — 


Year. 

Acreage. 

Total. 

Rice land. 

Garden and or- 
chard land. 

Miscollaiu^ous 
ciiith atjoii. 

1855 



104,790 

2,921 

7,718 

115,429 

1856 


. . 

126,156 

3,854 

12,007 

142,017 

1857 



133,574 

4,351 

13,189 

151,114 

1858 



143,565 

4,939 

17,529 

166,033 

1859 



144,552 

5,382 

13,804 

163,738 

1860 



140,391 

5,212 

18,893 

164,496 

1861 



141,108 

5,886 

15,241 

162,235 

1862 



165,371 

6,011 

23,042 

195,024 

1863 

•• 

•• 

172,928 

6,837 

19,713 

100,478 


1860 and 1861 were bad years and 1860 especially so as regaixls rice- 
lands : this was due to the breaking of the Henzada embankment whereby a 
large extent of country was seriously damaged from the overflow of the 
Irrawaddy. This disaster was not without good for it led to the construc- 
tion of those extensive protective w^orks already alluded to. 



172 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The area under cultivation from 1868 to 1876 was : — 



Rice land. 

Garden land. 

Miscellaneous. 

Total. 

Remarks. 

1868 

204,495 

8,822 

18,729 

232,046 


1869 

209,725 

9,240 

21,486 

243,451 


1870 

215,406 

9,424 

29,040 

253,870 


1871 

220,163 

9,486 

30,212 

259,861 


1872 

224,331 

9,722 

28,337 

262,390 


1873 

278,661 

14,617 

30,108 

323,386 


1874 

333,841 

16,068 

25,859 

375,768 


1875 

314,673 

13,916 

14,716 

343,305 


1876 

320,300 

14,230 

28,518 

363,048 



Since Pegu was annexed there has, therefore, been an increase in the 
total cultivated area, excluding Toungya, of no less than 247,619 acres and 
this notwithstanding that a whole township has been taken from the district ; 
an increase greater than the most sanguine could have hoped for. 

The crops under cultivation in 1875-76 were: — ' 



1 

o 

s 

Oil-seeds. 

Cotton. 

Indigo. 

Tobacco. 

Peas and Pulse. 

Vegetables. 

Cocoanuta. 

Betel-nut. 

Plantains. 

Pan vino. 

Mixed fruit-trees. 

CD 

! 

CO 


CO 

c- 

CO 

CD 

o 


1 

i 

OT 


CO 

1 

ko 

00 

t- 

CO 

1 ^ 

00 

CO 

o 

lO 


i-T 

CO 

CO 

»— f 

oa 


00 

iO 

I>^ 

r-T 

o 

w 

oa 


The cotton is inferior to that grown in the north and the produce i^ 
locally consumed. The soil of the country has been reported on as in many 
places well suited for this crop, and several endeavours have been made 
to improve the growth but with little or no success. In 1873 a further 
experiment was tried and some Egyptian seed was given to the cultivators 





BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


173 


but with no better success than formerly ; the soil rapidly cakes round the 
stems in the dry season and the plants are dwarfed and bear but little seed. 
Tobacco is carefully planted and well taken care of but the cheapness of 
Indian tobacco and the extensive areas of good and unoccupied waste rice 
land have tended to prevent any extensive cultivation of this plant which 
is grown principally on sand banks left dry by the falling of the Irra- 
waddy. Sessamum is, next after vice, the most important agricultural 
product. 

The average rent of land has not materially varied during the last 
ten years as the vast culturable waste and the favourable terms upon which 
grants are made tend to keep it at about one Rupee eight annas an acre. 
Its fertility is remarkable, exceeding that in any other part of the pro- 
vince, an acre producing on an average 2,5001bs. of rice or 400lbs. of indigo : 
the ground sown with cotton and sessamum however yields a comparatively 
much smaller return 2301bs. of the former per acre and 5601bs. of the latter. 
The price of rice is mainly regulated by the price in the Rangoon and Bas- 
sein markets the latter of which again is greatly dependent upon the former. 
The rates at which the principal products were selling in the local market 
during the ten years was, per maund of 801bs. : — 



Rice. 

Cotton, 

i 

Tobacco. 

Sessamum. 


Hs. 

A. 

1 

p- 

Bs. A. 

P. 

Bs. A. 

P. 

Es. A. 

P. 

1867 

2 

8 

0 

5 

14 

0 

9 

12 

0 

3 

2 

0 

1868 

2 

4 

0 

5 

14 

0 

9 

12 

0 

3 

2 

6 

1869 

2 

4 

0 

5 

14 

0 

9 

12 

0 

3 

2 

0 

1870 

2 

4 

0 , 

5 

14 

0 

9 

12 

0 

3 

2 

0 

1871 

2 

4 

0 

5 

14 

0 

9 

0 

0 

3 

0 

1 

1872 

2 

4 

0 

5 

14 

0 

9 

0 

0 

3 

8 

0 

1873 

3 

2 

0 

4 

14 

0 

7 

5 

0 

3 

12 

0 

1874 

3 

2 

0 

4 

14 

0 

7 

5 

0 

3 

12 

0 

1875 

2 

0 

0 

4 

14 

0 

7 

5 

0 

3 

12 

0 

1876 

i 

2 

0 

0 

! 6 

0 

0 

11 

7 

0 

' 5 

12 

0 


Up to 1872 inclusive the rates remained stationary, but during the next year 
there was a sudden rise in rice and sessamum and a fall in cotton and tobacco 
The cause of these changes is to be found in the state of trade at the ports : in 
that year there was a very large falling off in the export of cotton, the 
import of tobacco increased, whilst rice was in great demand not only for 
Europe but for Bengal, large stocks being purchased by the State. Owing 
to the large exports in 1876-77 and the high prices given by the merchants 
the stocks usually kept for home consumption were nearly exhausted and 



174 


BltlTISH BUIIMA GAZETTEER. 


durinty the rains of 1877 uuliusked rice was selling in the local market at 
from Es. 40 to Es. 160 per hundred baskets. 

As might be expected in a district having such an extensive eulturable 
area the agriculturists are exceedingly numerous, numbering at the last regular 
census 160,943 souls ; and amongst these are included only tliose actively 
eDo*ao*ed in agriculture and with animals, as labourers and dealers in ponies, cattle, 
pigs, &c., of whom there are very few ; but of these only 67^980 are males over 
20 years of age and though doubtless many younger males are so employed 
yet a great proportion of the agriculturists are women who do much of the 
planting in the rice-fields and generally, as in Italy and some other European 
countries, do a great deal of what is generally supposed to be almost 
exclusively man^s work. The proportion of agriculturists to those otherwise 
employed was 33*75 per cent; of persons having no ostensible means of livelihood, 
women not having special occupations, children, male and female, &c., 41*58, 
and of persons engaged in mechanical arts, manufactures, and in the sale of 
articles prepared for consumption about 2*00 per cent., the remainder being 
principally Government servants, merchants and traders, of whom there were 
some 5,000, and professional persons. 

Nearly all the large towns are on the right bank of the Irrawaddy though 
many important places are in Tharrawaddy, that is the 
Towns and villages, country east of the river : here, however, the great 
extent of the annual inundations and the smaller extent 
of country fitted for the cultivation of rice, the great staple produce of the 
province, though perhaps favourable to the existence of numerous small 
villages retard the formation of the large trading towns and nearly all large 
towns in this district owe their magnitude if not their very existence to trade 
in the products of the surrounding country. 

Kyan-kheng which is not far south of the frontier of the district in 
18® 19' N. and 95° 50" B. is a long straggling town stretching for a 

considerable distance along the bank of the Irrawaddy just above the mouth 
of the Pa-ta-sheng river. It is the head-quarter town of a township under an 
Extra Assistant Commissioner and contains a Court-house, Police station and 
a good market place. Of but small importance prior to the first Burmese war 
it rapidly increased after the annexation of Pegu and now exports a consider- 
able quantity of rice grown in the neighbourhood. In 1863 it had less than 
5,000 inhabitants and in 1876 8,761 a result principally due to its 
increasing trade which again, depending almost entirely as it does upon rice 
export, is the result of the increased cultivation of the country in the interior. 
The inhabitants are almost entirely Burmans with a small sprinkling of 
Hindoos and Mahomedans. 

Myari'oung, once the head-quarters of the Pegu Light Infantry, a local 
corps disbanded on the formation of the existing Police force, and subsequently 
the head-quarters of the district till 1870, is some distance below Kyan-kheng 
and stretches along the bank of the river for two miles whilst its breadth, inland 
is not much over 200 yards. It is now the head-quarter station of a sub-divi- 
sion and contains a Court-house and Treasury, a Police station, Lock-up, 
Telegraph Office, Post Office, Hospital and Dispensary, Circuit-house and Pub- 
lic Works Department Inspection Bungalow. Though an old Talaing town 
its inhabitants are mainly Burmans with a very few Hindoos, Mahomedans, 
Europeans, Indo-Europeans and Chin- Indo-Europeans. Of some importance 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


175 


in the Burmese time its progress of late years has not been great and it 
has been eclipsed by its northern neighbour Kyan-kheng notwithstanding 
advantages which it long had as a military and civil station. In 1864 it had 
a population of 5,125 and in 1876 of 5,859 only. 

Kan-oiingj seven miles below Myauoung, founded by Aloungbhoora, the 
Burman conqueror, cij'ca 1753 A. D., is the head-quarter station of a township. It 
possesses a Court-house, a market-place or bazaar, a Police station and a Pub- 
lic Works Department Inspection Bungalow. Its small population of 3,191 
souls is composed mainly of Burmans, with a few Hindoos and about 100 
Mahomedans. 

Henzada is considerably to the south in 17^58' N, and 95^32' E. now 
the head-quarters of the district, with a gross municipal revenue in 1876-77 of 
Es. 45,648 larger than that of any town except the three principal seaports of 
the province, the military station of Thayetmyo and Prome which has double the 
population. It contains Court-houses, a Gaol, fine market-places, a Telegraph 
Office, Post Office, Circuit- house and a Public Works Department Inspection 
Bungalow. Always of some importance it has increased considerably of late 
years and during the last ten its population has risen from 14,551 souls to 
15,307. The streets have been raised and the town generally much improved 
out of its large revenue. The inhabitants are principally Burmans, with a few 
Hindoos, Mahomedans, Europeans (mainly officials), Indo-Europeans, and Chin- 
Indo-E uropeans. 

Zadwon is a rising town farther to the south, which has a population of 4,784 
souls, a large increase since 1868 when its inhabitants numbered 2,989 only. 
It has a Court-house used by the Extra Assistant Commisssiouer in charge 
of the township, and a Police station, 

Meng-gyee on the left bank of the Irrawaddy in 18° & 35'^ N. and 95^ 30' E., 
which includes Ee-klieng, was at one time, after the second Burmese war, 
of considerable importance and the head-quarter station of Tharrawaddy or 
the country east of the Irrawaddy now included in Henzada, in which was 
quartered a detachment of Native Infantry. The Assistant Commissioner 
was withdrawn some years after the occupation, but it has of late years been 
found necessary to reconstitute the town into the head-quarter station 
of a sub-division. It contains a Court-house, bazaar or market-place and 
a Police station, and has a population of 15,770 souls, largely engaged in trade. 

In addition to these towns there are others in different parts of the 
country which are gradually and steadily rising in importance as Mo-gnyo, 
Ta-pwon and Tsan-rwe, where Extra Assistant Commissioners hold their 
Courts, and a large number of villages of various sizes. In villages and in 
small hamlets of less than 200 inhabitants Henzada may be said to be par- 
ticularly rich no other district in the province having so many. The larger 
number of these are along the banks of the Irrawaddy and on the banks of 
the tributary streams to the west of that river. It may safely be asserted 
that the embankments along the Irrawaddy which protect such an exten- 
sive tract of fertile rice country from the inundations to which it was annually 
subject will not only produce a steady increase in the size of villages now 
existing and occupied by cultivators of the neighbouring plains but will cause 
the establishment of many new ones in spots hitherto waste and waiting only 
for relief from the superabundant waters of the river and for labour to 
become valuable and fruitful fields. 



176 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Once a portion of the Talaing kingdom of Pegu and annexed to the 
Barman Empire in 1753 A.D. by Aloungbhoora, the dis- 
History. trict has no special history : it never seems to have been 

the scene of much fighting nor to have had at any period 
an independent existence. Its towns were occasionally attacked and defended 
but the inhabitants would appear to have taken no special part in any of the 
wars. Kyan-kheng, Myan-oung, Oot-hpo and Henzada claim to have been 
founded by Talaing princes in the early days of Talaing history^ whilst 
Kan-oung does not go further back than the days of Aloungbhoora. It pos- 
sesses no extensive ruins like Thare-khet-tara nearProme or Twan-te in Ban- 
goon. When Colonel Syraes visited Ava at the end of the last century he 
found at Henzada evident signs of wealth but little cultivation, whilst the 
neighbourhood of Myan-oung he described as exceedingly fruitful, exporting 
a considerable quantity of rice upcountry. Tharrawaddy or the country on 
the east of the Irrawaddy was given as an appanage to a prince of royal 
blood who became famous, or perhaps rather infamous, under the name of 
Prince Tharrawaddy^’ : clever, open hearted and liberal but ambitious, cruel 
and vindictive, he turned his grant into a nest of robbers who were thoroughly 
devoted to him and of whom he made use in 1837 to dethrone his brother 
in his own favour. During the first Burmese war no resistance was 
offered to the British Army in this district as it now exists. After the 
fall of Donabyoo Sir Archibald Campbell continued his advance up the 
valley of the Irrawaddy and was met at Taroop-hmaw by Burman Envoys 
who wished him to halt and enter into negotiations, a suggestion which, 
warned by experience, he declined to entertain but offered to treat for peace 
when in Prome. Soon after the taking of Eangoon and Bassein during 
the second Burmese war, the Fhlegethon was sent up the river to reconnoitre 
and found that the Governor of Dalla had evacuated Donabyoo and had 
crossed the river to Tsaga, a few miles higher up. On the Phlegethon opening 
fire the force, which consisted of some 5,000 men, retired to Thara-waw (Sara- 
wa), some of them recrossing to Henzada. 

In the beginning of July 1852 Commodore Tarleton moved up towards 
Prome and found a large body of men at Kan-oung who replied to a shell from 
the flotilla of which he was in command by a vigorous fire from guns and mus- 
ketry from their defences to which they retreated ; as the expedition had 
been specially despatched to reconnoitre the river it proceeded after shelling 
the works for an hour and on its return sometime later the place was found 
to have been abandoned. At Myan-oiing all was found quiet but at Akouk- 
toung extensive fortifications were observed crowning the bluff and completely 
commanding the western channel leaving the eastern undefended ; through 
this the vessels passed onwards to Prome. 

The Burmese, on receiving information of the capture of Prome by the 
flotilla, abandoned the works at Akouk-toung and were discovered crossing 
the river; they were immediately attacked and five brass field pieces captured, 
and a few days later the works and some of the 28 guns which they were 
found to contain were destroyed, the remainder being brought away. The 
Bnrme^ general in command, a grandson of the great Bandoola who had 
Donabyoo during the first war, subsequently surrendered* 
Ti^ whole of the delta was, however, not entirely cleared of Burmese troops 
and many marauders remained who were only waiting for a favourable 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 177 

opportunity to collect together and to carry on a guerilla war with the British 
and with all who had in any way helped them. After Bandoola had retired to 
Prome on the advance of Commander Tarleton just related no attempts 
were made by the British to occupy Akouk-toung as General Godwin passed it 
and captured and occupied Prome. A force of Burmans took advantage of this 
and rebuilt the stockades ; in these they mounted live gtins and seriously 
threatened our communications : the stockades were stormed by Captain 
Loch E.N. with a small force of 82 marines and seamen on the 4th 
November and captured without the loss of a single man. The Burmese 
rapidly reassembled and on the 9th of November Captain Loch again attack- 
ed and captured the heights with less difficulty than before. To prevent 
any recurrence of this danger a small force under Major Gardner was 
stationed off Akouk-toung, in the Enterprise, and directed to patrol the hills 
regularly. Early on the morning of the 19th, whilst thus employed, he was 
surprized and he himself and a Havildar killed and six sepoys wounded. A 
force was at once despatched from Prome under Colonel Handscomb and 
Captain Loch E.N. who attacked and drove off the enemy from the two 
positions which they occupied, one north and one south of Akouk-toung, the 
latter a few miles from Kyan-kheng, after which Akouk-toung was occupied 
and no further serious disturbances occurred on the right bank of the Irra- 
waddy in this neighbourhood. In the meanwhile Bassein and the southern 
part of Henzada had been, if possible, in a still more disturbed state. In 
Bassein there had been several risings, not of the people generally but of 
the disbanded Burmaii Police, of which each Tlioogyee even had several 
hundreds. The conquest of the country by the English deprived them of 
all occupation and, encouraged and led by men holding commissions from 
the Court at Ava, they kept the whole country below the Akouk-toung hills 
in a continual ferment. The principal leader in this district was one Myat- 
htoon the hereditary Thoogyee of a small circle, a man of daring who 
had more than once been treated as a rebel by the Burmese Government, 
who collected a large body of marauders. He was attacked south of Dona- 
byoo by a force under Sir John Cheape with which a Karenglevy under Captain 
Fytche in civil charge of Bassein co-operated and liis force dispersed. He 
himself escaped but gave no more trouble. In Tharrawaddy a man named 
Goung-gyee caused much disorder. He was the hereditary Thoogyee of a circle 
and before the outbreak of the war had refused to furnish his quota of tax or to 
supply the produce which was due from him to the Burmese Government ; he 
was therefore deposed and a relation of his own appointed to succeed him ; this 
relative he forcibly expelled and when the war broke out, siding with neither 
army, he established a sort of petty government of his own. The Burmese 
Governor of the district had marched with a contingent from his province 
to join the Burmese army before Rangoon and after its defeat he retired to his 
government. Here, in the rainy season of 1852, Goung-gyee attacked him, 
upon which a force from the Burman army then at Prome was detached 
against him but the rapid advance of the British enabled Goung-gyee to elude 
his opponents. In 1853 he refused to obey a summons from Captain Smith 
who had been placed in charge and the Burmese Government now secretly 
supported him, and fora considerable period he was enabled to keep the country 
in a very disturbed state. ''By dint of terror inspired by ruthless cruelties 
those of his countrymen who accepted service from the British Govern- 

23 


178 


BKITISH BUEMA GAZETTEER. 


‘‘ ment he deterred many from submitting and from supplying information 
regarding his movements. Their villages were attacked^, plundered and 
burnt ; their wives and children driven off into the mountains, and the men 
forced to decide between joining him and death/’ Not only had Goung- 
gyee no intention of acknowledging any master but he was determined 
that during his life no one should occupy the post which he had so long 
held. No sooner was a Myooke appointed by the British Government than 
Goung-gyee killed him. It was not until the early part of 1855 that he 
was got rid of when, owing to the energetic measures taken by Captain 
d^Oyley in Prome and Captain (now Colonel) David Brown in Tharrawaddy, 
he was so closely pursued and harassed that at last, almost deserted by his 
followers, he acknowledged himself beaten and escaped into Burmese terri- 
tory. 

The defeat of these two leaders and the dispersion of their gangs 
together with the energetic and firm but conciliatory policy pursued by the 
Civil Officers in charge relieved the whole country and no serious disturbances 
have occurred since. 

On the annexation of Pegu the present Henzada district was called Sarawa 
(Tha-ra-ivaw) and very shortly afterwards was divided 

Revenue. into two called Henzada and Tharrawaddy to be subse- 

quently united and called Myanoung, a name which a few 
years ago was changed to Henzada on the removal of the head-quarters from 
Myanoung back to Henzada : since then the Thoon-tshay circle has been added 
from Ban goon and Donabyoo has been taken from it. The revenue derived 
from Tharrawadddy was comparatively small. Under the Burmese rule 
the two tracts east and west of the Irrawaddy including Donabyoo 
remitted annually to the central Government at Ava, or to the Myo-tsa to 
whom they had been allotted, the revenue shewn in the following table : — 




Henzada. 

Tharrawaddy, 

Total. 



Rs. 

Es. 

Bs. 

1 . 

Hoiise family tax, Btirmans and 





Kareng 

96,120 

80,110 

1,76,230 

2. 

Yoke of oxen or rice land 

76,440 

970 

77,410 

3. 

Fisheries 

25,150 

9,910 

35,060 

4 . 

Transit duties 

— 

6,690 

6,690 

5 . 

Betel-nut and palm plantations 

680 

.... 

680 

6 . 

Licensed brokers and m i s c e 1- 





laneous . . 

3,820 

1,380 

6,200 

7 . 

One township ten per cent, in kind 





after the rice crop had been 
threshed . . 

Unknown 

.... 


8 . 

S651bs. honey, 3651bs. wax and 100 





mats 

.... 

Unknown 

.... 


Total I 

2,02,210 

99,060 

3,01,270 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


179 


The small revenue derived from rice land and the comparatively large 
amount derived from transit duties was due to the small area of rice and the 
comparatively large area of garden and vegetable cultivation ; the two latter 
were not taxed but duties were levied on the produce when carried into 
another township. 

On the British occupation the transit duties and duties on licensed brokers 
were abolished but the other imposts were retained slightly altered, whilst some 
other indirect taxes, notably excise, were imposed. In 1855*56 the demand was : — 






Henzada. 

Tharrawaddy. 

Total. 





Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

1. 

Land 



148,590 

61,770 

210,360 

2. 

Capitation . . 



127,960 

75,030 

202,990 

3. 

Fisheries , . 



33,500 

7,500 

41,000 

4. 

Salt 



120 

«... 

120 

5. 

Excise 



16,980 

2,000 

18,980 

6. 

Timber revenue 



50 

100 

150 

7. 

Sale of unclaimed property 


550 

.... 

650 

8. 

Bazaar rent . . 

, , 


1,460 

90 

1,550 

9, 

Fines and fees 



10,470 

5,640 

16,110 

10. 

Ferries 



.... 

40 

40 

11. 

Postage stamps 



.... 

170 

170 

12. 

Miscellaneous . , 



4,850 

3,080 

7,930 



Total 


344,530 

155,420 

499,950 


At the end of the decade the total revenue had increased to Es. 829,510 
or had nearly doubled, exclusive of bazaar rent and other items which were 
now credited to local revenue. The increase was under every head except 
excise which had greatly fallen off. 







1855-66. 

1864-66, 






Rs. 

j 

Rs. 

1. 

Land .. 

.. 

.. 

.. 

210,360 

338,280 

2. 

Capitation 

• • 


.. 

202,990 

355,030 

3. 

Fisheries 



.. 

41,000 

69,910 

4. 

Excise . . 



.. 

18,480 

7,980 

5. 

Other items 

•• 

•• 

.. 

26,620 

58,310 





Total 

499,950 

829,510 




180 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Ten years later, in 1874-75, the gross revenue was Rs. 1,356,193, but 
owing to the rapid growth in the population the rate per head had fallen from 
about Rs. 2-14 to about Es. 2-9. 

The gross revenue for the year 1876-77 divided into its main heads was : — 


1. 

Land Revenue 

.. Rs. 

575,893 

2, 

Capitation tax 

• ♦ • • 

460,061 

3. 

Fisheries, leases & net licenses 

• « 9m 

79,498 

4. 

Salt tax 


43 

6. 

Forest Produce 


177 

6. 

Other items — 




a. Excise on spirits and drugs 

Rs. 89,727 



b. Fines and forfeitures 

„ 24,843 



c. Unclaimed property sold 

634 



d. Miscellaneous 

„ 12,739 



e. Postage and Telegraph stamps . , 

7,695 



f. Law stamps 

„ 45,332 





180,970 



Total 

1,296,642 

7. 

Local taxes 

. . 

130,692 


Gkand Total .. 1,327,334 

The local revenues are derived from Municipal and Town taxes, Market 
stall rents, contributions to the dispensaries, fines and the five per cent cess, 
which are credited either to the town in which they are levied or where levied 
out of any town to the district generally. The amounts thus received in 


1876-77 were 

Municipal Fund 



Rs. 45,648 

District Fund 

, , 


„ 40,875 

Five per cent, cess 



„ 41,662 

Dispensary 

•• 


M 2,507 


Total 

•• 

„ 130,692 


Before the annexation of Pegu the country now forming the Henzada 
Administration. district was divided into numerous small tracts ruled by 
officials who, though not of high rank, communicated 
direct with the Government at Ava. Those in the country south of Akouk- 
toung on the right bank and south of Taroop-hmaw on the left, as far as 
the Rangoon and Bassein districts, were incorporated into one district and 
called Sarawa (Thara-tvaw). Very shortly, however, it was found necessary to 
divide Tha-ra-waw into two and the Irrawaddy was taken as the dividing line ; 
JbLenzada to the west with its head-ijuarters at the town of that name was 
i^de one district and Tharrawaddy on the east, the old historical name of 
that part of the Province, with its head-quarters at Meng-gyee, the other ■ 
at the same time the small township of Taroop-hmaw in the north was taken 
from Prome and added to the latter. 


Each township was placed under a Burmese officer under the designa- 
tion of Myo-ook and he was entrusted with moderate judicial, fiscal and 
police power. Immediately under the Myo-ook were the Thoogyee, or 
revenue and polw officers placed over circles, each circle containing several 
r i^®« officers held the same general position which they 
■H? ™ ** 4 ? ^ 4 . rule. The area of their jurisdiction varied from 

three or four to twenty square miles. Each Thoogyee had two peons. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


181 


Subordinate to the Thooygee were appointed goung (literally ^ heads 0- These 
officers existed under the Burmese Government by no fixed rule but were 
placed at the caprice of each Thoogyee or other officer wherever a new 
hamlet sprung up or a few families congregated. They were now appointed 
over, on the average, every hundred families throughout the several circles 
and placed under the immediate orders of the Thoogyee, whom they assisted 
in the revenue and police duties. They received a salary of ten rupees a 
month each. They constituted the village constabulary and, with the Thoo- 
gyee, the detective police. At the same time the goung and ook (or rulers^’) 
over traders, over fishermen, over ploughmen of the royal lands, over 
brokers, over silver assayers &c. were reduced and these classes, which had 
hitherto formed distinct bodies each under its own head, were brought 
under the general laws of the country and any crimes and offences of which 
their members might be accused made primarily cognizable by the Thoogyee 
and goung, who at first seemed hardly able to understand that all persons 
within the limits of the tracts of which they had been placed in charge were 
within their jurisdiction. It was soon found that the Thoogyee and goung 
with their two peons each were not able to maintain order in a country lately 
the seat of war and overrun with men who had hitherto lived upon the land. 
The Burmese system was to exact a definite and fixed revenue from the 
various divisions and to allow the officials in charge thereof no defined salary 
but the criminal fines and the fees on the administration of justice and such other 
sums as they could squeeze from the inhabitants without causing so much 
discontent that appeals were made to Ava : at the same time the local officials 
were held strictly and personally responsible for their quota of revenue in 
money or in kind as the case might be and the supply of fighting men and 
war boats in case of necessity. Each official kept as many followers as he 
could support or as could support themselves without driving the long-suf- 
fering inhabitants, who had and have a great awe for constituted authority, 
into venturing into rebellion or flight. The result of the war was to throw 
these men loose upon the country and it required vigorous efforts and strong 
measures to restore confidence. 

A local regiment was raised and called the Pegu Light Infantry ritwas com- 
posed ofa commandant, second in command, adjutant, four subalterns, one assist- 
ant surgeon, seven native commissioned and seventy-eight non-commissioned 
officers and 495 rank and file, with their head-quarters at Myanoung ; whilst 
in Tharrawaddy a local police corps of 546 strong, officers and men, was 
formed by Captain Brown, to which two European non-commissioned officers 
were attached. At the same time the Deputy Commissioners were authorized 
to carry out at once any sentence of death which they might pass on persons 
taken in open and armed insurrection, an authority subsequently withdrawn as 
the country settled down. The general result of the measures adopted was 
that in two years the district, except in Tharrawaddy where Goung-gyee 
caused considerable trouble, was quiet but murders and gang-robberies still 
continued; of the former there were no less than ten in Henzada in 1855 and 
six in Tharrawaddy during the same year. Gradually the state of the country 
improved and more especially was this the case in the once turbulent district 
east of the Irrawaddy owing to the indefatigable energy and well directed 
exertions of Captain (now Colonel) Brown ” who had been in charge 
since 1853. The inhabitants returned to their homes and, as far as it is 



182 


BRITISH BURMA GAZRTTEER. 


possible to judge from their conduct and their general statements, gladly 
accepted the change of rulers, population increased and the revenue rose 
in amount whilst its incidence per head fell. The raising of the Pegu 
Light Infantry was attended with some difficulty as it was found at first that 
Burmese and Taking would not enlist ; an endeavour was made, with but 
little success, to get Malay recruits from the Straits but in a few years the 
corps was raised to its full sanctioned strength, mainly by an accession of 
Burmans from Tharrawaddy, and in 1858 it furnished detachments which 
relieved the troops of the line on the detached frontier posts in the Prome 
district. In 1861 on the formation of the existing provincial police the corps 
was disbanded, most of the officers and many of the men joining the new 
body and at the same time the police battalion raised by Captain Brown 
was similarly reduced. 

In 1861 Tharrawaddy and Henzada were united and formed into one 
district, the head-quarters being removed north to Myanoung which thence- 
forward for several years gave its name to the disti’ict. In 1870 the head- 
quarters were transferred to Henzada and the district was re-named. In 
1873 the Thoon-tshay circle of the Eangoon district was added, and in April 
1875 the Douabyoo township was taken away and added to others from 
Bassein and Rangoon to form the new Thoon-khwa district. Henzada is now 
divided into three sub-divisions. Henzada, Myanoung and Tharrawaddy and 
these again into nine townships in charge of each of which is an Extra 
Assistant Commissioner, and into eighty-one revenue circles. 

In 1876 the police force consisted of one Superintendent, one Assistant 
superintendent, 44 subordinate officers and 354 men, of whom 45 were 
employed for municipal purposes and nine as river police ; the total cost was 
Ks. 93,473, Rs. 8,994 being defrayed from local sources. 

Almost the last buildings constructed were the gaols and lock-ups. For the 
first few years the prisoners were confined in temporary mat buildings, except at 
Meng-gyeein Tharrawaddy where Captain Brown turned an old and abandoned 
brick building into an efficient place of confinement for his prisoners. In 
1856 two outbreaks occurred : twenty -four prisoners endeavoured to escape, 
fourteen succeeded, six were killed and four re-captured. In 1859 an 
enclosure wall of masonry was constructed by convict labour round the Meng- 
gyee gaol under the superintendence of Lieutenant Lloyd. In 1861 the 
gaols at Meng-gyee and at Henzada were abolished, though retained as 
lock-ups in which prisoners were confined pending trial and when sentenced to 
short terms of imprisonment. The plan then under consideration was to 
have a gaol in each district in which prisoners sentenced to not more than 
three years imprisonment should be confined but this was subsequently 
altered and it was determined that all prisoners undergoing a longer term than 
six months should be sent to Rangoon. In 1864 the lock-up at Myanoung was 
a wooden building standing in open country on the banks of the Irrawaddy 
without enclosure of any sort in which were confined only under-trial 
prisoners and those sentenced to not more than a month^s imprisonment, the 
remainder being sent to Eangoon. In 1868-69 masonry lock-ups were con- 
structed at Henzada and at Myanoung and some years later it was proposed 
to build a district gaol at the former station but the plan was abandoned. 

The gaol at Henzada though classed as a district gaol is in reality but 
a lock-up and is inadequate for the wants of the district. It and the lock-up 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


183 


at MyanouDg are of similar construction, both consisting of masonry buildings 
with wooden barracks raised 10 feet off the ground in which, during 1875 and 
1876^ an average number of 83 and 67 prisoners, respectively, were confined.. 
At Henzada the average daily number of convicts employed on labour 
outside the gaol walls was ten, eight were employed on the gaol garden, 
twenty on manufactures, seven on the gaol buildings, six as gaol servants and 
four as prison officers, Ks. 992 were realized by the sale of gaol manufac- 
tures and Es. 980 for the extramural labour. The expenditure during the 
year was — 

Rs. A. P. 


On gaol buildings by Gaol Department 

43 

0 

0 

Rs. 



Ditto by Public Works Department 

.. 5,888 

0 

0 

A. 

P. 


— 

— 

5,931 

0 

0 

Maintaining and guarding prisoners 

•• 

•• 


5,792 

0 

0 





11,723 

0 

0 

Cash receipts from manufactures 

.. 2,223 

0 

0 




Expenditure for sand, mortar, &c. 

.. 1,090 

0 

0 





- — 

— 

1,133 

0 

0 

Nett cost 

.. 

.. 


10,590 

0 

0 

Nett cost per head . , 

. . 

. . 


102 

13 

0 


Excluding the cost of new buildings and repairs, the total cost of each 
prisoner during the four years ending with 1876 was Es. 56-13-6, Es. 69-12-7, 
Es. 75-2-1, and Es. 56-3-6. 

In Myanouiig where eighteen convicts were employed on manufactures the 
cash receipts were larger and the nett cost proportionately reduced. In 1876 
the gross expenditure on the lock-up was Es. 6,653 and deducting 
Es. 2,785, the profit from the sale of manufactured articles, &c., the nett out- 
lay was Es, 3,868 or Es. 47-2-9 per head. The total cost ( exclusive of that 
for buildings ) per head of average strength during eaicl of the four years 
ending with 1876 was Es, 63-8-6, Rs. 76-1-4, Es. 53-8-0 and Es. 62-9-9. 

This district has from the first received considerable attention as regards 
the education of its inhabitants but beyond making grants-in-aid to the 
missionary societies the State did not interfere for some years. As early as 
1855 schools had been established by the American Baptist missionaries and 
in 1856 a Kareng Normal school was opened in Henzada, in 1867 the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel started a school in the same town, and in 1873 
and 1874 the Government formed cess schools in Henzada and Myanoung 
and in 1875 in Kyan-kheng. In the meanwhile the Baptist missionaries 
had started numerous village schools amongst the Kareng to which the State 
for some time afforded aid. 

The average daily attendance in the cess schools in 1876 was : — in Henzada 
52, Myanoung 36, and Kyan-kheng 20. In Henzada almost all the pupils are 
Booddhists whereas in Myanoung there were 13 Christians, Mahoraedans and 
Hindoos out of a total of 34 on the rolls on the 31st March 1876, and in Kyan- 
kheng three Out of a total of 31 on the rolls. The total number on the rolls of the 
S. P. G. Mission School, to which the State made a grant of Es. 960, was 58 and 
the average daily attendance 47. In Henzada there are two schools for Bur- 
mese girls to each of which the State makes a small grant. The total number 
of pupils on the rolls in 1876 was 67 and the average daily attendance was 51. 



184 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


All these are more or less under the supervision of Europeans or Americans. 
At Henzada and at Meng-gyee there are lay schools, one at each, in which 
both boys and girls are taught, kept by Burmans who receive small grants and 
are also assisted by a master paid by the State, whilst at Be-keng the Gov- 
ernment employs a master who teaches in a large monastery with the 
consent and on the application of the head hpoongyee. Numerous monas- 
teries and lay schools are annually inspected and prizes distributed and in 
1875-76 the Director of Public Instruction reported that in this district indigen- 
ous iay education was founded on a permanently sound and steadily broaden- 
ing basis. 

HENZADA ANOUK-BHET. — A revenue circle in the Henzada town- 
ship, Henzada district, on the right bank of the Irrawaddy south of Henzada 
town, partially cultivated in fields which would be a swamp were it not for 
the protecting embankment on the Irrawaddy. In 1876 the land revenue was 
Es. 5,431, the capitation tax Es. 3,900, the gross revenue Es. 10,420 and the 
population 4,725. 

HENZADA MYOMA. — A revenue circle in the Henzada township of 
the Henzada district round and including a portion of Henzada the head- 
quarters of the district. In 1876 including the inhabitants of the town the 
population was 16,886, and in the same year the land revenue was Es. 4,035, 
the capitation tax Es. 977 and the gross revenue, excluding that of the' 
municipality, Es. 14,030. 

HEUMA. — A tribe inhabiting the hill country of Arakan . — See Shandoo, 

HIEN-TSAI. — The native name for the north Mosco island. q,v. 

HIEN-TSAI. — A fresh water basin in the Tavoy district lying on the 
coast about half way between Ee in Amherst and Tavoy. The country slopes 
from all sides towards a central point, forming the semi-circle of a great 
cone, in the lower par(^-^f which the basin about fifteen miles long by six to eight 
broad formed by the confluence of all the streams between Ee and Tavoy (except 
the Hangan and the Za-dee) descending from the westernmost ranges, and 
surrounded by land on all sides except an opening of about half a mile in 
width through which it communicates with the sea. The entrance is 
closed by a sand bar. Within the basin and towards its northern end is an 
extensive island containing land suited for rice cultivation. Wood-oil trees 
grow in abundance in the neighbourhood. 

HLAI-GA-TOUNG. — A small unnavigable river in the Prome district 
that rises in the hills on the north-east of the Irrawaddy and flows 
southward in a narrow ravine for some five miles when it receives the waters 
of the Bho-ra, which has emerged from a still narrower ravine immediately 
to the west, and three miles further on it joins the North Naweng a mile 
below the village of Tham-ba-ya-goon. 

HLAING. — A township occupying the extreme north-west of the Eangoon 
district and lying on both banks of the Hlaing river. 

The boundary leaves the Pegu Eomas near the source of the Mee-neng 
and following that river to its mouth in the Hlaing, turns southward to the 
mouth of the Ee-nat-eng Khyoung; here turning west it follows that creek to 
the Be-nat-eng and the northern border of the swamp and then continues west 
along an imaginary line to the A-lap-tshen-eng ; here it inclines south-east to 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


185 


* 


aMa -00 tree {Sarcocephalus cadamba) in about the latitude ofBhiet-naw on the 
Hlaingf : inclining again south-south-east it strikes the Pa-khwon stream and, 
following this in a generally southerly direction to its mouth in the Bhaw-lay, 
it runs with that creek at first south and gradually round east to its southern 
mouth in the Hlaing. Turning abruptly north along that river it bends round 
west again and follows a spur in an east-north-easterly direction to the 
Pegu Romas; these form the eastern boundary of the township. The area 
within these limits is 678 square miles. To the north and west lie Henzada; south 
and east the Hmaw-bhee and the Hpoung-leng townships of Rangoon. The 
head-quarters are at Taw-la-tai on the southern bank of the Bhaw-lay creek at 
its northern junction with the Hlaing. In 1873 the northern circle, Thoon- 
tshay, was joined to the Henzada district and in 1875-76 other circles on the 
west were taken from the township when the Thoon-khwa district was 
formed. The township is divided into four revenue circles, viz*^ Ook-kan in the 
north-east, Myoung-ta-nga in the south-east, Aing-ka-loung in the north-west 
and Bhaw-lay in the south-west. The two first are fully described imder their 
own names but it is desirable to add to the account already given of the two last. 

Aing-ka-loung occupies the whole of that portion of the township which 
lies west of the Hlaing and north of the Bhaw-lay, There are but few 
spots high enough to escape, during the rains, from the spill of the Hlaing, 
the Pa-khwon and the Bhaw-lay, supplemented as these are by the waters of 
the Irrawaddy which find their way over the country by numerous 
creeks, whilst the rush of the Irrawaddy through the Pan-hlaing banks up 
the Hlaing, and consequently the Bhaw-lay, and thus adds to the over- 
flow. The somewhat raised spots, which are found principally along the 
Hlaing and in the north-western corner at and below the village of 
Eng-ta-ra, are themselves occasionally submerged on a heavy rise, as in 
1877. Except this higher ground the whole circle, more especially in 
the west, is covered with tree and grass forest, called the Eng-ta-ra Taw-gyee 
or the Great Eng-ta-ra forest^^, in which the priei^ipal trees are Htien 
and Boon (Anogeissm acuminata) and is highly intersected with creeks 
mostly dry even as early as the end of Januaiy. There are five principal 
fens, for they cannot be called lakes : in the centre of the circle is the 
A-la-bhwot, the largest, and north of it are the Taw-kha-ra and the Ea-law- 
koon, whilst towards the south is the Ma-tha and in the extreme south- 


east the Meng-hla. 

In 1877 the inhabitants were— 


Bormans 

*#• ••• 

1,736 

Talaing 

••• ••• 

642 

Earexig 

*•« «•# *•» 

691 

Chinese 


4 


8,878 

In that year there were only 25 villages, all either on the Hlaing or 
grouped near Eng-ta-ra. The principal are : — Aing-ka-loung, a long 
straggling village in the north-eastern corner on the bank of the Hlaing, 
consisting of two rows of houses one on each side of a road with a much 
damaged brick path running along its centre leading to a monastery and 
one or two zayats in an open grove of trees at the lower end. Between the 
monastery and the river is a good bricked well. The inhabitants, who in 
1877 numbered 368, are principally employed in working as fishermen and 
as coolies on the timber r^ts. Hpo-khoung, a similar village about a mile 

24 



186 


BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


«- 


further down and opposite Hlaing with 214 inhabitants ; and Taw-ta-ree, 
still further south and about half a mile inland from the river bank^ with 
201 inhabitants. In 1876 there were 4,152 acres of rice land under culti- 
vation and none fallow, 79 acres of garden and 292 acres of miscellaneous 
cultivation; 1,259 buffaloes, 188 cows, bulls and bullocks, 189 carts, 240 
ploughs and 18 boats. The inhabitants of all the villages on the Hlaing 
eke out their means by cutting and selling grass for thatch and in buying 
bamboos from the forest workers at the head waters of the Ook-kan 
which they stack on the river bank till an opportunity offers of sending 
or taking them to Eangoon for sale in the market there. 

The Bhaw-lay circle occupies the whole of the township west of the Hlaing 
below Aing-ka-loung. Like its northern neighbour it is highly intersect- 
ed by small creeks which form an irregular network with each other and 
with the Bhaw-lay and the Hlaing, The greater portion of its area is 
flooded twice during the year on the high rises of the Irrawaddy and of 
the Hlaing and is thereby rendered unculturable and is covered with 
open tree forest and elephant grass. The places most free from flooding, 
though not exempt in high rises, are (a) along the bank of the northern 
portion of the Bhaw-lay ; here there is an annual spill from the creek but 
not sufficient in ordinary years to damage cultivation ; (6) in the extreme 
south-eastern corner : and (c) a stretch of slightly higher ground extending, 
with intervals, southwards from Gnyoung-waing at the junction of the 
Hlaing with the northern mouth of the Bhaw-lay along the east central 
tract to rather more than half way down the circle. In 1876 there were 
5,706 acres under rice, 112 acres left fallow, 187 acres of garden land 
and 30 acres of miscellaneous cultivation. In the same year there were 
1,263 buffaloes, 107 cows, bulls and bullocks distributed amongst three 
villages, viz^, Tha-bbaw-khyoung, Hlay-tshiep and Taw-la-tai, 103 pigs, 
13 goats, 118 carts, 244 ploughs and 16 boats. 

The villages, of which in that year there were 25, are almost entirely 
on the banks of the main streams. The most important are Bhaw-lay on 
the stream of the same name a little to the south of the mouth of the 
Kha-noung-pe creek with 472 inhabitants who are principally workers of 
lake and stream fisheries ; Hlay-tshiep at the junction of Hlaing and the 
northern mouth of the Bbaw-Iay where a small Police force is stationed, 
with 420 inhabitants, agriculturists and raftsmen ; A-lien-a-Iay on the 
bank of the Hlaing at the mouth of the stream of the same name with 
541 inhabitants, agriculturists and raftsmen ; and Taw-la-tai, with its 
north-eastern and semi-detached quarter Gnyoung-waing, with 626 
inhabitants, those living in the former agriculturists and raftsmen and 
those in the latter traders and rice brokers. 

The total number of the inhabitants of the circle in 1877 was ; — 


Bnrmans 

Talaing 

Kareng 

Chinese 

Mnsulmans 


2,002 

1,689 

1,111 

7 

2 

4.811 


To the east of the township the country is hilly and here is found much 
valuable timber, as teak {Tectona Pyeng-ma {Lagerstroemia Begince)^ 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


187 


Eng* {Dipterocarpus tuber eulattis)^ Ka-gnyeng {D, alatus), Theng-gan {Hopea 
odorata) and Pjeng-ga-do {Xylia dolahriformis), A considerable portion of this 
tract has been demarcated as a State forest reserve. Below this the country 
gradually subsides into a plain, the eastern borders of which in the north are 
lower than the banks of the Hlaing. In consequence, as that river annually 
overflows the country in its immediate neighbourhood, it is not culturable 
except, perhaps, in the extreme south. West of the Hlaing the country is 
one vast flat with a few places high enough to escape the annual floods where 
rice is grown ; elsewhere it is covered with grass and with tree forest of little 
or no value. ^ 

The principal rivers are the Hlaing, the Bhaw-lay creek and the Ook-kan and 
the Ma-ga-ree, tributaries of the Hlaing from the eastward : much timber is 
brought down the two last, and down the 0(&-kan bamboos also, and conveyed 
to Rangoon down the Hlaing, 

The principal villages are Taw4a-tai, the head -quarters, on the Bhaw-lay 
with a population of 626 souls in 1877* Pouk-koon where is the Ook-kan station 
of the Irrawaddy Valley (State) Railway which traverses the township from south 
to north, with 494 inhabitants ; and Myoung-ta-nga in the north of the circle of 
the same name with 802 inhabitants. A little to the south of Hlaing, on the left 
bank of the river of that name, are the remains of an old city said to have been 
founded in the time of Rahzadhierit, the great king of the Talaing. The ruins of 
three pagodas and of the walls are standing ; these latter form a square each 
side facing one of the cardinal points of the compass and with a gateway in the 
centre. North of the Dhat, a small mountain tributary of the Ook-kan which 
it joins from the south-east, are the ruins of another town called Htan-bboo 
the crumbling walls only remaining ; it is said to have been founded by Meng- 
ran-ga a son of Rahzadhierit, who, rebelling against his father, was killed in 
his own camp at a spot now called La-ha-ma-ngay close to Htan-bhoo. 

In 1876 the area actually under rice was 28,469 acres, the land revenue 
was Rs. 48,621, the capitation-tax Rs. 26,123, the gross revenue Rs. 96,205 
and the population 19,996 souls. 

HLAING. — A river in the valley of the Irrawaddy which flows past the 
town of Rangoon whence to its mouth it is universally known as the Rangoon 
river. It rises in the marshy grounds east of Prome and, flowing south over 
a sandy and muddy bed between low banks in a channel which is only just 
defined and no more even in the dry season, falls into the Eng-ma lake, after 
having received the waters of numerous small streams, all like itself in this por- 
tion of its course unnavigable by boats. It has been supposed that it acts as a 
sort of escape channel for the flood waters of the Naweng when ponded back 
by an unusual rise of the Irrawaddy and even that it is an old channel 
of the Irrawaddy itself but now cut oflP by an alluvial bar, but there is a 
suflBcient rise in the intervening country to form a watershed between this 
sluggish river and the eddying volume of the Naweng in flood which 
sweeps past it a few miles to the north. On leaving the Engma lake, which 
it enters as the ^ Zay*, it continues its southward course as the ^ Myit-ma- 
kha’, traverses the Henzada district east of and almost parallel to the 
Irrawaddy and enters the Rangoon district at Myit-kyo. In the north it is 
separated from the Irrawaddy by a line of low hills covered with Eng 
forest {Dipterocarpus tuberculatus) which ends a little above the latitude of 
Myanoung. Below this it is connected with the Irrawaddy by numerous creeks 



188 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


which increase in size and importance towards the south. From Tsan-rwe, 
where it receives the Thoon-tshay from the east, it is navigable upwards at all 
seasons as far as Ta-pwon, the water being never less than three feet deep, but. 
the channel is in many places choked with jungle. Small boats ascend even as 
far as Eng-ma with cargoes of salt, ngapee and other goods. Owing to the 
numerous shoals it is impracticable for steamers even of light draught above 
Tsan-rwe where its width is 180 yards, its depth four feet, the bed sandy and 
the tidal rise 2| feet. Below Tsan-rwe it continues between high sandy banks 
to about 17° 15' N., where the Bhaw-lay, with a mouth about 120 yards broad, 
leaves it to the west. A little lower its banks gradually sink and assume the 
appearance characteristic of those of a tidal stream in the delta, abrupt and steep 
fora few feet from the top and below high water mark shelving and muddy, the 
crest either bare or hidden by overfianging shrubs with their lower branches 
and branchlets washed by the tide and covered with brown slime which, as the 
water falls, dries into a dirty grey. Large trees such as the Mango and Htien 
disappear and are succeeded by Lamoo and other timber which thrives 
in brackish water. The waters have no longer a semblance even of trans- 
parency but are thick and muddy every stroke of the oar sending the earthy 
particles swirling in distinct eddies. A very little north of the 17th parallel 
the Bhaw-lay, here called the Kook-ko, joins it again and it then widens con- 
siderably. Three miles lower it suddenly spreads out to a breadth of several 
miles and its course is divided by two main islands into three channels ; of 
these the eastern is the deepest and the one most generally used by boats and 
always by the river steamers which reach the Irrawaddy during the rains 
through the Kook-ko. Up to 1874 the route was through the Pan-hlaing, 
further south, but this is gradually silting up. The western channel is 
shallow and considerably larger whilst the central is still shallower and so filled 
with sand banks that, except at high water, it is barely navigable even by a 
canoe. The two main islands, one on each side of this central channel, are 
gradually enlarging by accretion : that on the east now contains about sixty 
acres and that on the west about eighty. Above there is a small round island 
formerly containing from fifteen to twenty acres, but the banks are steep and 
fall in every year and its area is now only about five. Below the two main 
islands is another, larger than either, which has increased and is still increasing 
in the same way as they are. Just above Rangoon the river is joined by the 
Pan-hlaing from the westward and sweeping round the town towards the east it 
is joined by the Pegu and the Poo-zwon-doung when, turning south again, it 
flows on for 21 miles through an ever-widening channel and falls into the Gulf 
of Martaban in Lat. 16° 28' N. Long. 96° 20' E. through a mouth three miles 
broad. The land at the entrance is low and for the most part covered with 
jungle to the water’s edge forming dense mangrove and tidal forests. Owing 
to the great rise and fall of the tide and to the velocity of the tidal stream the 
water, even far out to seaward, is charged with a large quantity of deposit, caus- 
ing the river to present a deep yellow hue. At the mouth it is high water, 
at full and change of the moon, at 3 hrs. 15 mins. : the springs rise 21 feet 
and neaps 18 feet. It is navigable to Rangoon by large ships, which, however, 
l^ve to wait for flood tide to cross the Hastings, a* shoal formed just above 
Me umt^ mouths of the Pegu and Poo-zwon-doung rivers. In the rains 
it is navigable for 30 miles above Rangoon by ships of 500 tons burden. 
The channel up to Rangoon is winding and difficult. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


189 


HLAING. — A village in the Rangoon district at a re-entering angle on the 
left bank of the Hlaing river about 11 miles above the mouth of the Bhaw-Iay. 
The village, the seat of the Governor of the Hlaing province in the Burmese 
time, was occupied without resistance by the British troops under Sir Archibald 
Campbell on the 23rd February 1825. In 1877 it had a population of 293 souls. 
It occupies the site of the river face suburb of the ancient town of Hlaing, 
which is mentioned in Talaiug and Bur man histories as early as the latter half 
of the fourteenth century. The walls and three pagodas only, now all in 
ruins, remain and the land within, once the scene of busy life, is almost 
entirely under the plough ; the walls are of brick and of earth, the bricks 
broad, long and flat and exceedingly well burned but without a trace of 
vitreous glaze, and are about 15 feet high and 30 feet broad at the 
base ; they form a square, each side facing one of the cardinal points of the 
compass and about one thousand yards long with a gateway in the centre. 
The northern wall is now about three hundred yards from the river, 
but judging from the erosion taking place must originally have been con- 
siderably farther. Near the village are the ruins of a pagoda called Hpoung- 
daw-kan and on the opposite bank of the Hlaing, just above Hpo-khoung 
village, another, in better repair with its htee still in place but with the gilding 
worn off, called Hpoung-daw-oo both said to have been built by the Prince 
of Tharawaddy, who afterwards came to the throne as Koon-boung-meng, 
on a visit he paid to Pegu in 1820 when he followed the route generally taken 
by the Burman armies in the wars with Pegu and leaving the Irrawaddy a little 
below the latitude of Myanoung entered the Hlaing and thus escaped the 
the waves of lower portion of the former river. 

HLAING-BHOON. — A tidal creek in the Bassein district running 
nearly due north and south from the Bassein river to the Shwe-doung which it 
joins a short distance from its mouth. It has an average depth of from two to 
four fathoms at low water and is navigated by large country boats. 

HLAING-BHOON-GALE. — A creek in the Bassein district. S^e OoUhpo. 

HLAING-BHWAL — A village on the left bank of the river of the same 
name, 108 miles from Maulmain, the bead-quarters of the Than-lweng 
Hlaing-bhwai township of the Amherst district, containing, in 1876, a popula- 
tion of 680 souls. To the south of the village are the Court-house and Police 
station and between these and the village a very fine monastery, remarkable 
for the large size of the posts on which it stands. During the dry season a 
stream of trade passes through this village betwocn the Shan States on the 
east and the plain country on the west and south. Parties of Shan come in, 
bringing principally silk piece-goods, men^s plaids and women’s petticoats 
which they carry down for sale to Maulmain and towards Tha-htoon returning in 
a few months with cotton piece-goods and twist. At the same season parties of 
Shan and Toungthoo from Tha-htoon and the neighbourhood go to the 
Shan States, carrying principally coin, and purchase large numbers of cattle 
which they sell in the plain country to the westward. The local trade consists 
in piece-goods and twist brought up by natives of India, and oil, salt, dried 
vegetables, salt fish, &c. brought up by Burmans and Talaing, and in fowls, 
ducks and pigs bred by the Kareng who occupy the surrounding country, 
especially towards and on the Dawn a range to the eastward, and carried down 
to the Maulmain market, principally by natives of India and Chinamen. 



190 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


In the rains the current of the river is so rapid that the ascent Is tedious 
and long, but in the dry season the spring tides extend for some two miles above 
the village and boats can come up rapidly and can then get over the rocky 
ledge which is about two hundred yards below the village. 

HLAING-BHWAI. — A river in the Amherst district which has its sources 
in the northern portion of the Dawna range and flowing southwards for about 
120 miles unites with the Houng-tha-raw at Gyaing to flow almost due west, 
as the Gyaing, and to fall into the Salween at Maulmain. At its junction 
with the Da-gyaing, a stream which joins it from the eastward about 24 miles 
south of Hlaing-bhwai and by the river 42 above Gyaing and is of equal 
size, it is in the rains about 70 yards wide ; below this it rapidly broadens and 
and at Gyaing cannot be much less than 400 yards broad. In the rains the 
water is muddy and the current strong and rapid and boats ascend with diffi- 
culty but in the dry season, when the spring tides extend up for 70 miles, 
boats of five hundred baskets burden go up to Hlaing-bhwai : except at springs, 
however, they cannot get over the reef of rocks which stretches across the river 
about two hundred yards below that village. As far as the mouth of the Da- 
gyaing the banks are high and well defined, lower down they are, in places, low 
and the bordering scrub forest comes down to the water’s edge even in the dry 
season, the larger tree forest lying more inland and marking the limit of the 
river at its highest. The usual halting-places on the way up are Khazaing 
where there is a Police station 26 miles from Gyaing, and, in the wet weather, 
Khyoung-wa, a small village on the right bank a little above the mouth of the 
Da-gyaing 16 miles higher up. 

HLAT-GOO. — A. village on the Eangoon and Pegu road where it crosses 
the Poo-zwon-doung — whence the name which means a ford for carts — with 
657 inhabitants in 1877. It is the head-quarters of the Hpoung-Jeng 
township and contains a Court-house and a Police station. 

HLAY-THAY. — A revenue circle in the Prome district about seven miles 
E. N. E. of Prome near the Naweng river, containing six of the old village 
tracts. In 1876 it had a population of 1,505 souls ; the land revenue was 
Rs. 1,916, the capitation- tax Es. 1,713 and the gross revenue Rs. 3,652. 

HLAY-TSHIEP. — A revenue circle on the right bank of the Irrawaddy 
in the north-east corner of the Henzada township, Henzada district, the 
cultivated part of which lies principally to the south-east. In 1876 the popu- 
lation was 2,269, the land revenue Es. 3,596, the capitation tax Es. 2,275 and 
the gross revenue Rs. 7,799. 

HLAY-TSHIEP . — A village in the Bhaw-lay circle of the Hlaing town- 
ship, Rangoon district, on the right bank of the Hlaing just below the 
northern month of the Bhaw-lay creek and close to Taw-la-tai the head- 
quarters of the township. The houses are in two rows along the banks of the 
river with a road between them. The Police station, the only public building, 
is behind the centre of the village. In 1877 it had 470 inhabitants. 
The village was founded about twenty years ago by Moung Shwe Tha, the 
Extra Assistant Commissioner of the township, who was afterwards burned to 
death near Zee-goon, on the opposite bank of the Hlaing, in a patch of 
elephant grass which he had caused to be set on fire to drive out the deer 
which he had gone to shoot. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTKER. 


191 


HLWA. — A river in the Thayet district which rises in the eastern slopes 
of the Arakan hills near the strange and lofty Shwe-doung peak and after 
an easterly course of about thirty miles falls into the Ma-*htoon river in the 
Meng-doon township. In the dry season this stream is a trickling brooklet 
but during the rains small boats can ascend for some miles as far as the 
village of Gwa-thit : towards the source the bed is very rocky. It has 
numerous tributaries none of which are of any importance. 

HLWA-TSENG. — A village in the Prome district in 19° 0^ 25" N. and 
95° 30' 55" E. on the left bank of the north Naweng nine miles from its mouth, 
measured in a direct line, and at the junction of the Hlwa-tseng streamlet 
with that river. On the opposite side of the North Naweng is a small patch of 
rice cultivation. The inhabitants are mainly gardeners and rice cultivators. 

HLAW-GA-TA. — A creek in the Bassein district. See Mai-za-lee. 

HMAN-DENG. — A village in the Re-byoo circle, Thayet township, 
Thayet district, some three miles west of the river bank, and about six 
north-west of Thayet town, containing from eighty to ninety houses : 
the inhabitants are mostly employed in cultivating hill gardens and the 
narrow strip of rice land about half a mile bro^ which stretches in a 
north-western direction towards Oot-shit-goon. 

HMAW-BHEE. — A revenue circle in the north of the township of the 
same name in the Rangoon district, extending from the Pegu Romas on the 
east to the Hlaing on the west and separated from Myoung-ta-nga on the 
north by the little Myo Khyoung and other insignificant streams and towards 
the east by a cart track, and from Lien-goon on the south by the Hmaw-bhee 
stream. On the east the country is hilly and covered with tree forest but in 
the centre of the circle there is a good deal of rice cultivation though the 
soil is poor ; towards the west shrub and brush forest appear and the face 
of the country is broken here and there by marshy ground. The area under 
cultivation and the agricultural stock and population during each of the 
last five years were : — 


jS 

Population, 

Area under cultivation. 

Agricultural stock. 


1 

d 

0 

1 

O 

OQ 

S 

§ 

o 

QQ 

a 

Total. 

at 

« 

o 

73 

94 

0 

Cows, Bulls 
and Bullocks. 


Carts. 

ta 

'3> 

0 

o 

s 

QQ 

"S 

o 

1872.. 

8,802 

6,261 

220 

. . 

6,471 

1,292 

406 

65 

256 

622 

17 


1873.. 

4,926 

7,665 

235 

•• 

7,900 

1,416 

455 

143 

260 

551 

11 


1874.. 

3,587 

8,664 

254 

' •• 

8,808 

1,217 

520 

209 

197 

I 

659 

37 


1875.. 

4,411 

9,925 

354 

•• 

10,279 

1,214 

397 

181 

261 

573 

82 


1876.. 

4,644 

9,704 

371 

156 

10,231 

1,385 

508 

161 

303 

634 

194 














192 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The principal village Is Hmaw-bhee, the head-quarters of the sl5ft-di vision, 
with 803 inhabitants. 

HMAW-BHEE. — A village of 803 inhabitants in the Eangoon dis- 
trict a short distance east of the Hmaw-bhee stream in 17° 4' 20^ N. and 96° 7' E. 
to which, during the rains, boats of 250 bushels burden can ascend via the 
Lien-goon, the entrance to the Hmaw-bhee having to a great extent silted up. 
At this village, on the bank of the stream, are the remains of an old Peguan fort 
forming a parallelogram with an east and west entrance and a deep ditch 
round it. Almost all the bricks in the old walls have been taken for metal 
for the Irrawaddy Valley Railway. During the first Burmese war the Burman 
general occupied this fort in his retreat northward before the main British 
column under Sir Archibald Campbell, but after firing a few shots evacuated 
it without waiting for the attack of the English troops. The inhabitants are 
mainly employed in rice cultivation, 

HMAW-BHEE. — A sub-division of the Rangoon district occupying the 
country north of the town of Rangoon and of the Angyee township of the 
Syriam division and lying to the westward of the Pegu Romas. The 
Rangoon and Irrawaddy Valley (State) Railway traverses the sub-division 
from south to north, and from Hmaw-bhee station — a few miles north-east of 
Hmaw-bhee village — occupies the great northern military road. The prin- 
cipal river is the Hlaing which flows from north to south and, joined by the 
Pan-hlaing in the south, forms the Rangoon river. In the rains 
steamers can ascend for some distance and boats of 400 bushels burden 
can at all seasons go up as high as the mouth of the Re-nek. In the rains large 
boats can traverse the whole extent of the river in this sub-division. The sub- 
division is divided into two townships, Hlaing containing four revenue circles 
in the north and Hmaw-bhee containing eleven revenue circles in the south : 
the head-quarters are at Hmaw-bhee. In 187 6 the population numbered 70,433 
souls, the land revenue was Rs. 228,503, the capitation-tax Rs. 80,730 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 337,421. 

HMAW-BHEE . — K township in the sub-division of the same name in the 
Eangoon district with the Hlaing township on the north, the Thoon-khwa 
district on the west, the An-gyee and the Than-Iyeng townships on the south 
and the Hpoung-leng township on the east. It extends from the town of 
Rangoon northwards along the western slopes of the Pegu Romas and north-west 
beyond the Hlaing river to the Pan-hlaing, and east and south-east across the 
Poo-zwon-doung into the valley of the Pegu and along the bank of that river 
as far as the Ma-tso stream, and consists of three portions each difiering 
considerably from the others, (a) West of the Hlaing are the Htan-ta-beng, 
Ka-tseng, Pa-dan and Kyoon-oo circles : here the country on the west is tra- 
versed by a large number of intercommunicating tidal creeks through which 
the tide and the waters of the Irrawaddy find their way over the land 
and every second or third year, since the construction of the embankments 
along the west bank of the Irrawaddy, flood the fields and destroy the crops. 
There is but little cultivation and the country is to a great extent 
covered with open tree forest and elephant grass. (5) In the tract north 
of Rangoon the country loses the flat appearance which it has near the sea 
coast and gradually passes , into undulating ground which, towards the 
north-east, rises into hills covered with tree forest. The soil is poor but, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


193 


everywhere below the high ground, is cultivated with rice which is exported 
through the creeks which communicate with the Hlaing and up which the 
tide extends almost to the foot of the hills. Towards the south the country 
has been denuded of wood for fuel for Eangoon and the streams are no 
longer fringed with brushwood which afforded shade for the spawning fish 
and the fry. (c) East of Eangoon the country is open, level and highly cul- 
tivated^ and the soil is rich and productive, but is beginning to sutfer from 
the exhaustion caused by continued cultivation with no rest and no rotation 
of crops. 

The area under cultivation, the agricultural stock and the population 
during the last five years were : — 


Year. 

Population. 

Area, in acres. 

Agbicultcbal stock. 

o 

o 

g 

d 

o 

cS 

O 

Miscellaneous. 

Is 

"o 

H 

Buffaloes. 

Cows, Bulls 
and Bullocks. 

to 

s 

DQ 

X, 

03 

O 

GO 

to 

QQ 

"S 

o 

pq 

1872.. 

46,062 

65,747 

5,876 

605 

72,128 

12,757 

5,589 

949 

2,357 

6,223 

1,033 

1873.. 

52,810 

73,922 

6,273 

515 

80,710 

11,928 

6,111 

1,052 

2,596 

5,342 

1,326 

1874.. 

50,612 

82,573! 

6,957 

635 

90,165 

11,725 

5,802 

1,461 

2,261 

5,227 

944 

1875.. 

51,620 

95,990 

, 6,840 

665 

103,495 

9,602 

5,400 

1,265 

2,059 

4,410 

1 963 

1876.. 

50,487 

90,840 

6,260 

819 

97,919 

li,726j 5,772 

1,232 

2,264 

1 6,124 

1,051 


The revenue during the same period was : — 




Imperial and Provincial, 


Local. 

L . 

. j 


Year. 

Land. 

Capitation 

tax. 

Fisheries, 

All others. 

Total. 

Cess. 

Grand total 

U 

B 

! 

1872 

67,982 

1 

26,977 

1,135 


96,905 

3,455 

99,550 

In 1874 Tsit- 
peng and Kyouk 

1873 .. 1 

74,404 

, 81,460 

1,135 


106,999 

3,776 

110,776 

khyoung were 
added from 

1874 

184,909 

i 57,392 

1 6,679 

500 

249,480 

9,604 

159,085 

Than-lyeng, and 
H t a n-t a-b eng 

1876 

210,555 

56,355 

6,679 

462 

274,051 

10,884 

284,935 Katseng, Padan 
and Kyoon-oo 

1876 

200,882 

' 54,605 

6,679 ' 

48 

262,214 

10,380 

272,594 [from Eng-ga- 
bhoo. 


25 










194 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER* 


The head-quarters are at present at Lien-goon but it is proposed to move 
them to Eng-tsien on the Irrawaddy Valley (State) Railway which traverses 
the township from south to north. The stations, in this township, are at 
Thamaing (about to be moved to Eng-tsien), Hlaw-gaand Hmaw-bbee (about 
to be moved some two miles south from Shan-tsoo where it now is too near 
Hmaw-bhee.) 

Daring the Burmese rule the Hmaw-bhee *^Myo^’ included only the 
Hmaw-bhee, Lien-goon and Kyoung-goon circles and was bounded on the 
west by the Hlaing, on the north by the Myo, on the south by the Tagoo- 
kyaw, whilst towards the west the official boundary is given as the Kyaik- 
ka-ioot pagoda. The Myo-thoo-gyee resided at Wa-hta-ya where there were 
then 500 to 600 houses* The total revenue was : — 



Tioals of silver equal to about 

Es. 

Fisheries 

250 

ditto 

.. 325 

Toungya 

250 

ditto 

.. 325 

Land 

250 

ditto 

, . 325 

Charges for taking the revenue to 
the Myo-tsa at Amarapoora 

250 

ditto 

325 

Capitation and other taxes 

300 

ditto 

. . 390 

Total 

.. 1,300 


.. 1,690 


In addition a tax equalling Rs. 1-8-0 was levied on each plough and sent 
to the Governor at Rangoon, and 25 baskets of unhusked rice for each plough 
were paid to the local Government and stored in the public granary in Ran- 
goon. The Myo-thoo-gyee got 15 baskets of unhusked rice for each plough. 
The taxes paid in kind were carried at the expense of the cultivators, 

HMAW-BHEE. — A small river in the township of the same name in the 
Rangoon district which rises in the lower slopes of the Pegu Romas and 
flowing southwards past Hmaw-bhee turns west and falls into the Hlaing at 
Hmaw-bhee-wa-rwa, a few miles below A-lien-a-lay on the opposite bank. In 
the rains boats of considerable burden can go up to Hmaw-bhee. Where it 
turns west, near Kyee-beng-tshiep and Mo-gyo-pyit villages, the Lien-goon 
leaves it and falls into the Hlaing at Wa-hta-ya. Of late years the Lien-goon 
has become the main outlet, the lower portion of the Hmaw-bhee having 
silted up, 

HMAW-DAW. — A village of 536 inhabitants in 1877 in the len-da- 
poo-ra circle, Anygee township, Rangoon district, on the edge of the Twan-te 
Taw-gyee. 

HMAW-KAN. — A village in the Prome district eleven miles in a direct 
line south-east of Prome, in 18® 43' 50 " N. and 95° 25' 40" E. on the bank of 
the Zay stream, six miles north of the Engma lake, on the western portion of 
the large rice tract which extends from the Naweng river southwards to the 
limit of the district. 

HMAW-THE. — A stream in the Bassein district which rises in the Kyoon- 
la-ha lake and after flowing for some distance eastwards turns north and joins 
the Re-gyee. It is about one hundred feet wide near its month and four or 
five feet deep. In the rains it is navigable by boats about 30 feet long but in 
the dry season it consists of a series of lakes fringed with scrub forest. 
The banks are in some parts high and there is much rice cultivation in the 
country on both sides. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


196 


HMAW-WON. — A stream in the Than-lyeng or Syriam township of the 
Rangoon district formed by the junction of numerous rivulets which rise in 
the plains towards the north and, fed by several creeks which communicate 
with the Pegu river and with each other, it falls into the Hlaing or Ran- 
goon river not far from its mouth. It is tidal beyond Re-bhaw-gan where it is 
joined by the Bhaw from the west ; through this channel communication can 
be kept up with the Pegu river which that creek joins just above Syriam or 
Than-lyeng, The banks are steep and muddy and free of tree forest. At flood 
tides large boats can ascend for a considerable distance but at and below 
Kyouktan, the head-quarters of the Syriam sub-division of the district, about 
seven miles from the mouth, rocks render the passage difficult and dangerous 
at other seasons. Traversing a rich rice-producing country the stream flows 
past numerous villages of some size and importance. 

HMAW-WON. — A revenue circle in the Than-lyeng township of the 
Rangoon district at the mouth of the Rangoon river. The aspect of the 
southern portion of the country is that of an extensive plain richly jju I tivated, 
the uncultivated parts being low and subject to inundation : the northern por- 
tion has a good deal of tree forest. In the extreme south is a masonry 
pillar which marks the entrance to the Rangoon river. The inhabitants, who 
are principally agriculturists, numbered 7,740 in 1876 when the land revenue 
was Rs. 58,606, the capitation-tax Rs. 8,415 and the gross revenue Es. 67,167. 

HMAW-ZA. — A village about five and a half miles E. 8. E. of the 
town of Prome on the edge of a large tract of rice country. There is here a 
station of the Irrawaddy Valley (State) Railway. 

HNAI-GYO. — A revenue circle in the north-western portion of the 
Donabjmo township of the Thoon-khwa district, forming a level tract atone time 
covered with tree and grass forest but now coming under cultivation owing to 
the construction of protecting embankments. The inhabitants are principally 
traders, gardeners and rice cultivators. It now includes the once independent 
circle of Kan -goo. In 1876 it had 5,828 inhabitants, a land revenue of 
Rs. 11,267 and a gross revenue of Rs. 19,382 of which Rs. 5,765 were derived 
from the capitation-tax. 

HNA-MOTJNG-GTA. — A small revenue circle in the Mye-boon township, 
Kyouk-hpyoo district, half a square mile in extent and with a population of 
159 souls in 1876. It is a tract of country given as a grant under the waste 
land rules and being by the effect of these rules independent of any Thoogyee, 
the grantee dealing directly with the State, it is shewn in the returns as a 
circle, 

HNGET-KHOUNG. — A conspicuous pagoda-crowned rock at the mouth 
of Kyouk-hpyoo harbour, called Pagoda rock in the charts, 

HNGET-KYOON. — A creek in the Nga-poo-taw township, Bassein dis- 
trict. See Thoung-gale. 

HNGET-PYAW. — A tidal creek iu the Shwe-louug township, Thoon-khwa 
district, about 14 miles in length connecting the Re-zoo-daing and the Tha- 
rwot creeks. It is navigable throughout by river steamers. 

HNGET-THAIK. — A small island off Tavoy Point, at the mouth of the 
Ta voy river, called Cap Island in the charts. 



196 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


HNIT-KAING. — A revenue circle in the Wa-kha-roo township, Amherst 
district^ stretching east and west 12 miles along the whole length of the 
Wa-kha-roo river from its source in the Toung-gnyo range to its junction 
with the Salween, with an area of 25,715 acres. It has the Pa-gna circle and 
the sea on the south. As seen from an eminence the whole surface of the 
circle appears to consist of an almost unbroken extent of uplands covered with 
tree forest, with several lofty hills in the south-west portion. The only rice 
laud is in a narrow plain along the Wa-kha-roo river. The soil of the upland 
is generally poor and in the dry weather waterless, there being no wells or 
other artificial means of obtaining water, but as the soil rests on a laterite for- 
mation it is to some extent used for garden cultivation. The hills near the 
sea shore contain ores which are extracted in very minute quantities by some 
of the residents in the vicinity. The majority of the inhabitants of the village 
of Wa-kha-roo cultivate land on the other side of the Wa-kha-roo river in the 
Zaya township. The inhabitants of the other villages are mostly Burmanised 
Talaing who settled here when there was a sugar manufactory at Amherst. 
In 1868 the inhabitants numbered 1,523, the land revenue was Es. 937, the 
capitation -tax Es. 1,610 and the gross revenue Es. 2,748. In 1876 the 
numbers and amounts were 2,357, Es, 4,022, Es. 2,595, and Es. 6,617 
respectively. 

HOON. — A river in Ramree {Ranhyai) which falls into the sea on the 
eastern shore of that island near the southern extremity. 

HOON-MYOUK-BHET. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo district, 
in the southern portion of llamree island, about 24 square miles in extent, in 
which rice, sugar-cane and indigo are cultivated. The population in 1876 
numbered 2,668 souls, the land revenue was Rs, 2,770, the capitation-tax 
Es. 2,920 and the gross revenue Es. 5,885. 

HOON-TOUNG-BHET. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo district 
in the south of Eamree island and on its western coast, with an area of some 
29 square miles, in which sugar-cane is largely cultivated. It had, in 1876, an 
Arakanese population of 1,802 souls. In that year the land revenue was 
Rs, 2,327, the capitation-tax Rs. 1,950 and the gross revenue Es. 4,413. 

HOUNG-THA-EAW. — A river in the Amherst district which rises in 
Siamese territory east of the province and flows through the mountains which 
mark the boundary between the two countries. Crossing the frontier in 
15° 4P 19^' N. and 98° 35' E., where the demarcating line traverses a broad 
glen, it rushes with great velocity amongst a mass of mountains densely clothed 
with thick and heavy tree forest, here passing between high and scarped banks, 
there washing the feet of the spurs sent down by the dark walls which shut 
in its valley on the east and on the west, now silent aud still, now white and 
foaming as it dashes over rocky steeps from one table-land to another. Gra- 
dually the hills recede, feathery bamboos waving over the reflecting waters are 
seen mixed with the dense forest ; these gives place to elephant grass and 
at last near Gyaing, where it joins the Hlaing-bhwai from the north, patches 
of cultivation appear on the gradually sinking banks. It is navigable by boats 
for some distance beyond Meetan, 80 miles from Maulmain. 

HOUNG-THA-EAW. — A township in the extreme south-eastern comer of 
the Amherst district, bounded on the east by Thoung-yeng and on the west by 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


197 


the Houng-tha-raw, Highly mountainous and densely wooded it produces 
much valuable timber but is sparsely inhabited, chiefly by Kareng, and con- 
tains but little cultivation and that principally in hill-gardens or toiingya. It 
is divided into five revenue circles and in 1876 had a population of 11,625 
souls and produced only Rs, 6,902 as land revenue and Rs. 9,576 as capita- 
tion-tax. One of the most important trade routes traverses the township. 
Siamese cattle-dealers annually bring in large numbers of beasts via Mya-wad- 
dee — an ancient town of some celebrity now a small village on the Thoung- 
yeng — to Kaw-ka-riet, the head -quarters of the township, where there is a 
cattle market, and thence to Gyaing and on through the Gyaing Than-lweng 
township towards Tha-htoon, Shwe-gyeng and Pegu. 

HPA-AN. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, Amherst 
district, on the left bank of the Salween but lying south of the Hpa-an stream 
and inhabited mainrly by Toungthoo. In 1876 it had a population of 2,746 
souls, a land revenue of Es. 2,245 and a gross revenue of Rs. 5,056, of which 
Rs. 2,810 were from the capitation-tax, 

HPA-AN. — A village in the Amherst district on the left bank of the 
Salween at the mouth of the Hpa-an stream, which separates the Gyaing 
Than-lweng from the Than-lweng Hlaing-bhwai township, where is stationed 
a detachment of regular police. A bazaar has lately been built. The village 
is divided into two portions ; in the north on the bank of the Hpa-an the 
inhabitants are principally Burmans and numbered 573 souls in 1876; to the 
south are Toungthoo gardeners who in the same year numbered 718. This 
village is on the main trade route with Siam and immediately below is a 
public ferry by which large numbers of Shan and home-bred cattle are 
annually taken to Tha-htoon and thence to Shwe-gyeng and Pegu and the 
Rangoon district generally. 

HPA-AN. — A small tidal stream in the Amherst district which falls into 
the Salween at the village of the same name about 34 miles above Maulmain. 
It rises in the plain between the Salween and the Hlaing-bhwai near the source 
of the Kha-zaing, a tributary of the latter, the two intercommunicating during 
the rains. It is navigable only by canoes or small boats. 

HPA-BYOUK. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran township, 
Amherst district, lying in the centre of the country between the Houng-tha-raw 
and the Attaran rivers on the east and west respectively, and the hilly country 
and the Gyaing on the north and south. It was inhabited in 1876 by 360 
persons mostly Talaing, but contains hardly any cultivated spots. The land 
revenue that year was Rs. 138 and the capitation -tax Es. 330. 

HPA-GAT. — A village in the Amherst district, the head-quarters of the 
township of the same name, on the right bank of the Salween, 30 miles 
from Maulmain, Immediately to "the north of the village is an outcrop of 
limestone rocks containing a large cave highly ornamented with images of 
all sizes of Gaudama Booddha and of Rahan. Most of these have been much 
damaged by the natives of India and others who resort to the cave to 
collect the bats’ dung for manure. 

HPA-GAT. — A township in the Amherst district occupying the country 
between the Salween on the east and the Doon-tha-mee and Hheng-laing on the 
west. It is divided into three revenue circles, Myaiug-gyee, Myaing-gale and 



198 


BKITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


Bheng-laing, the last in the south and the most cultivated. In the north the 
country is hilly and densely wooded and in the south it is undulating with low 
marshy tracts here and there. In the southern circle tobacco is extensively 
grown on the sand banks left dry after the waters of the Bheng-laing and Sal- 
ween fall. The head- quarters are at H pa-gat^ a small village on the Salween 
30 miles from Maulmain, In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 9,192 souls, the 
land revenue was Es. 5,376 and the capitation -tax Es. 8,114. This township 
together with Tha-htoon and Martaban were transferred from Martaban (now 
Shwe-gyeng) to Amherst in 1864-65. 

HPA-GOO. — A large village in the Hpa-goo west circle, Eangoon district, 
on the left bank of the Pegu river in 16° 54' N. and 96° 26' E., inhabited by 
Talaing and Burmans who are mainly engaged in rice cultivation. In 1876 
the inhabitants numbered 1,956 souls. 

HPA-GOO ANOUK. — A revenue circle in the Than-Iyeng township, 
Eangoon district, extending eastwards from the left bank of the Pegu river 
north of and adjoining the Poo-gan-doung circle. In 1876 the population 
was 4,830, the land revenue Es. 26,050, the capitation-tax Es. 5,648 and the 
gross revenue Es. 31,698. 

HPA-GOO ASHE. — A revenue circle in the Than-lyeng township, 
Eangoon district, at the mouth of the Tsit-toung river, lying on the north of 
the A-dwon creek. In 1876 the population was 3,020, the land revenue 
Es. 20,464, the capitation-tax Es. 3,743, and the gross revenue Es. 30,907. 
Until 1874 Hpa-goo Ashe and Hpa-goo Anouk formed one circle, 

HPAI-KHA-TA. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, 
Amherst district, on the left bank of the Salween river, extending for some 
distance northward from the Hpa-won stream. It has a large population of 
Talaing and is well cultivated. In 1876 the population was 2,258, the land 
revenue Es. 3,110 and the capitation-tax Es. 2,372. 

HPAI-KHA-TA.— A small stream in the Amherst district which falls 
into the Salween river and helps to carry off from the Doon-reng plain the 
natural rainfall and the spill of the Salween which comes in at^and above 
Hpa-an. 


HPAI-KHA-TA. — A small village, of 551 inhabitants in 1876, in the 
circle of the same name in the Amherst district, lying on both banks of the 
Hpai-kha-ta at its mouth in the Salween. 

HPA-LAT. — A village in the Martaban township, Amherst district, at 
the foot of the Koo-la-ma peak of the Martaban hills, a little north of 
Martaban., In 1876 it had 1,086 inhabitants. 

r. 1876 on the east bank 
^the Salween north of Htoon-aing, in the Htoon-aing circle of the Gyaing 
Than-lweng township, Amherst district. 


. ®18 inhabitants in 1876 on Bheeloo island, 

Amherst district. In 1868 it had 616 inhabitants. 

circle in the Taroop-hmaw township, 
the Irrawaddy, south of Taroop-hmaw 
Myoma, containing but little cultivation. In the centre of the circle is a 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


199 


narrow stretch of water called the Hpan-kha-beng lake, valuable as a fishery. 
In 1876 the population numbered 7,049, the land revenue was Rs. 2,855, the 
capitation-tax Rs. 6,588 and the gross revenue Rs. 18,473. 

HPA-NOON. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran township, Amherst 
district, on the lower slopes of the hills which cover the face of the southern 
part of the district, and lying between the Houng-tha-raw on the east and the 
Attaran on the west, immediately above the junction of the Zamee and the 
Weng-raw which form the latter river. It is inhabited by Kareng and con- 
tains but little cultivation. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 865, the capi- 
tation-tax Rs. 1,442 and the population 1,510. 

HPA-OUK. — A revenue circle in the Zaya township, Amherst district, 
between the Toung-gnyo hills and the Salween below the town of Maulmain, 
lying between the Kaw-kha-nee and Kyouk-tan circles. It is divided into 
five distinct longitudinal belts of country : (a) the slopes of the range, 
un adapted for cultivation ; (&) the upland tract at the foot of the range, suit- 
able for gardens ; (c) undulating ground, fitted for gardens and in some places 
for rice but with poor soil ; (d) the alluvial plain ; (e) swampy land, where the 
dhanee palm is grown. The population^ composed mainly of Talaing, in 1868 
numbered 2,144, and in 1876, 2,847 souls. The land revenue in these years was 
Rs. 7,360 and Rs. 8,018 and the capitation- tax Rs. 2,247 and Rs. 2,585 
respectively. 

HPA-OUK, — A village of 1,583 inhabitants in the circle of the same 
name, Zaya township, Amherst district. 

HPARO-TSIEN. — A revenue circle in the Than-lweng Hlaing-bhwai 
township, Amherst district, on the left bank of the Thoung-yeng, stretch- 
ing from its mouth south-eastwards. It is inhabited by a few Kareng, 
who in 1876 numbered 340 souls, and may be said to be without any 
cultivation. The land revenue in 1876 was Rs. 92 and the capitation- tax 
Rs. 126. 

HPA-THIEN. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran township, 
Amherst district, on the Zamee a little above the junction of that river with 
the Weng-raw. It is a hilly and forest-covered tract, thinly cultivated and 
inhabited by Kareng. In 1876 the population numbered 1,319 souls, the 
land revenue was Rs. 860 and the capitation- tax Rs. 1,497* 

HPA-THIEN. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Amherst 
district, with 743 inhabitants in 1876. 

HPE-TEAI . — See Bhe-traL 

HPOUNG-GYBE. — A thinly inhabited revenue circle in the northern 
portion of the Hpoung-leng township of the Rangoon district, on the upper 
part of the course of the Poo-zwon-doung river. The country consists of 
numerous low laterite hills covered with bamboo and tree forest with a few 
patches of rice cultivation on the banks of the streams. The principal 
timber trees are Ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus alatus)^ Bhan-bhwai {Careya 
arhorea), Htouk-sba (Vitex leucoxylon), Nabai {Odina Wodier) and Gyo 
(Schleichera trijuga.) In 1876 the population numbered 3,881 souls, the 
land revenue was Rs. 8,279, the capitation- tax Rs. 6,197 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 14,476, 



200 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


HPOUNG-LENG. — The most northern township of theEangoon district, 
now including A-kha-reug and Daw-boon and extending from the bank ot the 
Pegu river northward along the valley of the Poo-zwon-doung into the hills 
which form the lower slopes of the Pegu Eomas. It has an area of about 
880 square miles and is divided into seven revenue circles. Towards the 
south the country is well cultivated with rice which is brought down the 
Poo-zwon-doung and Pegu rivers to Eangoon. In the north the hills are 
covered with dense forest amongst which teak, Pyeng-gado, Pyeng-ma, Eng, 
and other valuable timber are found. The most important and largest villages 
are in the rice plains to the south where the country is intersected by numer- 
ous creeks which fall into the Poo-zwon-doung and Pegu rivers and afford 
the inhabitants a ready means of conveying their crops to Eangoon. The 
township is also traversed by the road to Pegu, constructed and kept in repair 
by the Public Works Department. The Poo-zwon-doung is navigable by large 
boats as far as Ehoora-gyee and the Pegu river throughout its length in 
this township. In 1876 the population was 34,477, the land revenue 
Es. 169,546, the capitation-tax Es. 41,842 and the gross revenue Es. 212,510. 
The head-quarters are at H lay -goo on the Poo-zwon-doung river and the 
Eangoon and Pegu road 28 miles from Eangoon, 

HPYOO. — A river in the Toung-ngoo district which rises in the eastern 
slopes of the Pegu Eomas and after a south-easterly course of about seventy 
miles falls into the Tsit-toung 28 miles south of Toung-ngoo. The first 56 
miles are through a narrow valley, almost a ravine, intersected by subsidiary 
spurs and with numerous mountain torrents bringing down the drainage. The 
last five or six miles before it enters the plains are blocked by rapids and 
in some places the water rushes through narrow channels dug out between 
high walls of rock that once opposed themselves to the torrent. The 
northern slopes of the hills amongst which the river winds are covered 
with dry open forest of Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolahriformis), Myouk-khyaw 
(Homalium tomentosuyn) and Teak {Tectona grandis), whilst the southern 
are seen covered with large heavy climbing bamboos, Theng-gan {Hopea 
odorata)^ Ka-gnyeng {Dipterocajpus alatus) and other species (as D. turbina- 
tus, dc.)y Oak (Quercus Brandinana) and other green forest trees. 
During tlie rains boats can ascend for some 15 miles as far as Meng-lan 
village where the plain country ceases and the hills commence, and at this 
season a considerable quantity of, timber and of raw silk (the worm is 
extensively bred by the inhabitants) are brought down to the Tsit-toung for 
conveyance to the local markets. According to Mason it derives its name 
from a colony of Pyoo having settled on its banks. See Prome, 

HPYODK-TSHIEP. — The southern portion of the large town of Shwe- 
doung in the Prome district seven miles below Prome on the left bank of 
the Irrawaddy at the mouth of the little Koo-la stream, forming a separate 
revenue circle. In 1876 the population numbered 8,356, 

HPYOUK-TSHIEP-GOON. — A tiny village in the Meng-dai circle, 
Thayet township, Thayet district, about six miles south-west from Thayet- 
myo ; in the neighbourhood are two salt wells which were worked in the 
Bormese time and yielded a small quantity of brine. 

HTAN-BENG-GYO. — A revenue circle in the Ee-gyee township, Bas- 
Bein district, on the left bank of the Bassein river which forms its northern 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


201 


boundary. It has an area of about eleven square miles and is fairly well 
populated and cultivated, the villages being more numerous than further south 
in the township. The inhabitants are engaged in agriculture and in fishing. 
In the west of the circle is the Myit-kyo lake, which was once a portion of 
the Bassein river and has been formed by the current cutting a channel through 
the narrow neck of a bend. There are good fair-weather cart roads throughout 
the circle. In 1876 the population numbered 1,315 souls, the laud revenue 
was Ks. 3,505, the capitation-tax Bs. 4,220 and the gross revenue Bs. 8,636. 

HTAN-BOUK. — A revenuecirclein the Ma-ha-tha-man township of the 
Prome district just to the east of Prome and on the left bank of the Na-weng 
river, containing five village tracts. In 1876 the population numbered 1,784, 
the land revenue wasBs. 2,092, the capitation -tax Bs. 1,780 and the gross 
revenue Bs. 3,997. 

HTAN-DAW-GYEE. — A revenue circle in the Pegu township of the 
Ban goon district, lying in the hilly country at the source of the Pegu river 
along which it extends south-south-east, and but very little cultivated. The 
principal trees are Teak {Tectona grandis), Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolabriformis), 
Pyeug-rna (Lagerstrcemia regince), Ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus alatu$)y the 
two last in abundance, and bamboos. Wild elephants, deer, tiger and hog 
are met with. It contains no large villages. In 1876 the population was 
3,844, the land revenue Bs. 3,530 and the capitation-tax Bs. 4,248. 

HTAN-GOUK. — A revenue circle iu the Kama township, Thayet dis- 
trict, lying between the Made stream on the north and the boundary of 
the district on the south. It has an ai'ea of 25,600 acres of which 21,879 
are unculturable waste and about 1,750 only cultivated. In 1872 the revenue 
was Bs. 3,240, about two- thirds of which were derived from the capitation- tax, 
and the population was found by the census to number 1,827 souls. This 
circle now contains Kyouk-mai and Pyen-doung, the first of which was added 
in 1862 when its Thoogyee resigned, and the second in 1864 when its Thoo- 
gyee was dismissed for harbouring dacoits. In 1876 the population numbered 
1,387 souls, the land revenue was Bs. 1,497, the capitation- tax Bs. 1,708 
and the gross revenue Bs. 3,301, 

HTAN-LE-BENG. — A revenue circle in theZa-lwon township, Henzada 
district, with a large area under rice cultivation. In 1876 the popula- 
tion numbered 2,791 souls, the land revenue was Bs. 4,902, the capitation- tax 
Us. 2,377 and the gross revenue Rs. 7,589. 

HTAN-LE-BENG. — A revenue circle in the Thee-kweng township, 
Bassein district, enclosed between the Pan -ma- wad -dee and the ilyouug-mya 
rivers on the east, west and south and joining the Thee-kweng circle of the 
same township on the north- It has an estimated area of 109 square miles. 
The country generally is low and much intersected by creeks none of which 
are of much importance : the Kyoon-toon, a tributary of the Myoung-mya 
which it joins near Kwe-le, is perhaps the most worthy of notice but 
it is navigable by boats 40 feet in length for ten miles only from its mouth. 
The largest village is Kan-gyee in 16^ 44' N. and 95“ 5' E. in the centre of a 
patch of rice cultivation, inhabited mainly by Burmese. In 1876 the popula- 
tion was 6,662, the land revenue Rs. 22,602, the capitation- tux Bs. 6,900 and 
the gross revenue Rs. 31,970, 


26 



202 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


HTAN-MA-NAING. — A tidal creek in the Langoon district which 
has its source in the marshy ground in the centre of the Angyee township 
and falls into the Bassein or Tha-khwot-beng creek. It is fed by the tide and 
at al] seasons during the flood boats of 400 baskets burden can ascend as 
far as the village of Htan-ma-naing, situated in a rice-producing tract : at the 
ebb it is almost dry, 

HTAN-MA-NAING. — A village la the Eangoon district in 16° 32' N. 
and 96° 12' E. about four miles from the mouth of the Htan-ma-naing creek, 
which at the village is still a considerable stream. In 1859 it was the resi- 
dence of the Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Angyee township and con- 
tained about 1,250 inhabitants, almost all Taking, who in 1877 had decreased 
to 1,162. They are nearly all engaged in the manufacture of salt or in trade 
although the village is surrounded by fertile land well adapted for the cultiv- 
ation of rice. This village is noted for its unhealthiness for all who are not 
natives of the place. 

HTAN-MA-NAING. — A revenue circle in the Angyee township of the 
Eangoon district, bounded on the north by the A-hpa-roon stream which 
separates it from the Ko-doung circle ; on the south by the Tha-khwot-peng ; 
and on the south-east by the To. On the west it is separated from La-wa-dee, 
by the Taw-kha-ran and Taw-dwon streams, and from Kaw-hmoo by the Taw- 
koo stream. Its greatest length from north to south is about 14 miles, its 
greatest breadth about eight miles and the area 92 miles. In 1859 it 
had 4,286 inhabitants, and in 1876, 2,678. In the former year but little 
cultivation was carried on, the energies of the people being entirely thrown 
into the manufacture of salt, the pans occupying 1,580 acres of ground. Some 
parts of the circle are very fertile and in 1876 the land revenue had risen to 
Es. 13,515, whilst the amount realized on account of the capitation- tax was 
Rs. 3,478 and the gross revenue Es, 23,703. 

HTAN-PA-DAING. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng town- 
ship, Amherst district, which in 1876 had 4,178 inhabitants. In that year the 
land revenue was Rs. 4,250 and the capitation-tax Es. 4,157. It now 
includes the lendoo circle. 

HTAN-TA-BENG. — A long straggling and poor village built in three 
rows of houses, in the circle of the same name in the Rangoon district on the 
right bank of the Hlaing river a few miles south of the Kook-ko, or southern 
mouth of the Bhaw-lay stream. Annually under water there are no roads, 
but here and there are patches of bricked footpaths and elsewhere logs of 
trees to keep the pedestrian’s feet from getting wet. At high rises of the 
Hlaing this is not sufficient and the logs themselves are sometimes, as in 1877^ 
one or two feet under water. At the lower end of the village there is a 
monastery, a zayat or public rest-house and a good well. In the centre 
of the village there is an old tank, the water green and muddy, and behind 
the village a larger one, dug a few years ago. Stretching away westward are 
rice fields but the soil is poor and they are liable to be submerged on any 
high rise of the river. The inhabitants, who are rice cultivators, fishermen 
and raftsmen, numbered 1,012 in 1877. In the first Burmese war a body 
of some 3,000 Burmese being strongly stockaded near this village a force 
under Colonel Godwin was sent to disperse it. The British were received 
by a bnsk fire from 36 pieces of artillery of various calibres but the stockade 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


203 


was carried by storm with little difficulty or loss whilst the Burmese suffered 
severely, 

HTAN-TA~BENG. — A revenue circle in the Hmaw-bhee township of the 
Rangoon district south of the junction of the Bhaw-lay creek and the Hlaing 
river, A part of the circle is under rice cultivation and the rest of the 
country is covered with tree and grass forest subject to inundation during the 
rains. The inhabitants of some of the villages are largely engaged in fishing. 
In 1876 the land revenue was Rs, 11,707, the capitation-tax Rs, 4,180 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 17,027. The only villages of any importance are Htan-ta- 
beng and Htien-nhit-peng. In 1876 there were 5,442 acres under rice and 
714 acres fallow. The agricultural stock consisted of 1,111 buffaloes, 61 cows 
bulls and bullocks, 230 pigs, 131 carts, 338 ploughs and 54 boats. The 
population in 1877 was — 


Burmans 



1,760 

Talaing 

, , 

, , 

657 

Kareng 



1,491 

Chinese 



4 

Natives of India 

• ' 

Total 

1 

3,913 


HTAN-THOON-BENG. — A large village in the Henzada district, nine 
or ten miles inland, west of Kanoung, in an extensive rice tract. 

HTAN-THOON-BENG. — A revenue circle in the Myanoung township of 
the Henzada district south of the town of Hyanoung, very largely cultivated 
with rice. In 1876 it had 6,080 inhabitants, the land revenue was Rs. 12,735, 
the capitation- tax Rs. 5,565 and the gross revenue Rs. 18,968. 

HTAN-THOON-KHWA. — A revenue circle in the Prome district well 
cultivated with rice, lying to the westward of Poungday and about a mile south 
of the high road to the north. Its largest village, Htan-thoon-khwa, is in the 
north. It now includes three village tracts. In 1876 it had 849 inhabitants, 
the land revenue was Rs. 884 and the capitation-tax Rs. 813. 

HTAN-THOON-KHWA. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 28' N. 
and 95° 32' 10'^ E. about two and a half miles west of Poungday and a mile 
south of the military road from Rangoon to the northern frontier. It is 
inhabited principally by rice growers. 

HTAN-ZENG-HLA. — A revenue circle in theRe-gyee township, Bassein 
district, occupying a long narrow strip of country on the left bank of the 
Htan-zeng-hla from the Kyaik-pee to the Tshat-poo on the north. Its area is 
about 27 square miles. The country is, generally, flat and open, but on the 
north there is a ridge of elevated land. This circle is fairly well cultivated 
but the inhabitants are largely employed in fishing. In 1876 it had 2,856 
inhabitants, the land revenue was Rs. 5,528, the capitation -tax Rs. 2,950 and 
the gross revenue Rs. 14,342, 

HTAW-KA-NO. — A village in tbe Shwe-loung township, Thoon-khwa 
district, about 13 miles W. S. W. from Shwe-loung, as the crow flies. It has 
a population of about 600 souls. 

HTEE-LOON. — A revenue circle in tbe Tban-lweng Hlaing-bhwai town- 
ship, Amherst district, with a small population of Toungthoo engaged in 


204 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


agriculture. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 1,167, the land revenue was 
Ks. 1,628 and the capitation-tax Rs. 1,355. 

HTEE-LOON. — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Amherst district on the road between, and about equidistant from, Hpa-an 
and Hlaing-bhwai inhabited by Toung-thoo. The low forest-covered hills 
south of this village were up to 1870 the resort of gangs of robbers who 
harried the inhabitants far and wide. 


HTEE-TSHWAI. — A revenue circle in the Ra-thai-doung township, 
Akyab district. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 4,801, the capitation -tax 
Es. 3,587, the gross revenue Rs. 8,698 and the number of inhabitants 3,294. 

HTIEN-DAW. — A large village of some 2,000 inhabitants in the Henzada 
district in 17^ 5V 40' N. and 95° 34^ E. on a backwater of the Irrawaddy and 
about two miles east of the main channel. The inhabitants are principally 
traders and cultivators of miscellaneous products. It contains a Police station. 

HTIEN-DAW.— A revenue circle in the Henzada district on the east 
bank of the Irrawaddy and south of Mo-gnyo ; the centre is under rice cultiv- 
ation. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 5,642, the capitation-tax Es. 6,715, 
the gross revenue Es. 14,258 and the population 8,191. 

HTIEN-HNIT-PENG. — A village in the Htan-ta-beng circle of the 
Hmaw-bhee township, Rangoon district, which in 1876 had 681 inhabitants. 


HTIEN-POUK-GYO-GOON, — A village in the Prome district in 31° 10' 
N. and 95° 28' 40^ E. in the Engma township, to the east of the Myit-ma-kha 
river and inhabited mainly by agriculturists. 

HTOO. A small stream in the Henzada district which has its source in 
the Pegu mountains and after a south-westerly course of about 35 miles falls 
into the Myit-ma-kha near Bhoora-ngoo, having received numerous additions 
in its course from mountain torrents and streams of the same character as its 
own. In the rains small boats can ascend for a considerable distance. The 
higher part of its course is rocky and the banks are steep. It traverses a 
valuable teak tract in which other important forest trees are found, as Pyeng- 
gado {Xyha dolabriformis) , Eng {Dipterocarpus tiiherculatus) and Htouk -kyan 
^Terrmnaha macrocarpa) which are floated down during the rains. 

Henzada district, a little north of the 18th 
parallelof latitude and, in a direct line, about ten miles west of the Irrawaddy. 
It IS bounded on the north and west by low hills and trickling down from 
these numerous small springs keep up the supply of water which is augmented 
during th^e rams by the Ma-mya stream with the drainage from .the Arakan 
Juils. Ihe banks are low and marshy and shew that at one time this lake 
WM much larger than it is now. The average depth in the dry weather is 
not more than three or four feet and at this season the water is clear. In the 
centre of the lake is a small island. 

of Salween river 

oppOTite the mouth of the Bheng-laing with 1,174 inhabitants in 1876. 

snrroimdrnr£® of Talmng emigrants from Pegu settled here and in the 
surrounding country which is now well cultivated. 

circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, 

, on the left bank of the Salween river opposite the mputh of 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


205 


the Bheng-laing ; it is well cultivated and inhabited mainly by Taking of 
whom some 6,000 settled hereabouts in 1827 under the “ Syriam Eaja/^ who 
had escaped from Pegu after attempting to drive out the Bui’mese and re-esta- 
blish the Peguan kingdom. In 1876 it had 3,806 inhabitants, the land revenue 
was Ks. 4,919 and the capitation-tax Ks. 3,940. It now includes the Kaw- 
gaik and the Kaw-hlaik circles. 

HTOON-BHO. — A large village in the Padoung township, Prome district, 
also called Toung-ngoo, in 18° 30^ 15'^ N. and 95° 10^ 15'^ E. on the right bank 
of the Irrawaddy at the mouth of the Kha-wa stream a mile and a half above 
the southern boundary of the district. It has acquired the name of Htoon-bho 
from the fact that limestone is brought hither from the Kyouk-htoon hill some 
six miles off and burned on the banks of the river. The inhabitants are cul- 
tivators, lime burners and petty merchants who carry on trade with the inland 
villages. 

HTOON-BHO. — A revenue circle in the south of the Padoung township 
of the Prome district lying on the bank of the Irrawaddy between the Kha-wa 
stream on the east and the Henzada district on the west. A little rice 
cultivation is carried on near the river. Htoon-bho at the mouth of the 
Kha-wa is the largest village. In 1876 the population numbered 4,185, the 
land revenue was Rs. 3,611, the capitation-tax Rs. 4,705 and the gross revenue 
Rs. 8,992. It now includes the Tha-bye-hla and the Kweng-hla circles, 

HTOON-BHO. — A small hamlet in the centre of the Kya-gan circle, 
Myoung-raya township, Bassein district ; the few inhabitants are employed 
in burning the lime quarried in the neighbourhood. 

HTOON-MAN. — A revenue circle in the Zaya township, Amherst district, 
which extends westwards from the Toung-gnyo range towards the Salween, 
from which it is cut off by a portion of the Kwon-hla circle. It has the 
Wa-kha-roo river and the Kwon-hla circle on the south and the Ka-law-thaw 
circle on the north, and contains a total area of about 14,000 acres most of 
which is fertile plain land. It was originally called the Kwon-ka-moo circle 
(pronounced Ktvan-ka-moo). Htoon-man was separated from Kwon-ka-moo as 
a police measure but the Thoogyee having been relieved of police duties the 
two circles were again united as Htoon-man where the Kwon-ka-moo Thoogyee 
died. In 1868 the population, all Taking, numbered 754 souls, the land 
revenue was Rs. 5,107 and the capitation- tax Rs. 777. In 1876 these were 
1,043, Rs. 8,315 and Rs. 1,077 respectively. 

HTOON-TA-LOOT. — A revenue circle, now including A-byeng, in the 
south-east of that portion of the Za-lwon township lying on the right bank 
of the Irrawaddy. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 7,946, the capitation-tax 
Rs. 3,742, the gross revenue Rs. 15,161 and the population 4,458. 

HTOUK-MA. — A revenue circle in the Kama township, Thayet district, on 
the bank of the Irrawaddy, shut in on the north and west by the Kyouk-poon 
hill and on the south by the Toung-mouk-theng-gan spur, the boundary of 
the district. In 1872 it furnished as revenue Rs. 1,880 from a population of 
1,225 souls. Its largest village is Tsit-ta-ran on the bank of the Irrawaddy 
containing some 120 houses. It now includes the Tsit-ta-ran circle which was 
united with it in 1868, Subsequently Mya-wad-dee, Myoma and Toung-tsa- 
gaing were joined to it. In 1876 the population numbered 3,812 souls, the 



206 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


land revenue was Rs. 2,245, the capitation -tax Rs. 4,057 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 6,889. 

lEM-MAI. — A revenue circle in the Bassein district, adjoining the 
Thoon-lvhwa district. In 1876, the population wasEs. 4,222, the land revenue 
Rs, 8,276, the capitation-tax Rs. 5,290 and the gross revenue Rs. 13,982. 

lEM-MAL — A large village in the extreme north of the circle of the 
same name and of the Bassein district, at the junction of the Meng-ma-hnaing 
and the lem-mai Re-gyaw. In 1877 it had a population of 1,230 souls. 

lEM-MAI RE-GYAW. — A creek, partly in the Bassein and partly in the 
Thoon-khwa district, joining the Meng-ma-hnaing and the Keng-hhet streams. 
Boats of 50 or 60 feet in length can pass through with the flood tide in the 
dry weather and in the rains at all times. 

lEN-DA-POO-EA. — A revenue circle on the western borders of the 
Angyee township of the Rangoon district. It is separated from the La-wa-dee 
circle on the north by the Kyoon-ka-lway creek, on the west it is bounded by the 
To, on the north by the Xha-doon creek which divides it from the Twan-te 
circle and on the east by an imaginary line drawn through the Twan-te Taw- 
gyee : the area comprised within these limits is 73 square miles. The greater 
portion consists of high undulating ground. In 1876 the population numbered 
5,741 souls, the land revenue was Rs. 14,782, the capitation-tax Es. 6,683 and 
the gross revenue Es. 21,775. 

IRRAWADDY. — The principal river in the province ; traversing the 
Pegu division from north to south. Its sources have never been explored. 
d’Anville, in the middle of the eighteenth century, considered it as identical 
with the Tsanpoo which flows through Thibet from west to east, and in 
Dalrymple’s map which accompanies Symes’ Embassy to Ava’^ the Tsanpoo 
is shewn as one of its sources, but the junction of the two is indicated by a 
dotted line to mark that the connection between them is uncertain. In 
1825 Klaproth adopted another idea, viz,, that the Irrawaddy was a continu- 
ation of the Pinlaing-kiang which, after flowing through Western Yunan^ 
entered the valley of the Irrawaddy at Ba-mhaw. Even as late as 1854 
Dr. McClelland, in a note on the discharge of water by this river, wrote that 
makingall allowance for the extravagance of Burmese historians there is enough 
in the authenticated history of the country to shew that great armies have 
‘^passed and repassed to and from China. Besides which the Chinese 
"characters of the boats and houses of Burma, together with some of the 
" ceremonies of the people, suggest a more immediate and direct intercourse 
" with China on the part of the Burmese than any other nation on the 
"western side of the Himalayas, so much so that I have often heard it 
"surmised by our officers at Prome, as one way of accounting for the 
^ resemblances, that the Irrawaddy probably flows from China, not that 
navigable to that extent, but that its valleys may 
afford comparatively easy passes between the two countries.*' After 
noticing the discoveries of Lieutenant Wilcox and that geographer’s opinion 
that source of the Irrawaddy is in the Khamtee country, three hundred 
and s^ty miles above Ava, he adds "there can scarcely be a doubt that it 
« a more extended course, more especially as it has been 

rac wo hundred miles above Ava without observing any perceptible 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


207 


difference or diminution of size.” In 1827, Lieutenants Wilcox and 
Burlton made a determined attempt to reach the sources of the Irrawaddy 
and they satisfactorily proved that the Tsanpoo was the upper portion of the 
Dihong* and was not connected with the Irrawaddy at all. The result of the 
explorations of these oflScers and of others has been to shew, as conclusively as 
can be shewn until the river is traced to its source, that it rises in the southern 
slopes of the Patkoi mountains, one branch in 28° N. Lat. and 97° 30' E. 
Long, and another in the same mountains a few days^ journey further eastward, 
the two, that to the west called by the Burmese Myit-gyee or Large river” and 
that to the east Myit-nge or Small river”, uniting to form the Irrawaddy in 
about 26° N. Lat.* Drs. Grijdith and Bayfield and Captain Hannay shewed 
that Klaproth^s idea was erroneous, for they personally visited Ba-mhaw and 
found that the Ta-peng, the stream which enters the Irrawaddy at that town, 
was navigable only for small boats and was but an insignificant tributary of 
the great river which flows here, 250 miles above Ava, in a broad stream inter- 
sected by islands (one channel alone between Ba-mhaw and the island lying 
opposite to it being 800 yards across) and navigable for steamers of light 
draught. If anything further was necessary it was furnished by the party 
under Major Sladen which visited Yunan in 1868 and followed the Ta-peng 
through a great portion of its course, 

I)r. Griffith found that the Irrawaddy where it receives the waters of the 
Mogoung stream above the first defile was about 600 yards broad. If 
Lieutenant Wilcox is right this point is 200 miles from the source and the 
area of country drained by the river here about five and a half square degrees ; 
at Ava 13 J square degrees; at Prome 31 square degrees; and at the head of 
the delta 32 ^ square degrees. 

The principal affluents are the Mogoung from the westward, which throws 
its waters into the main stream in 24° 50^, the Shwe-lee which joins it from 
the east in 23° 40', and the Kyeng-dweng which unites with it from the west in 
21° 30'. 

The general course of the river is north and south. Shortly after leaving 
the mouth of the Mogoung where, as has already been stated, it is 
600 yards broad, it enters the first or upper defile. Here the greatest 
breadth of the river does not exceed 250 yards and in all the bad places is 
" contracted to within 100 and even 50. In the places above referred to the 
river rushes by with great velocity while the return waters, caused on 
either side by the surrounding rocks, occasion violent eddies and whirlpools 
as to render a " boat unmanageable and if upset the best swimmer 
could not live in these places.” When the river is at its lowest no bottom is 
found in many places even at 40 fathoms. 

At Ba-mhaw, a short distance below the defile, it receives the winters of the 
Ta-peng from the east and then, after a long bend to the westward, turns south 
again and enters the second defile. This though not so grand as the first is 
exceedingly picturesque; the stream, greatly contracted, winding in deathlike 
stillness under high bare rocks rising sheer out of the water. Still lower 
down, and not far from Mandalay, is the third or lowest defile. In this there 
are none of the dangers of the first and none of the rugged beauty of the 


* Wilcox himself placed the jimctiou in alKiut 2o but Captain Ilaunay fixed it, and probably 
more correctly, in 20°. 



208 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


second, but the banks are covered with dense vegetation sIo])ing down to the 
stream and with occasional almost perpendicular but wooded lieights, afford 
a pleasing picture, its softness contrasting with the grand and striking 
scenery of the first and second defiles. Except when the river is at its 
highest and the current consequently rapid and strong the navigation of the 
two lower defiles is easy and safe for all but very long steamers. Below 
** this third defile the valley of Ava may be said to commence. It lies 
‘^entirely on the east side of the Irrawaddy, the range of hills which 
" terminates at Sagain opposite Ava hemming the river closely in on the 
west. At the lower end of the valley comes in the fine stream of the My it- 
*^nge. Just above this the great river contracts from a mile and more in 
width to about 800 yards, in passing between the rocky roots of the Sagain 
hills, and an isolated temple-crowned eminence on the left bank.”* At a 


very short distance below Tsa-gaing the river takes a sharp turn to the 
westward and, after flowing in this direction for about 40 miles, to Tseng-dat, 
it gradually comes round to the south again, receiving the waters of the 
Kyeng-dweng from the westward near the southern extremity of the swee]). 
From this point its course is due south for a considerable distance 
when, deflecting, it runs about south-west to Tsa-lay-myo. From this point 
its course is, roughly, east-south-east to the British frontier which 
it crosses in 19"^ 29' 3" N. and 95° 15' E., having then a breadth of three 
quarters of a mile. Continuing east^south-east it rapidly widens and opposite 
Thayetmyo, about eleven miles lower down, is nearly three miles broad. 
Below this it contracts and flowing between bold and densely wooded banks 
it passes Prome 48 miles further south and takes a great bend round to the west 
and then east-south-east again, the hills receding on both banks and the stream 
broadening considerably till, at Akouk-toung, a few miles above Myan-oung, a 
spur of the Arakan hills juts down to the river and ends abruptly in a preci- 
pice some three hundred feet high. Here the river enters the delta the hills 
finally receding and giving place to low alluvial plains formerly inundated for 
miles on both banks every year on the rise of the river but now protected on 
the west by extensive embankments. In about 17° 19' N. it takes another and 
sharper bend to the west, almost immediately returning to its former course 
and as it does so throwing off* to the westward its first branch, the Bassein 
river, gradually trending round westward, it a little north of 17° sends off* 
a branch eastward, the Panhlaing creek, which joins the Hlaing just above 
Rangoon; the two forming the Rangoon river. In 17° the Pan-ta-naw leaves 
It to the west, and from this point the main river runs due south till, a few 
mu^turti^r on, it throws off a stream, which eventually reaches the sea as 
lo or China Bakir, and inclining westward breaks into numerous creeks. 

divides and sub-divides, recommunicating on each side 
with the streams which have already left it, and converts the whole of the 
lower portion of ite valley into a network of anastomosing tidal creeks till it 
re^hes the sea by nine principal mouths including on the west the Bassein 
eastern entrance the Thek-ngay-thoung and on the east the Ran- 
goon, the o^ers and intervening ones being, from east to West, the To or China 

w^ffrn K Kyoon-toon, the Irrawaddy, the Pya-madaw and its 

western branch the Pyeng-tha-loo, and the Rwe, all of which, as already stated. 


lie’s “ Mission to Ava.’ 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


209 


intercommunicate by numerous channels. The eastern and western are the 
• only ones used by seagoing ships, but a portion of the To or China Bakir is 
used by river steamers and large boats going from Eangoon to the Irrawaddy 
during the dry season when the route used during the rains, via the Pan-hlaing 
or vxCb the Kook-ko, is closed for want of water, and others are traversed in 
places by boats and river steamers passing inland between Eangoon and 
Bassein. This maritime delta, the protuberance of which has been caused by 
the deposition of the immense quantity of silt brought down by the river and 
which in this manner is still encroaching on the sea, is, especially in its lower 
part, cut up into an infinity of islands by a vast labyrinth of tidal creeks and 
channels. Within the full tidal influence these are lined with mangrove 
thicket and forest of Htien and other brackish- water loving trees, or a fringe 
of gigantic grasses, and for a considerable distance inland bear the peculiar 
and unmistakeable appearance of all tidal creeks : the banks steep for a few 
feet from the top, then shelving and muddy, the top either bare or covered 
with grass or tall black-stemmed trees with no undergrowth, or with low 
shrubs, the lower branches bearing, in their mud-covered leaves, evidence of 
the rise and fall of the tide. Scattered along the channels and sheets of 
water in the extreme south, are, during the dry season, temporary villages 
occupied by salt boilers and makers of nga-pee or fish paste. A little more 
inland, patches of cultivation appear gradually passing into extensive tracts. 

The total length of the Irrawaddy from its sources to the sea is about 900 
miles, the last 240 of which are iu British territory, and considering its few 
windings its development in this latter distance may be about 50 miles. As 
far down as Akouk-toung in the Henzada district its bed is rocky but below this 
sandy and muddy. It is full of islands and sandbanks, many of the former and 
all the latter submerged daring the rains. New sandbanks are continually 
forming and old ones being removed, and the deep channel changes in many 
places every season and in some places even oftener but the course of the 
river, flowing as it does everywhere except in the delta between high banks, 
alters inappreciably. Its waters are extremely muddy and the mud is carried 
far out to sea. It commences to rise in March, some months before the rains 
set in, but whether owing to the melting of the snows in the mountains in which 
it takes its rise or to heavy rains at that season in the extreme northern portion 
of the country which it drains, or to both causes, is not yet known. Certain 
it is that as high as Ba-mhaw it rises before any rain has fallen there. It rises 
and falls several times till about June and then rising pretty steadily it attains 
its maximum height about September at which time it is, at Prome, from 33 
to 84 feet above its dry season level, and at this period, below the latitude of 
Myan-oung inundates a vast tract of country on the east and unprotected bank. 
Several and differing calculations have been made of its discharge : those by 
Lieutenant Heathcote from data obtained near Tsa-gaing in October gave 
816,580 cubic feet per second ; those by Dr. McClelland from data obtained 
at Prome in April 1858 when the river was about five inches above its lowest 
gave 105,794 per second ; Mr, Login calculated it at 75,000 cubic feet per 
second at the head of the delta ; whilst from careful observations and calcula- 
tions made at Myan-oung by Mr. Gordon the flood maximum discharge in 
August 1872 was 1,442,007 feet and the mean velocity 0,451 feet. 

The following table gives the result, in metre-tons, of 87 cubic feet, of 
Mr, Gordon^s observations : — 


27 



Discharoe of the, Irrawaddy River at Myan-oung in metre-tons. 


210 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER 



The discharge for Janiiary 1870 is assumed to be the same as the average of the other years, and has been interiiulated. 



Discharge of the Irrawaddy River at Myan-oung in metre-tons.— {Conclnded.). 


BEITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


211 



212 


BRITISH BURMA GAZKTTEEK. 


The river is navigable at all seasons by steamers ot‘ light draught as liigh 
aSj and probably beyondj Ba-mhaw^ and during the dry season for steamers 
drawing six feet as far at least as the frontier. In the rains steamers and 
large boats enter the main river from Rangoon by the Pan-hlaing or the 
Bhaw-lay creeks, but during the dry season they have to descend the Ran- 
goon river for some distance and, passing through the Bassein creek (not to 
be confounded with the Bassein river) , enter the Irrawaddy through the To or 
China Bakir. At this season the entrance of the Bassein river from the 
Irrawaddy is entirely closed by a large sandbank but in the rains steamers 
can pass up and down by this channel. The tide is felt as far up as Henzada 
and at Poo-zwon-doung it rises feet at springs. 

Its principal affluents in British territory are the Ma-htoon (or Meng-doon), 
the Ma-de and the Tha-lai-dan from the west, and the Kye-nee, the Bhwot-lay 
and the Na-weng from the east. Below Akouk-toung on the west and Prome 
on the east it has no tributaries of any importance. 

KA-BAING. — A revenue circle in the Henzada township, Henzada district, 
on the left bank of the Nga-won river. The land revenue in 1876 was Rs. 
4,055, the capitation-tax Rs. 4,647, the gross revenue Rs. 9,462, and the 
population 5,340 souls. 

KA-BENG. — A revenue circle in the Mergui district north of the northern 
mouth of the Tenasserim river. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 5,258, the 
capitation -tax Rs. 2,011 and the population 3,277. 

KA-DAING-TEE . — A revenue circle on the Rwon-za-leng river below 
Pa-pwon in the Salween HiU Tracts. In 1876 it had a population of 5,576 
souls and produced as land revenue — principally from hill gardens — Rs, 2,490 
and as capitation -tax Rs. 2,211. 

KA-DAN-GYEE. — A tidal creek in the Myoung-mya township, Bassein 
district, joining theRwe and Pya-ma-law rivers, its western entrance being about 
four miles below La-bwot-ta. It is navigable by river steamers, 

KA-DAT. — A stream which has its source in the hills north of Kyaik-hto 
and flowing through that town, where it is spanned by a wooden bridge, it 
enters the plains and during the rains unites‘with the numerous creeks then 
intersecting that part of the country, which is to a great extent under water at 
that season. It falls into the Tsit-toung near its mouth and is navigable for 
large boats as far as Kyaik-hto during the monsoon. 

KA-DA-WA, — A revenue circle in the Mro-houng township, Akyab district, 
to which is now joined Loo-leng-byo. The population of the united circles in 
1876 was 1,672, the land revenue Rs. 5,561, the capitation-tax Rs. 1,993 and 
the gross revenue Rs. 7,832. 

KA-DO. — A small creek in the Amherst district which at both ends com- 
municates with the Salween north of Maulmain. Its southern mouth like that 
of all similar streams affected by the tide is large and forms the Ka-do timber 
station, where the Pores t Office is located and where all timber coming down the 
Salween, the Gyaing and the Attaran is collected and registered. A sand bar 
stretches across the southern entrance impassable except at flood tides. 

KA-DO. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, Amherst 
district, opposite Maulmain at the junction of the Gyaing, the Attaran and the 



BIUTISH BUllMA GAZETTEER. 


213 


Salween. It has a large population of Talaing^ and is pretty well cultivated. 
In 1876 the laud revenue was Rs. 4,372, the capitation- tax Rs. 3,692 and the 
population 3,672. It now includes Kaw-hla. 

KA-DO. — A village on the bank of the Gyaing at the mouth of the creek 
of the same name and close to the junction of the Gyaing and the Salween. 
It is well laid out with brick-laid streets shaded by trees. The inhabitants 
are principally timber traders and their followers. It is the Government tim- 
ber station at which all logs brought down the Salween are collected and 
taken by the owners after payment of duty. 

The whole of the village lies within the jurisdiction of the Judge and of 
the Magistrate of Maulmain. The number of inhabitants in 1877 was 2,232. 

KA-DWAI. — A sparsely cultivated, hilly revenue circle in the south- 
eastern township, Tavoy district, to which is now joined its southern neigh- 
bour Pa-aw, The united circles occupy the extreme southern portion of 
the district on the coast and adjoin Mergui. In 1876 the population number- 
ed 1,561, the land revenue was Rs. 473, the capitation-tax Rs. 614 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 1,118. The principal products are sessamum and carda- 
moms. 

KA-GNYENG. — A river in the Bassein district, which rises in the Arakan 
Romas and after a south-easterly course of some twelve miles falls into the 
Bassein river about two and a half miles above the mouth of the Shwe-gnyoung- 
beng. The breadth at the mouth is about 100 feet and the depth about 
12. The bed is sandy and muddy. Large boats can ascend for a little over a 
mile only. The banks are covered with line and valuable timber, Ka-gnyeng 
{Dipterocarpiis alatus)^ Pyengma {Lagerstrceinia Regince), Pyeng-gado {Xylia 
Dolahriformis) , Rengdalk {Dalbergia ciiltrata) and Shaw {Sterculia sp), 

KA-GNYENG-DAING. — A revenue circle in the Le-myet-hna township, 
Bassein district, on the eastern slopes of the Arakan Romas. The country is 
mountainous, except towards the east where the ground is level and the soil suit- 
able for rice. Pyengma {Lagerstrceinia Regince), Pyeng-ga-do {Xylia Dolabri- 
formis), Reng-daik {Dalbergia cnltrata) and Ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus alatus) 
are abundant, and a little teak is found on the banks of the Mai-za-lee river. 
The inhabitants in 1876 numbered 3,238, and in that year the land revenue was 
Rs. 3,330, the capitation-tax Es. 3,530 and the gross revenue Rs. 7,027. 

KA-GNYENG-GOON. — A village in the Zlie-pa-thway circle, Angyee 
township, Rangoon district, about a mile from the seacoast, a few miles east of 
the mouth of the To river, at the head of the Meng-ga-loon, a small tributary of 
the former. The inhabitants, who are chiefly Burman and Taking agricul- 
turists, numbered 1,121 in 1877. In the Burman time the population was 
very small; the village has increased principally owing to an influx of the 
inhabitants of To at the mouth of the river of the same name. The culturable 
land in the neighbourhood is extensive and fertile. Near the village is the 
old ruined pagoda of Meng-galoon, known as the Kyouk-tshoo Bhoora. It is 
built upon the spot where the vessel carrying the holy relic, now enshrined 
under the Shwe-tshan-daw at Twan-te, first cast anchor, hence the name 
{‘ Kyouk-tshoo,' an anchor). It is, therefore, one of the most famous of the 
37 Pagodas of Angyee. 


214 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KA-GNYENG-KWA. — A small village of 503 inhabitants in 1877 in the 
Bhoot-khjoung circle, Re-gyee township, on the western bank of the Ee-nouk, 
towards the north-east of the Bassein district. 

KA-GNYOON-KYWON. — An island forming a revenue circle in the south- 
eastern township of the Tavoy district, thinly populated but very largely culti- 
vated. Its principal products are rice, dhanee leaves and dhanee sugar. 
The fishery and net tax is large; In 1876 the land revenue was Es. 5,934, the 
capitation -tax Rs. 292, the gross revenue Es. 7,150, and the population 421. 

KA-HGNYAW. — A revenue circle in the north-east corner of Bhee-loo- 
gywon in the Amherst district, having the Salween river on the north and 
east, the circle of Ka-lwee on the west and that of Thek-kaw on the south. 
Its total area is 4,766 acres, all plain land, and almost all under 
cultivation. Its eastern portion consists of some extensive islands in the 
Salween, immediately opposite to Maulmain, the soil of which is well adapted 
both for gardens and for rice cultivation. It comprises the two old circles of 
Kahgnyaw and Douk-yat, which were united in 1865. A small area is to some 
extent damaged by the overflow from hot salt springs at a spot known as the Nga- 
raikywon or Hell Island.'^'' There is a large and constant flow of very hot 
saline water and the whole of the land near them is more or less impregnated 
with salt. The crystalized produce has a distinct bitter taste. The garden^'* 
cultivation consists principally of the dhanee and cocoanut palms. In 1860 
the land revenue was Rs. 8,663, the capitation-tax Es, 1,547 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 10,220. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 10,057, the capita- 
tion-tax Rs. 1,827 and the population 1,757- 

KA-HGNYAW. — A village in the circle of the same name on the west of 
Bhee-loo-gywon in the Amherst district near the Ka-gnyoung stream. The 
inhabitants are principally Talaing and in 1867 numbered 928 souls and 966 
in 1877. 

KAI.- — A sub-tribe of the Pwo division of Kareng so called by the 
Bghai. See Gaikho. 

KAI-LENG. — A revenue circle in the south-eastern comer of the Tha-ga-ra 
township, Toung-ngoo -district, on the right bank of the Tsit-toung river. 
In this circle is the Pouk-aing lake nine feet deep during the rains and five only 
in the dry season. In 1876 the population numbered 2,683, the land revenue 
wasEs. 1,003, the capitation -tax Es. 2,006 and the gross revenue Es. 3,300. 

KAING-GYEE. — A village in the Padoung township, Prome district, on 
the bank of the Bhoo-ro stream, just above its mouth. The inhabitants are 
chiefly rice cultivators, gardeners and coolies. 

KAING-KHTOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo district, on 
the north-eastern coast of Ramree island, north of and adjoining the Ramree 
township, having an area of 11 square miles which are not much cultivated. 
The inhabitants, who are mainly Arakanese, numbered 1,994 in 1876 and are 
extensively engaged in fishing and in manufacturing salt. The land revenue 
in 1876 was Es. 1,116, the capitation-tax Rs, 2,237 and the gross revenue 
Rs. 5,074. ^ 

KA-KA-RAN. — A tidal creek in the lower portion of the Shwe-loung town*- 
ship, Tboon-khwa district, connecting the Irrawaddy with the Pya-ma-Iaw, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


215 


having a general N. N. E. and S. S. W. direction : its northern entrance is about 
eight miles below Kywon-pya-that village. It is navigable at all times by the 
largest boats. 

KA-LA-BE. — A revenue circle on Bhee-loo-gywon in the Amherst district, 
which extends from the Salween westwards across the central range of hills 
to the Tsai-ba-la khyoung. It has Kharaik-thit on the north and Kwon-taw and 
Ka-ma-ke on the south. In the Burmese time Ka-la-be comprised only that 
portion of the present circle which lies between the Salween and the hills ; 
the other portion, to the west of the hills, was called Pan-hpa and was under 
a Kareng Tsaw-kai, When Captain Phayre (then Deputy Commissioner) 
visited the locality he found that the Taking Thoogyee of Ka-la-be collected 
tax from the Talaing both in Ka-la-be and in Pan-hpa and the Kareng 
Tsaw-kai in the same way had charge of the Kareng in both circles. He 
made arrangements for the amalgamation of the two circles which were shortly 
afterwards carried out. The united circles comprise an area of 4,674 acres, of 
which almost the whole is under cultivation. In 1868 the population num- 
bered 2,091 souls (congregated principally in the villages of Ka-la-be 
Moo-rit-gale, Rwa-thit, Pan-hpa and Kaw-ka-dai), the land revenue was 
Rs, 7,016, the capitation -tax Rs. 2,585 and the gross revenue Rs. 9,627. 
In 1876 there were 2,890 inhabitants, the land revenue was Es. 7,136 and the 
capitation-tax Rs. 3,057. 

KA-LAING-OUNG. — A revenue circle in the north-eastern township, 
Tavoy district, with a small population of 719 souls in 1876. The face of the 
country is mountainous and forest-clad and but little cultivation is carried on. 
In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 257, the capitation-tax Rs. 321 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 590. 

KA-LAI-TO. — A village in the Kha-raik-thit circle of the Bhee-loo-gywon 
township, Amherst district, south of Khyoung-tshoon and west of Kha-raik-thit. 
The population in 1867 numbered 576 souls and 854 in 1877. 

KA-LAW. — A village in the Ewa-lwot circle of the Bhee-loo-gywon town- 
ship of the Amherst district, on the south bank of the A-byaing stream. In 
1867, when the surrounding country formed the Ka-law circle, the inhabitants, 
who are principally Talaing, numbered 588 and 614 in 1877. 

KA-LAW. — A pagoda on Bheeloo island supposed to have been founded 
during the reign of Asoka in the third century B. C., to enshrine a relic of 
Gaudama. 

KA-LAW-THWOT. — A village in the centre of the circle of the same 
name in the Zaya township of the Amherst district south of Ka-ma-wek and 
near the Ka-law-thwot stream. The name in Talaing means ‘^Betel-nut 
tree. In 1868 it had 691 inhabitants and 1,076 in 1877. 

KA-LAW-THWOT. — A narrow and irregularly shaped revenue circle in the 
Zaya township, Amherst district, reaching from the Toung-gnyo range nearly to 
the Salween, having Ka-ma-wek on the north and Htoon-man on the south, 
with an area of 8,914 acres, the greater part of which is plain land. The 
present limits of the circle comprise three old Thoogyeeships, viz,, Ka-law-thwot, 
Ka-ma-ta-ke and Mai-bouk. In 1868 the inhabitants, who are principally 
Talaing, numbered 1,074 and the gross revenue was Rs. 4,150, of whichEs. 3,000 



216 


BIUTISH BCUMA (lAZKTTBRIl. 


was derived from the land. In 1876 the population was 1,600, the land revenue 
Rs. 3,802 and the capitation -tax Rs. 1,592. 

KA-LEE-TAW. — A village in the Ma-hoo-ra circle, Hpoung-leng townshij), 
Rangoon district, on the Poo-zwon-donhg river about fiiteen miles below 
Hpoung-gyee. In 1877 it had 516 inhabitants. 

KA-LE-GOUK. — An island off the coast of the Amherst district, 50 miles 
long and running north by west and south by east with its northern extremity 
thirty miles from Cape Amherst. Its woodiest part which is at the north end 
is about a mile in extent, whilst towards the south the island runs to a point. 
According to Dr. Macpherson the ^‘northern half, on the western side, is compos- 
ed of a long granite ridge with an average perpendicular drop to the sea. The 
eastern side descends to the shore in gentle or abrupt slopes, while the west is 
broken into abrupthxils with level, well-raised, intervening spaces forming three 
bays.’'^ From one of these, Quarry Ray, the stones were dug for the Alguada 
Reef light-house. The entire island is clothed with fine trees and water of a 
good quality is found at a depth of fifteen feet from the surface, whilst a peren- 
" nial spring of sweet water flows tlirough the centre of the island.” The centre 
of the island is in 15° 83' North. 

KA-LIET-PAT. — A small stream which rises in the Arakan mountains and 
falls into the Thee-da or Kyouk-khyoung-gale river in the Basseiii district. The 
banks are composed of sandy loam and are fringed with tree forest. After 
leaving the hills its banks spread out forming in various places, in the hot 
season when this river is dry, separate lakes leased out as fisheries. 

KA-LOUNG-TOUNG. — A village in the Pan-ta-naw township, Thoon- 
khwa district, in 16° 58^ North and 95° East at the mouth of the Bhaw-dee stream 
a short distance above Pan-ta-naw. It has a population of about 600 souls. 

KA-LWEE. — A revenue circle m the Amherst district at the northern 
end of Bheeloo island having the northern entrance of the Salween, known as 
the Daray-bouk, on the north and bordering on the circles of Ka-hgnyaw, 
Ka-ma-mo and Daray on the other side. The total area is 2,675 acres, nearly 
the whole of which is culturable plain land. At the northern extremity of 
the circle is a detached hill, round which Ka-lwee and other villages are built. 
It includes the formerly distinct circle of Moon-aing. It is inhabited chiefly by 
Talaing and is well cultivated. In 1868 the inhabitants numbered 1,758 and the 
gross revenue was Rs. 6,899. In 1876 the population was 3,255, the land 
revenue Rs. 7,118 and the capitation-tax Rs. 3,525. 

KA-LWEE. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Amherst 
district in the extreme north of Bhee-loo-gywon on the bank of the Daray-bouk 
or northern mouth of the Salween, lying on the side of a detached hill connect- 
ed with the main Bhee-loo-gywon range by a road across the rice plain. 
In 1860 it had 931 inhabitants and 1,138 in 1876. The neighbouring pic- 
turesquely situated pagodas and zayat, embosomed amongst trees and over- 
looking the Salween rivei*, arc a favourite resort of the European inhabitants 
of Maulmain. 

KA-LWEN. — A revenue circle in the Mergui district north of Mergui, to 
the south of the northern mouth of the Tenasserim river. In 1876 the land 
revenue was Rs. 2,883, the capitation tax Us. 1,074 and the population 1,839. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


217 


KA-MA, — A village of about 600 inhabitants on the western coast of 
Cheduba. 

KA-MA. — The head-quarters of the township of the same name in the 
Thayet district on the right bank of the Irrawaddy river, prettily situated 
on low hills, most of them crowned by a pagoda or a monastery. According 
to the census taken in 1872, it had a population of 2,943 souls and according 
to the Thoogyee’s rolls of 2,829 in 1877. The Ma-de stream flows through 
the town, that portion lying to the south being known as Gywon-doung. A 
short distance above the village is the mouth of the Ma-htoon river and all 
the surplus produce of the valley of that stream, consisting of tobacco, chillies, 
onions, cutch and cotton, that does not go down straight to Prome is disposed 
of here. 

Two legends are current as to the manner in which the place obtained its 
name. According to one it was an important and flourishing town in the days 
of Kek-kan, king of Prome (250 B.C.,) paying much revenue to the king who, 
therefore, named it Ma-ha-ga-ma, Ma-ha meaning ' greaP and ^ ga-ma ’ being 
the designation in Pali of a second class city, that is one with a market but 
without walls. This name it bore until the time of the great Burman king 
Alouugbhoora. This conqueror of Pegu, finding it compare unfavourably with 
the other cities of that country such as Prome and Kan goon, considered it 
unworthy of the name of Ma-ha-ga-ma, and with prurient pleasantry suggested 
that henceforth it should be called Kama {sensual desire ) . The second legend 
derives the name from a more reverend source. King Na-ra-pa-dee- 
tsee-thoo (A.D. 1167) when rebuilding the Bhoora-haw pagoda on the 
ruins of an old one wished to make an offering of a piece of fine cotton 
cloth. As the finest kind of cloth was not always obtainable, the king was in 
doubt as to whether he would be able to fulfil his pious wish when a man 
from Tha-byeng-tshoung presented himself with a piece, on which the king 
exclaimed : I desired cloth ; through my former merits my wish has been gra- 
tified ; let this town be called ^ Hpyeng-ta-kan-ma ’ (assisted by fortune the 
cloth has been obtained) This name was shortened into Kan-ma (assisted by 
fortune) which subsequently was corrupted to Kamma and Kama. 

KA-MA. — ^A township of the Thayet district between Lat. 19° 5' and 18*^ 
49' N. and Long. 94"^ 45' and 95° 14' 20' E. It contains an area of 575 
square miles and is bounded on the north by the townships of Thayet and 
Meng-doon ; on the west by the Arajran mountains ; on the east by the Irra- 
waddy river ; and on the south by the Padoung township of the Prome district. 

The present township of Ka>ma contains the whole of what was the Myo- 
thoogyeeship of Ka-ma, less the circles of Ban -goon and Nga-tshaw which have 
been transferred to Thayet, and the whole of the Myo-thoogyeesliip of Mya- 
wadee. 

Mya-wadee (the emerald country) derives its name from the expiatory 
offerings of a royal parricide. In 1278 a.p. Nara-thec-ha-pa-de, after escaping 
from the Tartars, became the victim of his son Tiiee-ha-thoo whom he had 
appointed Governor of Prome. He was poisoned at Shwe-boon-tha opposite 
Prome and his son afterwards raised nine pagodas to his memory on the right 
bank of the river above the Hpo-oo hill, ensliriuiug within cacli pagoda one 
of the emerald-adorned regalia. Hence the land wdiere those pagodas are situ- 
ated came to be known as Mya-wadee — the emerald land.’’ 


28 



218 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


At the great settlement of 1145 b.e. (1783)^ five Talk Tlioogyee and 
fifty-nine village Thoogyee were appointed under the Myo-thoogyee of Kama, 
with hereditary succession to all the appointments. The hereditary system, 
however, was not of long duration, except in the case of the officials of the low- 
est rank, the village Thoogyee. Forty-five years later the hereditary Taik 
Thoogyeehad all disappeared and the family of the first Myo-thoogyee having 
kept the office for three generations, during a period of 50 years, was ousted in 
1837 A,D. 

To the small division of Mya-wadee one Myo-thoogyee and fourteen 
village Thoogyee were appointed in 1145 b.e. The Myo-thoogyee of Mya- 
wadee did not rank high amongst his class. He was not entitled to carry a gold 
umbrella as most of them were. Neither the Myo-thoogyee of Ka-ma nor of Mya- 
wa-dee had the power of life and death, but there is in the river just off the 
town of Ka-ma a whirlpool of a dangerous character into which criminals, or 
others whom it was desirable to get rid of, were not unfrequently dropped. 

At the time when the Doomsday Book was prepared, 1783 a.d., the Myo- 
thoogyeeship of Ka-ma is said to have contained 142 villages. These were 
divided into five circles and 59 village Thoogyeeships. Any village, however 
small, which contained an inhabitant of means sufficient to enable him to pur- 
chase the headship was registered. The five circles, named generally after 
the streams on which they were situated, were Mah-toon, Myit-gyoung, Pa- 
nee, Poon-na and Ma-de. The registered viUages contain^ in each of these 
five circles were as follows : — 


Village. 

Name of Circle 


1783 A.D. 


Name of circle 
1783 A.D. 


Village, 


Toung-dee. 

I Pa-yeng-niem. 
Meng-dai. 
Pa-yeng-myeng. 
Oot- shit-goon. 
Thit-ngoop. 
j Re-nan-tha. 
Mah-toon ... Tham-ba-ya. 

Taw-nia. 

Kyouk-tsoung. 

Kyee-myee. 

Myo-hla. 

0^-ma-niem. 

\ Ouk-ma-myeng. 
Kat-tswon-myoung. 


Tshoon-goon. 

I Oot-hpo. 
Htoon-gyee. 
Won-lo-gaing. 
Tonng-rwa. 
Kyouk-o. 

Myit-gyoung J : Tha-ret-taw. 

"a I Gnyan-lay. 
Khyeng-tsouk. 
j Alay-rwa. 

( Pya-re. 

Pietha-Uen, 

, , Ka-nee. 
Poo-hto. 


Pa- nee 



Alat-lay, 

Tha-byeng-tshoimg. 

Tshan-doon. 

Nga-hlaing, 

Nat-mee, 

Poon. 

Pouk-oo-ga. 

Oot-hpo. 

Tweng-lay. 

Ran-goon. 

Kyap. 

Pa-bwot 

Tha-man-byeng, 


Poon-na 


Ma-de 


I Kan-gyee, now Poon-na, 
Shaw-doung. 

Rwa-ma. 

Gnyoung-won. 

Tha-ra-pee. 

Kyouk-pa-doung. 

/ Tha-gnya. 

Zee-daw. 

T sheng-tsway-znyoung. 

Tsa-bay-khyoon. 

Ka-htoo-byeng, 

■J Kywai-goung. 
Peng-ga-daing. 
Kyouk-pyoot. 

Pya-oung. 

Bhau-beng. 

Tha-tsee. 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


219 


Mya-wadee does not appear to have been divided into circles in the 
Burmese time : the Myo being a small one was managed by the Myo-thoogyee 
without the intervention of the Thoogyee of Taik as in other Myo. 

The annual tribute which Ka-ma had to remit to the capital was fixed at 
60 viss of silver or Rs. 8,571 and Mya-wa-dee had to send 30 viss or Rs. 
4,285. The Myo-thoogyee decided annually how much should be paid by each 
circle. The heads of the circles decided in like manner what amount should 
be borne by each village and the heads of villages then proceeded to collect the 
amount, and as much more as they could get, in whatever manner they chose. 

The incomes of the Myo-thoogyee seem to have depended mainly upon 
the fees derived from suitors. Justice was dispensed in the verandahs of the 
Myo-thoogyees"^ houses by deputies appointed by them for that purpose. 
The heads of fiscal circles (Taik Thoogyee) had, also, the power of disposing of 
petty civil cases, accounting for a portion of the fees received to the Myo- 
thoogyee. The heads of villages (Rwa Thoogyee), likewise, were permitted to 
dispose of such petty cases as were voluntarily brought before them. Neither 
Ka-ma nor Mya-wadee were required to furnish any soldiers for the service of 
the State. 

The township is now divided into seventeen revenue circles. In 1876 the 
population was 80,363, the laud revenue Rs. 29,116, the capitation-tax 
Bs. 33,029 and the gross revenue Rs. 69,848. The head-quarters are at 
Ka-ma. 

KA-MA. — A revenue circle in the Ka-ma township, Thayet district, lying 
on the right bank of the Irrawaddy to the immediate north of the Gaw-beng hills 
and roundabout the town of Ka-ma, with an area of three square miles and 
a population of 3,319 souls in 1876, nestling amongst the hills which stretch 
down to the bank of the Irrawaddy ; the area under cultivation is small. The 
once independent circle of Htoon-gyee has of late years been placed under the 
same Thoogyee. The land revenue in 1876 was Rs. 2,711, the capitation -tax 
Rs. 3,270 and the gross revenue, including the local revenue raised in the town, 
Rs. 10,875. 

KA-MA. — A revenue circle of the Kyouk-hpyoo district on the western 
coast of Cheduba, about 36 square miles in extent and with a population of 
2581 souls in 1876. Rice and tobacco are the principal crops raised. At the 
north-western point is a round hill 200 feet in height from which are evolutions 
of marsh gas which have led to its being considered a volcano. The land 
revenue in 1876 was Rs. 1,979, the capitation-tax Rs. 2,515 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 4,615. 

KA-MA-GA-LE.— A village of about sixty houses in the Gnyonng-beng- 
tshiep circle, Myedai township, Thayet district, on the left bank of the river 
opposite to the town of Ka-ma, of which it is an off-shoot. 

KA-MA-KA-ROOT. — A village in the Hmaw-won circle, Than-Iyeng town- 
ship, Rangoon district, on a stream of the same name about nine miles from 
its junction with the Hmaw-won river, a little below Kyonk-tan and about 
three miles from the seacoast. The majority of the inhabitants, who in 1876 
numbered 1,373, are Talaiug agriculturists who cultivate the extensive plains 
on both sides of the stream. The name is Talaing, and is derived from kam 
a tank and karoot ” a mango tree, a tank with mango trees near it having 
formerly existed in the neighbourhood. 



220 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KA-MA-KE. — A revenue circle occupying tlie extreme southern point of 
Bheeloo island in the Amherst district^ opposite to the town of Amherst ; 
having the sea on the south and east, the Kwon-taw {'pronounced Kwantaio) 
circle on the west and Ka-la-be on the north. To the south and east are 
detached hills on which are situated the villages. The rest of the circle con- 
sists of extensive alluvial plains, but much is damaged by salt water. 

In the Burmese time this circle extended over what now forms the two 
circles of Ka-ma-ke (exclusive of Abyit) and Kwon-taw. When the circle was 
re-peopled, after the cession of Tenasserim, three Thoogyee settled down in this 
tract at Ka-ma-ke, Kwon-hla and Kwon-taw respectively, and collected tax each 
from his own followers. When Captain Phayre re-arranged the boundaries in 
1848 he placed Ka-ma-ke and Kwon-hla under one Thoogyee and gave him 
also superintendence over Abyit which joined Ka-ma-ke, Kwon-taw being made 
a separate Thoogyeeship. In 1876 the land revenue amounted to Rs, 7,136 and 
the capitation-tax to Rs. 2,113 ; the population in the same year was 2,112. 
In 1868 the population was 1,684, and the gross revenue Rs. 7,754. 

KA-MA-KE. — A village in the circle of the same name in the south of Bhee- 
loo-gywon in the Amherst district. The population in 1868 numbered 794 souls 
including the inhabitants of the adjoining village of Toung-tsoung and 812 in 

1877. 

KA-MA-MO. — A village in the Ka-lwee circle on the western slopes 
of the main Bhee-loo-gywon range, a short distance south of Ka-lwee. The 
inhabitants, who are principally Talaing with a few Chinese, numbered 693 
souls in 1867 and 796 in 1877. 

KA-MA-NAT. — A village in the Pegu circle, Pegu township, Rangoon 
district, about two miles east of Pegu. In 1877 the inhabitants numbered 
1,163 souls, 

KA-MA-WEK. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Zaya 
township of the Amherst district, 14 miles from Maulmain on the great south- 
ern road which now extends to Kwon-hla, and is being constructed as far as Re, 
a little to the south of Moo-doon, the head-quarters of the township. There is 
a government rest house in this village. In 1877 it had 989 inhabitants. 

KA-MA-WEK. — A small and unimportant river in the Amherst district 
which rises in the Toung-gnyo range, and after a westerly course of 16 or 18 
miles falls into the sea a few miles above Amherst. 

KA-MAW-KA-NENG. — A village in the Ke-la-tha circle, Re La-maing 
township, Amherst district, east of Ke-la-tha and near the source of the 
La-maing river. In 1877 it had 580 inhabitants. The name is Talaing and 
means Rock village. 

KAM-BAI. — A village in the Rangoon district to the north-east of Rangoon 
about one and a half miles east of Ko-kaing (g. v,) close to a small lake. The 
inhabitants are engaged in rice cultivation and in fisheries. There is a 
Police station in the village. In 1877 it had 877 inhabitants. 

KAMrBAI. — A revenue circle in the Tha-houng township, Bassein district, 
on the left bank of the Bassein river, bounded on the east by the Ta-zeng-hla 
stream and immediately north of the Tay-goon circle. It has an area of about 
29 square miles which are but partially cultivated and are for the most part 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


221 


covered with forest. The inhabitants, who are mainly Burmese, are largely 
engaged in fishing, and some of them in cultivating. There is a fair-weather 
cart-road through almost every village. In 1876 the population was 2,353, 
the land revenue Ks. 2,366, the capitation-tax Bs. 2,397 and the gross 
revenue Bs. 9,434. 

KAM-BAI. — A village of 841 inhabitants in 1877, principally Kareng and 
Shan, in the Kaw-hmoo circle, Angyee township, Bangoon district, on the 
Moo-la-man creek about half a mile west of Kha-beug. In some of the old 
village registers it is called Kamhhet. 

KAM-BHEE-LA. — A river in the Prome district. See Koxtk-gioay. 

KAM-BHEE-LA. — A revenue circle in the Prome district on the right 
bank of the Na-weng, traversed by the Kouk-g way, here called the Kam-bhee- 
la, a tributary of the Na-weng ; in the rains small boats can go up as high as the 
village which gives its name to the circle, that is for rather over a mile. In 
1876 the population was 430, the land revenue Rs. 812, the capitation-tax 
Rs. 458 and the gross revenue Rs, 1,425. 

KAM-BHET. — A village in the Angyee township, Rangoon district. See 
KaxU’hai. 

KA-MEE-GYWAI, — A revenue circle in the Meng-bra township, Akyab 
district. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 1,987, the capitation tax Bs. 662, 
the gross revenue Rs. 2,748 and the number of the inhabitants 503. 

KAMIE. — A hill tribe in Arakan. A branch of the Kliamie {q. v.), but 
having some differences in their language (see appendix) ; e. g . — 


English 

Khamie. 

Kamie. 

Air 

Ga-lee 

A-lee 

Ant 

Ba-leng 

Pa-leng 

Boat 

Mioung 

PloTing 

Mother 

Na-oo-ee 

Am-noo 

He 

Ha-na-ee 

Hoo 


In manners, customs, religion €ind dress they are the same as the Khamie and 
are of the same stock, living with and amongst them. 

KA-NAING-TA. — A large village in the Moo-htee circle of the Tavoy 
district on the eastern bank of the Tavoy river. In 1877 it had 685 
inhabitants. 

KA-MYAW-KENG. — A revenue circle in the western township of the 
Tavoy district, close to Tavoy, with an area of twelve square miles of which 
about one-sixth is cultivated, mostly with rice. In 1876 the population was 
2,280, the land revenue Rs. 1,902, the capitation-tax Bs. 1,872 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 3,869. 

KA-MYIT. — A large, but to a great extent unculturable, revenue circle 
extending eastwards from the seacoast in the southern part of the central 
township of the Sandoway district. Its inhabitants, who are mainly Burmese, 
numbered 3,488 souls in 1876. The principal products are rice, sessamum 
and tobacco. The land revenue in 1876 w^as Rs. 3,762, the capitation-tax 
Rs. 2,944 and the gross revenue Rs. 6,802. This circle was formerly in the 
southern or Kyien-ta-lee township and, with Toung-ma-gyee, was transferred to 
the central township in 1876 as it was too far from Khwa, the head-quarters. 



222 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


for effective supervision and as it was easier for suitors to come to Sandoway 
than to go south to Kliwa. 

KAN-BAING. — A revenue circle in the Oo-ree-toung East township, 
Akyab district, to which is now joined Toung-khyoung. The land revenue 
of the united circles in 1876 was Ks. 8,921, the capitation-tax Rs. 3,095, the 
gross revenue Rs. 12,595 and the population 2,433 souls. 

KAN-BYBNG. — A revenue circle in the Oo-ree-toung East township, 
Akyab district, which in 1876 had a population of 734 souls, a land revenue 
of Rs. 3,951 and a gross revenue of Rs. 5,267 of which Rs. 997 were derived 
from the capitation-tax. 

KAN-AING. — A revenue circle in the Ramree township of the Kyouk- 
hpyoo district on the left bank of the Ran-bouk stream, rather over 18 square 
miles in extent. Coarse sugar and indigo are the main products. The 
neighbouring circle of Kyouk-twe has of late years been joined to it. In 1876 
the population of the two was 4,068, the land revenue Rs. 3,339 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 7,811 of which Rs. 4,062 were derived from the capitafcion-tax. 

KAN-GAW. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo district, north of the 
Ra-ba-teng river in the Ramree township, 11 square miles in extent, with a 
population of 2,728 souls in 1876. In that year the land revenue was Rs. 
2,770, the capitation-tax Rs. 2,837 and the gross revenue Bs. 5,792. The 
Ra-ba-teng circle is now joined to it, 

KAN-GTEE. — A village in the Htan-le-beng circle of the Thee-kweng 
township, Bassein district, on the western bank of the Ky on-toon creek opposite 
to Goon-gnyeng-dan. In 1877 it had 775 inhabitants. 

KAN-GTEE -DOUNG. — The head-quarter town of the Thee-kweng town- 
ship, Bassein district, in 16° 54' 30"' N. and 64° 58' E. with a population of 
2,351 souls, situated on the right bank of the Daga river about 15 miles from 
its junction with the Nga^won. The inhabitants are principally engaged in 
agriculture. The town contains a court-house and a police station. 

KAN-HLA. — A revenue circle in the Shwe-doung township, Prome district, 
which now includes the Ma-oo-daing, Rwa-thit-gyee,Mai-daw, Sha-daing, Rwa- 
bai-hla, Hmek>ka-ra, Tsheng-ra and Kyouk-taw-ga circles and extends from 
the Shwe-nat-toung hills on the west to the Prome hills or Engdaing on the 
east across the valley of the Kyoon stream just north of Poung-khyoot. The 
centre of the circle is well cultivated with rice but the extreme eastern and 
western portions consist of undulating ground and low hills covered with 
forest and drained by numerous small streams — affluents of the Kyoon. The 
main road from Rangoon to the north traverses this circle which it enters at 
Kan-goon and leaves in the Engdaing or great belt of Eng forest which extends 
away far south into the Henzada district, a little to the south of the source 
of the Lek-pan-khoon rivulet. In 1876 the population of the united circles was 
1,891, the land revenue Rs. 2,285, and the gross revenue Rs. 4,439 of which 
2,027 were derived from the capitation -tax. 

KAN-KOO. — A village in the Padoung township, Prome district, in 
18*^ 37' 40" N. and 95° 4' 35" E. on the Kan-koo stream just above its junction . 
with the Kyouk-bhoo. The name is derived from the soapstone {Kan-ioO’kyouk) 
found on the banks of the Kan-koo. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


223 


KAN-KOO. — A small and unnavigable mountain stream which rises in 
one of the spurs of the Arakan Roma mountains and after a short easterly 
course falls into the Kyouk-bhoo. Its name is derived from Kan-koo (Burmese 
for soapstone) which is found at various places on its banks. 

KAN -LAY. — A village in the Ma-oo-daing circle, Meng-doon township, 
Thayet district, on the bank of the Ma-htoon river a short distance above the 
mouth of the Det-Shwe one of its affluents from the north. Th*is village 
which has about seventy-five houses, is in 19° 18' 50'' North Lat. and 94° 47' 
E. Long. It formerly gave its name to a separate circle, which, in 1860 on 
the death of the hereditary Thoogyee, was joined to Ma-oo-daing. 

KAN-LET. — A small revenue circle, rather more than one square mile in 
extent, on the northern coast of Cheduba to the west of Kyet-ro. Rice and 
tobacco are the principal products. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 642, the 
capitation-tax Rs. 513, the gross revenue Rs. 1,187 and the population 481 souls. 

KAN-NEE. — A revenue circle in the Nga-poo-taw township, Bassein dis- 
trict, having an approximate area of 237 square miles, extending northwards 
between the Arakan hills and the Bassein river from the Tha-man-de-wa circle 
to the Than-dwai river, which divides it from the former Kyouk-khyoung-gyee 
township. The north-eastern corner of the circle, above Oot-hpo, is flat but 
the rest is hilly and covered with forest. An outcrop of sandstone appears 
to the north of the Shwe-doung stream and another a few miles inland to the 
west. Bamboos and iron- wood are found in abundance on the western side of 
the circle at the foot of the Arakan mountains. The inhabitants, who are 
chiefly Kareng, and who are occupied in cultivation, numbered 2,620 in 1876 
when the land revenue was Rs. 4,550, the capitation-tax Rs. 3,030 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 7,709. 

KAN-NEE. — A revenue circle in the Bhoom-ma- wad-dee township,Toung- 
ngoo district, on the left bank of the Tsit-toung river, extending from theThit- 
nan-tha stream on the north to the Pa-thee on the south. To the eastward the 
country is hilly and covered with tree, brush wood and grass forest. Within 
the limits of this circle is the Eng- won lake with fifteen feet of water in the 
rains and from six to eight in the dry season, and one or two other smaller 
ones. The principal timber is teak, Pyeng-gado (Xylia Dolabriformis) and 
Pyeng-ma {Lagerstroemia Regince) ; bamboos are plentiful. In 1876 the popu- 
lation numbered 4,684, the land revenue was Rs. 1,560, the capitation -tax 
Rs. 2,258 and the gross revenue Rs. 5,753.^ 

KAN-NEB. — A river in theToung-ngoo district which rises in the Poung- 
loung range and after a westerly course of about 20 miles falls into the 
Tsit-toung five miles north of Toung-ngoo. During the rains it is navigable for 
boats of about 30 feet in length for some distance. From its mouth to the 
village of Kwon-beng, a distance about four or five miles, its bed is sandy, above 
that very rocky. A moderate quantity of teak, bamboos and sessamum are 
brought down this stream to the Toung-ngoo market. 

KAN-NEE. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Nga-poo-taw 
township of the Bassein district on the right bank of the Than-dwai about four 
miles above its mouth in the Bassein, a little above Ta-man-khyoung ; it is the 
residence of the Thoogyee of the circle. In 1877 it had 526 inhabitants. 
The trade is mainly in salt, rice and nga-pee. Lat. 16° 37' N. Long. 94° 43' E. 



224 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KAN-NGAY. — A revenue circle in the Prome district north-east of 
Poung-dav and on the left bank of the Wai-gyee ; its largest village is Toung-bo- 
hla on the Wai-gyee river. It now includes the Tha-hla-peng-zee, Keng-ma-hla, 
and Rat-tha circles. In 1876 the inhabitants numbered 1,832, the land 
revenue was Rs. 1,718, the capitation- tax Rs. 1,828 and the gross revenue 
Rs. 3,806. 

KAN-00. — A village in the Promedistrictinl8°25'20'‘'N. and 95^ 34' 15'' 
E. on the Myo-lay channel and about a mile and a half from its mouth. The 
road from Ta-hpoon in the Henzada district passes this village, which is about 
four and a half miles south of Poung-day, measuring from the main road from 
Rangoon to the northern frontier which runs through that town. 

KAN-OUNG. — A town in the Henzada district on the right bank of the 
Irrawaddy about seven miles below Myanoung, with a population in 1875 of 
3,171 souls and in 1877 of 3,315, principally merchants and petty traders. It 
was founded in 1754 A. D. by the Eurman conqueror Aloungbhoora. It con- 
tains a Police station, a Public Works Department Inspection Bungalow and 
several good public resthouses. The name is Talaing and means a whirlpool” 
and was given to the town because there was then a whirlpool in the river 
opposite the spot whei'e it was founded. In the neighbourhood are the 
remains of an old fort. The local revenue in 1877 was Es. 1,617. Long. 
18° 10' 50" E. Lat. 95"" 28' N. 

.KAN-OUNG. — A well cultivated revenue circle on the bank of the Irra- 
waddy in the Kan-oung township of the Henzada district. To it have been 
added the Koon-ta-loon and Kyet-tshoo-daw circles farther north. In 1876 the 
population numbered 10,542, the land revenue was Rs. 9,259, the capitation-tax 
Rs. 9,390 and the gross revenue Rs. 21,208. These figures are exclusive of 
the population and revenue of the town of Kan-oung. 

KAN-OUNG. — A township in the Henzada district divided into eight 
revenue circles, extending westwards from the Irrawaddy to the Arakan 
Roma mountains, with Myanoung on the north and Oot-hpo on the south. 
To the westward the country is mountainous and forest-clad but towards the 
west, low and at oue time subject to annual inundations from the overflow 
of the Irrawaddy ; extensive embankments along that river have of late years 
afforded almost complete protection and rice cultivation is rapidly extending 
in the fertile country thus rendered fit for the production of this cereal- In the 
low land between the hills and the Irrawaddy are several lakes of which 
the largest and most important is the Htoo, fed during the rains by the 
Ma-mya which comes down from the Arakan mountains. Owing to the 
Irrawaddy embankments and the want of scape- way the lake is gradually 
being silted up by the sand brought down by the Ma-mya. The hilly 
country contains some valuable timber such as teak, htouk-kyan and pyeng- 
gado, whilst further eastward eng is found in some quantity. 

The principal town is Kan-oung, on the bank of the Irrawaddy in the 
north-eastern part of the township, where the Extra Assistant Commissioner 
in charge resides and holds his court and where there is a good market and a 
police station. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 27,881, the capitation -tax 
Rs. 34,000 and the gross revenue Rs. 71,802. In the same year the popula- 
tion and agricultural stock was 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


226 


Population. 

Animals. 

Carte. 

o 

s 

Sugar mills. 

Oil mills. j 


Pouies. 

m 

ClJ 

c5 

Cows, Bulls and 
Bullocks, 

Goats and Sheep. 

T, 

36,336 

145 

8,790 

6,950 

185 

2,264 

6,277 

4,018 

1 

73 

109 


and the land under cultivation : — 


Area in Acres under 


Bice, 


Cultivated. 

1 Fallow. 

Total, 

Garden. 

Miscellaneous. 

Total, 

17,080 

476 

17,556 

1,304 

1,228 

2,532 


KAN-RWA. — A revenue circle with an area of about 41 square miles in 
the Thee-kweng township, Bassein district, lying between the Pe-beng and the 
Pan- ma- wad-dee rivers. The country consists of level and well cultivated plains, 
more especially between the Pe-beng and the Moung-dee rivers. East of the 
Moung-dee the country is low and portions are occasionally inundated. The 
plains on either side of the Moung-dee are relieved by patches of forest and the 
creeks and streams are fringed with trees, none, however, of any value. In 
1876 the inhabitants numbered 3,657, the land revenue was Rs. 14,427, the 
capitation-tax Rs. 3,762 and the gross revenue Rs. 18,935. 

KAN-THA . — See Toung-gnyo river, 

KAN-THOON-TSENG. — A village in the Prome district between the 
Irrawaddy and the Shwe-nat-toung hills, a mile and a half west of the latter, 
eight miles south, as the crow flies, from Shwe-doung and rather more than 
seven E. S. E. from Kyee-thay, with which, as with most of the neighbouring 
villages it is connected by a good dry- weather cart road. 

KAN-TSHIEP. — A tidal creek near the sea in the Bassein district 
running from the Daray-bhyoo creek, about five miles from its southern mouth, 
in a north-easterly direction to the Pya-ma-law, River steamers have passed 
through it. 

KA-RENG. — A small stream in the Toung-ngoo district, which rises in 
the Poung-loung range and, after a westerly course of about 20 miles, falls 
into the Tsit-toung nearly opposite Toung-ngoo. It is navigable for boats for 
about two miles only from its mouth. 


29 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 




226 


KA-EENG. — A race scattered throughout the province from Mergui in 
the south to beyond Toung-ngoo in the extreme north and from the Salween Hill 
Tracts in the east as far west as Arakan, but found principally in the Toung- 
ngoo, Shwe-gyeng, Amherst, Tavoy, Mergui, Eassein and Rangoon districts. 
Kareng is the name by which they are designated by the Burmese and which 
has been adopted by the English (by Symes they are called Cariainers and by 
later writers Carians and Karyens) ; to the Kareng themselves it is unknown and 
its derivation is uncertain but is, most probably, Ka-ra by which the Karen g-nee 
in the north call themselves, or Ka-roon, the designation of the Gai-kho 
amongst themselves. Those in the north and east, preferring to live far from 
the bustle of cities and towns, from choice ensconce themselves in the dense 
forest or perch on the heights of almost inaccessible mountains or hide 
in the high and nearly impenetrable elephant grass on the margins of streams, 
whilst those in the south and west have settled in the plains amongst their 
Talaing and Burmese neighbours. Living hitherto with the dominant race 
but not of them, timid and suspicious, the natural result of ' long continued 
oppression under the Burmese, and with manners coarse and repulsive, they 
have, in the opinion of the casual observer, the appearance of stolid stupidity. 
Owing partly to distrust and partly, perhaps, to the supercilious way in which 
they are often treated they affect an ignorance which, far from being real, is 
by no means impracticable for, wild and uncultivated to a degree as they 
naturally are, they are highly susceptible of social, moral ' and religious 
influences when once their confidence has been won and their sympathies 
awakened. The results of the labours amongst them of the members of the 
American Baptist Mission have the appearance of being almost miraculous 
and it is not going too far to state that the cessation of blood feuds and the 
peaceable way in which the various tribes are living together, and have lived 
together since they came under British rule, is far more due to the influence 
exercised over them by the Missionaries than to the measures adopted by the 
English Government, beneficial as these have, doubtless, been. 

The Kareng people, who have no one distinctive name for themselves, are 
T b 1 and sub three tribes differing somewhat in their customs 

tribal (Rvisions. traditions and considerably in their language : — 

the Sgaw, Pwo and Bghai. Each tribe is sub-divided 
into septs or clans which also differ from each other in some of their customs 
and idioms and particularly in their dress. Considerable confusion has been 
caused by the numerous names given to each clan some having no less than 
four or five; speaking of themselves each sept calls itself by its own name for 
man, and were these terms for man adopted in English the clans would be 
much more accurately distinguished than they are at present. 

The three tribes are thus sub-divided : — 

I, — Sgaw. So called by themselves. 

(a) called Myit-tho by the Burmese. 

(b) „ Shan ,, Pwo. 

(c) „ Pa-koo „ Kareng-nee. 

(d) ,, Burmese Kareng by some English writers and by Bur mans 

in Rangoon and Bassein. 

(«) „ White Kareng by some English writers. 

1 Ma-nie-pgha clan. 

2, Pa-koo ,, 

3. We-wa ,, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


227 


II. — Pwo, So called by the Sgaw, the name by which they are generally known ; 
sometimes written Pgho. 

(a) called Sho by themselves, 

(b) ,, Myit Khyeng by some Burmese. 

* (c) ,, Talaing Kareng ,, ,, and by some Eiiglisli 

writers. 

1. Mo-pgha clan. So called by the Missionaries, the name by which they 

are generally known. 

(«) called Taw-pya by Burmese. 

(h) ,, Pie-do by some of themselves. 

(c) ,, Pie-zaw ,, 

(d) „ Plaw 

2. Ta-roo clan. So called by the Karen g-nee, the name by which tlu-y 

are generally known. 

(rt) called Koo hta by themselves. 

(b) ,, Padoung by the Gai-kho. 

(c) ,, Bhee-loo by the Burmese. 

3. Shoung clan. 

4. Hashwie clan. So called by the Bghai, the name by which they nre 

generally known. 

(a) called Ha-shoo by themselves. 

5. Gai-kho clan. So called by the Bghai, the name by which thej are 

generally known. 

(a) called Ka-roon by themselves. 

(b) ,, Pra-ka-young by themselves. 

(c) ,, Padoung by the Kareng-nee. 

III. }3ghai. So called by the Sgaw, the name by. which they are generally km »\\n. 
(a) called Pye-ya by themselves. 

1. Kareng-nee clan. So called by the Burmese. 

(a) called Red Kareng by the English. 

(fc) ,, Yang-aing ,, Shan. 

(c) ,, Ka-ra by themselves. 

(d) ,, Pra-ka-ra ,, 

(c) ,, Bghai-moo-hte by the other Bghai. 

(f) ,, The-pya ,, Gai-kho. 

2. Bghai-ka-tew clan. 

(a) called Tunic Bghai by the English. 

(?>) ,, Liep-pya-gyee ,, Burmese. 

3. Bghai-ka-hta clan. 

(а) called Pant Bghai by the English 

(б) ,, Kareng-a- 3 'aing „ Bmmese. 

(c) „ Liep-pya-ngay ,, 

4. Lay-may. 

(а) called Brec by the Kareng-nee. 

(б) „ Pray ,, ,, 

5. Man-oo-man-aw. 

6. TshaW'kho. 

Til ere are thus three clans of Sgaw, five clans of Pwo and six clans of 
Bghai, but these only include those tribes and sub-tribes representatives of 
which are found in the province : in the Shan districts beyond our frontier 
are the Ran-lang, Reng-ban, Reng-tsaik, Reng, Ta-lya vel Reng-ka-la z^el 
Reng-da-laing (of Mr. O^Riley) and others. 

The Kareng are undoubtedly of a different family from the Burmese 
. . and Talaing and as certainly they are not the aboriginal 

Ongin. inhabitants of the country. Their own tradition is that 

they came from the north across a " river of running sand/^ a name given by 
Fa Hian to the desert between China and Thibet, and the account of it given 
by this Chinese pilgrim agrees with the traditionary account of the Kareng. 
He says, There are evil spirits in this river of sand and such scorching winds 
that whoso encountereth them dies and none escape. Neither birds are 
seen in the air nor quadrupeds on the ground. On every side as far as the 



228 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


eye can reach, if you seek for the proper place to cross, there is no other mark 
to distinguish it than the skeletons of those who have perished there ; these 
alone seem to indicate the route/^ The Kareng account as given by 
Dr. Mason is : — That was a fearful trackless region, where the sands 
rolled before the winds like the waves of the sea.” The first historical 
notice of the Kareng was that of Marco Polo, following whom Malte Brun 
says, Thus the country of Caride is the south-eastern point of Thibet, and 
“ perhaps the country of the nation of the Cariaines, which is spread over 
Ava ” : Bghai traditions allude to a town called Bha-maw whither they 
went to purchase axes. The Sgaw account is that they came from a country 
north of the Shan, whilst the Kareng-nee say that they were driven from a 
place north of Ava sixteen or seventeen generations ago and are a portion of 
a Chinese army ; this would carry us back to about 1400 A. J>., and about 
that time the Chinese three times invaded Burma and were twice defeated. 
It may be taken, therefore, until more materials for the formation of a sound 
conclusion are obtained, that the Kareng emigrated some centuries after the 
commencement of the Christian era from the north of China and were followed 
much later by the Kareng-nee who had formed a portion of an invading 
Chinese army. 

Those who live in the plains are a muscular people with large limbs 
whilst the mountaineers are a weaker people with smaller 
Physical character, ^i^h small limbs. The average height is 

low ; of the men about five feet four or five feet five and of the women not 
more than four feet nine. The unexposed portions of the body are as fair as 
those of the Chinese and on many is to be seen the yellow tinge of that race ; 
the hair is straight, coarse and, usually, like the eyes, jet black, but in the 
north brownish hair and hazel eyes are sometimes found. The head is 
pyramidal, wider across the cheek bones than across the temples and the 
bridge of the nose rises only slightly above the face,” 

The houses vary in shape, size and construction ; some living in com- 
paratively permanent houses, some in temporary sheds. 
Dwellings, domes- some having separate structures for each family, others one 
tic ammals an foo . whole village. {See Bghai and Pivo.^ The only 

domestic animals which they have are fowls, dogs and pigs of the small 
Chinese breed ; the dogs are eaten by the Bghai only. They keep no 
cats because they do not eat them, whilst the cats would eat the rats 
which the Kareng want for themselves. With this exception they are 
omnivorous ; every animal from a rat to an elephant, every reptile from a 
sand-lizard to a serpent, ants, grubs, every bird, every fish and the whole 
vegetable kingdom adorn their ta})les. But, curiously, they will eat none 
of the monkey tribe except the White Eyelid Monkey,’’ 

^ The dress varies with each clan, those in the north 

|)Y*peQ , ^ ^ 

wearing trowsers, those towards the south tunics : 

I. —Sgaw. 

1. Ma-nie-pglia clan. 

2. Pa-koo clan. — Tunics, white without stripes and with a narrow border of embroidery 

at the bottom, the patterns of which ^ffer for every village. 

3. We-wa clan. — Dress of all kinds, 
n. — pwo. 

1. Mo-pgha clan. — Same as the Bghai-ka-tew, i.e.^ tunics white with red perpendicular 
lines : reason of similarity unknown. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


229 


2. Ta-roo clan. — Trowsers, 

3. Slioung clan. — Trowsers, white with radiating red lines at the bottom, like the Gai- 

kho but not so handsomely embroidered. 

4. Ha-shwie clan. — Trowsers. 

5. Gai-kho clan. — Trowsers, often of silk and handsomely embroidered ; red lines at 

the bottom radiating like the beams of the rising sun, 

III. — Bghai. 

1. Kareng-nee clan. — Trowsers, red with perpendicular, very narrow black or white 

stripes, sometimes black with red or white stripes : bright red turban. 

2. Bghai-ka-tew clan. — Tunics, white with perpendicular red stripes : same as Mo-pgha. 

3. Bghai-ka-hta clan. — Trowsers, white with red radiating lines worked in them at the 

bottom ; same as Gai-kho but not of silk nor so handsomely embroidered. 

4. Lay-may clan. — Go almost naked. 

5. Ma-noo-ma-naw clan. 

6. Tshaw-kho clan. — Trowsers, white ornamented with red and black vertical stripes. 

Like all races they have customs peculiar to themselves. The ceremonies 

Ceremonies at pei’formed at the birth of a child are the same amongst 
births. all the clans except the Kareng-nee (q. v.) 

The navel string having been cut (the knife is carefully kept as the child’s 
life is supposed to be connected with its preservation) the placenta are placed 
in a bamboo and hung on a tree by the father, who deals in a similar way 
with an abortion, in this case, however, selecting the Eugenia. On his 
return to the house he pounds rice and goes through other woman’s labour if 
the child is a girl or spears a hog if a boy. When the navel string sloughs 
away the father goes out hunting and hshing and his success or want of 
success is held to be indicative of the child’s future prosperity. On his return 
a feast is given and the child is purified and named. An elder takes a 
thin splint of bamboo and, tying a fowl’s feathers at one end, he fans it down 
the child’s arm, saying — 

‘ Fan away ill luck, fan away ill success : 

Fan away inability, fan away unskilfulness : 

Fan away slow growth, fan away difficulty of growth : 

Fan away stuntedness, fan away puniness : 

Fan away di'owsiness, fan away stupidity : 

Fan away debasedness, fan away wi’etchedness : 

Fan away the whole completely.’ 


The elder now changes his motion and fans up the child’s arm, saying— 

* Fan on power, fan on influence : 

Fan on the paddy bin, fan on the paddy bam ; 

Fan on flowers, fan on dependants : 

Fan on good things, fan on appropriate things. * 

He next takes a bit of thread, that has been prepared for the purpose, 
and tying it round the child’s wrist says name thee A. B,’ using the 
^'name that the parents had previously determined upon.” 

The names are sometimes those of ancestors, sometimes descriptive of 
the parent’s feeling’s, as ‘‘Joy,” ‘‘ Hope often those of the 
seasons during which the child was born as “ Harvest;” in 
many cases the child is named from some circumstance that occurred about 
the time of its birth as “ Father returned,” * or from some peculiarity in its 
appearance as “White” or “Black.” On other occasions it is named after some 


* Kliyeng-byan (Khyeng-bran according to Arakaneso pronunciation) the Arakanese, com- 
monly called King-borring who reboUed against the Burra ans in the beginning of this centui-y and 
was one of the causes of the first Burmese war (ride sub-tit. Ak\ vr : — IIiptoiiv> was .so named 
because he was born when his father Moung Kljyeng came back from Ava. Pyan-thee is 
to return” and tJie p is softened into b for euphony. 



230 


BMTISH BUEMA GA^ETTEEE. 


Infanticide. 


bird, beast, mineral or tree as Heron,” Tiger,” Tin,” Cotton.” Those 
who, on growing up, develop some peculiarity receive a kind of nick -name 
to which ‘^Father” or ^‘Mother” is attached as '' Father of swiftness,” ''Mother 
of contrivance.” Probably the greatest peculiarity about names, however, is 
the custom of changing the parents^ names when a child is born to them : 
thenceforward they are no longer Tiger” or Joy” or F^lephant ” or 

Harvest” but " Father of A.” and Mother of A” : as " Father of 
Kwa-la” and Mother of Kwa-la.” This practice, however, is not uni- 
versal. 

Infanticide is rarely practised but sometimes if a mother dies her infant 
is buried with her. The Ka-khyeng east of Ba-mhaw have 
a similar custom ; with them, if a mother dies within seven 
days of the birth of her child, the house, dead body, living infant and every 
article in the house are burnt, but should a stranger be present in the village 
he may save the child's life by adopting it and carrying it away : no 
Ka-khyeng will on any account have anything to say to it, nor may it remain 
in the village. 

Frequently, but never amongst the Kareng-nee, infants are betrothed by 
their parents, owing to a prevalent idea that the two 
e ro as. children are by this means physically connected so that the 
good health of the one neutralises the ill-healtb of the other ; special resort 
is had to this custom when the child is weak and sickly : a tribe of northern 
Bghai seem to prefer selling a sickly child into slavery. When an infant’s 
betrothal is desired matters are first arranged by the parents and the 
inevitable fowl’s bones are consulted and only if they give a favourable 
response is the ceremony proceeded with. A feast is given by the parents of 
the boy at which the betrothal is completed by an elder praying : Lord of the 
land and water, Mokhie of the land and water, these two are now engaged to 
be united together in marriage. May they have long life, may they 
produce seed, may their shoots sprout forth, may they grow old together.” 
If, on arriving at a marriageable age, they decline to carry out the contract 
made for them, the parents of the girl pay half the expenses of the betrothal 
feast, and the bond is broken. 

When a young man chooses his own wife he commences by obtaining the 
sanction of the girl’s parents to his paying his addresses, not to the girl 
herself but through them. He then selects a go-between who first consults 
a chicken’s bones ; if they give an unfavourable reply the matter is allowed to 
drop, if on the other hand the answer is favourable the go-between arranges 
the match, and when this is done a feast is given by the young man’s 
friends to those of the girl, when the gall of the animal killed is examined ; 
if it is flaccid it is a bad omen and sometimes leads to the breaking off* the 
match, but if plump it is favourable. The marriage sometimes takes place 
in a few days but is often delayed. If a girl breaks her engagement she has 
to pay the expenses of the feast, but she is at liberty to receive the addresses 
of another suitor if her betrothed declares publicly that he desires to forfeit 
. all that has been spent, which is the recognized way of breaking oS* the match. 

The marriage ceremony is simple : the bride is conducted to the house 

Marriage. bridegroom’s parents in a procession with music, 

and as she ascends the ladder she is drenched to the 
skin with water. Before the company leave two elders, one on behalf of 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


231 


the bride and one on behalf of the bridegroom, take, each, a cap of spirits, 
the first repeats the duties of the husband in case of his wife’s death and 
the latter replies acknowleging that such are his duties (one of which is that 
should she be killed in a foray or carried into captivity, he must purchase 
her freedom or obtain the price of her blood). Each elder then gives to the 
other to drink and says : “ Be faithful to your covenant.*” This concludes 
the ceremony. The Kareng-nee iq,v.) forms are very different. 

The southern Kareng, differing in this respect from the Kareng-nee, are 
chaste, but lapses among the married are not uncommon. 
Chastity and divorce, although adultery is considered as particularly offensive 
to God. Polygamy is not permitted, but is practised by 
some of those who live near the Burmese. Divorces are not infrequent ; if 
the man leaves the woman he forfeits all property which he does not take 
with him ; if the woman leaves the man she receives only what her husband 
chooses to allow her. Widows retain their husband’s houses 
Widows. and endeavour to gain their own livelihood ; if they are ‘ 

young they often marry again, but if old are dependent 
on their relations for support and are not infrequently much neglected. 

Without vigour of constitution the Kareng often succumb to diseases 
which the stronger European can resist, such as measles 
Sickness. which are nearly as fatal in their villages as small-pox is 
amongst western nations. They suffer from small-pox, 
cholera, dysentery, dropsy, consumption and fevers and in some places in the 
hills goitre is common. In ordinary illnesses they treat the sick with a fair 
amount of kindness, but decline to afford any assistance to an individual 
attacked by one considered infectious. An outbreak of cholera or small-pox 
will temporarily depopulate the villages in large tracts of country, the 
inhabitants flying from the disease with terror and living in the forests till 
they think that they can return to their homes without danger of contagion. 
The individual who has, or is supposed to have, imported the disease is held 
responsible for all the deaths and must pay the price of the lives lost ; if he 
dies himself or is unable to pay the debt remains for his children and descend- 
ants to wipe off. Every illness is looked upon as inflicted by the spirits and 
though the Kareng have some knowledge of medicine resort is not had to it 
till incantations have been tried and the spirits have declined to be propitious, 
thus reversing the usual order amongst uncivilized nations. 

Some of the tribes bury and some burn their dead, but all those who 
Disposal of the dead, resort to cremation state that it is, comparatively, a new 
practice and that formerly they buried. 

Individuals often form covenants of friendship of which there are three 
Bonds of friendship, kinds, viz : — Mghe, Tho and Do, the last being the strongest, 
one Do helping the other in seasons of scarcity and 
defending his character against attacks. The ceremony connected with the 
formation of this tie is as follows. The host cuts off the snout of a hog or 
the bill of a fowl and rubs the blood on the shins of his guest, fowl bones 
are then consulted and if they are propitious the guest repeats the ceremony 
and again turns to fowl bones ; if the answer is unfavourable all that has 
preceded goes for nothing and the affiiir drops, but if it is satisfactory the 
two are thenceforth Do and so call each other dropping, as regards them- 
selves, their proper names. 



232 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Ungoverned and ungovernable the Pakoo are the hereditary 

Government and enemies of the Pwo^ the Bghai of the Pakoo, the Gaikho 

laws. of the Bghai and the Kareng-nee of all” ; such was the 

description given of the northern and eastern Kareng by 
one who had known them for over a quarter of a century. This state of 
affairs^ however^ is rapidly dying out and except, perhaps, on the north-east 
frontier, and in the recesses of the hills in parts of Toung-ngoo and Sh we-gyeng 
the Kareng of the Tenasserim division have settled down into nearly if not 
quite as peaceable cultivators as their brethren in Bassein and Rangoon, with 
tax collectors, village police and other petty officials selected from amongst 
themselves. The policy of the British Government, directly the reverse of 
that of its predecessors, the Burmese and Taking, has been to deal gently 
with the Kareng and inspire them with confidence, wherever possible select- 
ing from amongst them and not from Burmese the minor officials who live 
with them and are in continual and daily contact with them. Shy and 
• retiring and utterly unaccustomed to the delays and forms of our laws, they 
prefer settling their disputes amongst themselves, but do occasionally resort 
to the courts. The influence exercised over them by the Missionaries and the 
schools which these earnest men have built and support amongst them have 
immensely facilitated the conciliatory measures of such men as the late Sir 
Henry Durand and Sir Arthur Phayre, and we have only to turn to the still 
savage hill tribes of Arakan to see how little can be done by Government 
officers burdened with multifarious duties without the assistance of these 
indefatigable men who penetrate everywhere, sometimes, perhaps, with more 
zeal than discretion. 

In the north and north-east, amongst the Ha-shwie, the Lay-may, the 
Tshaw-kho and the Kareng-nee, feuds and forays are, probably, nearly as 
common now as they were all over the Tenasserim division before its cession to 
the British, and as they are amongst the Arakan hill tribes and the Ka-khyeng 
near Bha-maw ; the stronger prey on the weaker, seizing their property, 
burning their villages, slaying those who resist and selling their wretched 
prisoners into a state of endless slavery. These attacks goaded the most 
timid to retaliate whence followed most bitter blood feuds, and at the same 
time treaties ofiPensive and defensive between the weaker villages : an ox or 
buffaloe is killed and the inhabitants of the two villages feast together, after 
which the elders arrange the terms of the alliance. 

The weapons used are crossbows with poisoned arrows, spears, and javelins 
for throwing at an enemy, swords, matchlocks and old muskets : round their 
houses and villages they plant pointed bamboos at an angle of 45°, rising a 
few inches above the ground : for defence they use shields and breastplates 
made of hide. 

The Kareng never declare war. The great principle of Kareng warfare is 
Mna f w their enemy by surprise. Nor is war waged 

e 0 are. ostensibly between one village and another. There is 
^ways an individual at the head of every war, on whose account the war 
is made and who acts as general but never goes to the fight himself. When 
he deems it a favourable time for his purpose he kills a hog or a fowl, and 
taking a bit of the heart, a bit of the liver and a bit of the entrails he mixes 
them up with salt and rolls the mixture up in a leaf : this he calls tying the 
heads of his enemies. After finishing his preparations, he prays : Lord 



BKITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


233 


of the heavens. Lord of the earth. Lord of the mountains, Lord of the 
hills, mayest thou put down the inhabitants of the village. Make them 
** forgetful, make them to forget themselves, help us, we beseecli thee/^ 

He then gives the roll to two men, who have been engaged for the 
service, and says to them : 1 send j^ou to spy out the road ; go look. Is 

the village easy or difficult to attack ? Has it caltrops planted around it or 
‘^not? Look accurately. Go up into the village and sleep with the })eople ; 
and if any one invites you to sit with him, take out tins roll and mix up 
its contents privately with their rice and curry. It will tie their heads. I 
will tie their heads with it ; when they eat, they will forget themselves ; 
and then we will go and attack them. And because they have eaten 
that which ties their heads they will forget to seize their swords and spears 
and before they can recover themselves we will grasp their arms and over- 
come them and kill them.'’ 

When the spies return, they probably say : These people have not 
planted a single caltrop. There is no difficulty about the village whatever. 
If we go and attack it, we shall take it, and kill all the people.” 

Then the head of the war sends out his people to collect volunteers 
for his foray. The matter having been arranged beforehand 40 or 50 
come from one village and 40 or 50 from another, and if when all the 
fighting men assemble together they amount to a couple of hundred, it 
is quite satisfactory, and they are feasted at the village to which they have 
been called. 

Before handing round the whiskey, the head of the war pours out some 
slowly on the ground and prays : Lord of the seven heavens and the seven 
earths, Lord of the rivers and streams, of the mountains and hills, we 
give thee whiskey to drink and rice to eat. Help us, we entreat thee. 
We will now go and attack that village. We have tied the heads of 
the inhabitants. Help us. Make their minds forgetful; make them to 
forget themselves. That they may sleep heavily, that their sleep may be 
unbroken, let not a dog bark at us, let not a hog grunt at us. Let them 
not seize a bow, a sword or a spear. And may the Lord help my children 
and grandchildren that are going to attack this village and deliver them 
“from all harm. May they overcome their enemies and not be lost. May 
“ they be delivered from the bow, the sword and the spear.” After the 
prayer, the elders drink part of the whiskey and it is then circulated freely 
among the company. 

The head of the war next takes a fowl and after killing it consults its 
bones as to the success of the war if commenced then. Before the examina- 
tion he says : Fowl, possessor of superhuman powers, fore-endued with 

divine intelligence, thou scratchest with thy feet, thou peckest with thy bill, 
“ thou goest unto Khoo-hte (king of death), thou goest unto Tha-ma (monarch 
“ of death), thou goest to Shie-woo, (the brother of God), thou goest into tlie 
presence of God ; thou seest unto the verge of heaven, thou seest unto the 
“ edge of the horizon. I now purpose to go and attack that village. Shall 
“ we be hit, shall we be obstructed ? If we go shall we suffer shall we die by 
“ the bow, shall we be pierced by the spear, shall we weary ourselves, shall 
“we exhaust ourselves ? If so, reveal thyself unfavourable.” 

If the omens are unfavourable he dismisses the troops and each one 
returns to his home to wait for a more auspicious opportunity. When he 

30 



234 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


calls them again he proceeds as before and on consulting the fowPs bones, 
prays : We will go and attack that house. Shall we overcome, shall we 
utterly destroy ? Shall we escape being hit by the bow, and speared by the 
spear ? Shall we not stumble on anything ? If they will not resist us, but 
their lives be destroyed, their village come to utter destruction, then, fowl, 
reveal thyself favourable/^ 

If the bones give the desired response, the elder who reads it, says : 
The bones are good. If we go, we shall meet with no disaster. We shall 
" seize and kill the whole, and if any should remain, they will not be able 
to resist us/^ 

Then the head of the war leaps up and calls out exultiugly to his 
troops that they will certainly be victorious. He says : Soldiers, fear 
not nor be anxious. Go fight and be strong. If two or three of you are 
killed, I am your Lord. If in the battle a spear is broken bring me the 
handle ; if the barrel of your musket drops out bring me the stock. I will 
replace everything. If one or two are killed bring their bodies to me, I will 
clothe them, I will give them shrouds and pay their value.'’ 

He calls for two to volunteer to be first to go up the ladder into the 
first house and these he addresses : You are a hunting dog, you are a wild 
boar. If you succeed, you are worthy of a buffalo, and you shall have it. 
If you cannot succeed, if you are killed let not those you leave behind ask 
a buffalo of me, let them ask a fowl. Let them not ask of me a silk 
“ garment on account of your death. You say you are bold, you say you are 
fearless. You go the first, you return the last. Therefore, if our enemies 
follow and you run away and become terrified and anrything happens to 
the people you are responsible.’* He closes with the ^ declaration that he 
will prosecute the war till he overcomes whatever may be the resistance they 
meet. 

The troops then go off singing war songs, of which the following is 
a specimen : 


I go to war, I am sent. 

I go to fight, I am sent. 

Clothe me with the iron breastplate, 

Give me the iron shield. 

I am not strong, may I make myself strong ? 
I am weak, may I make myself powerful ? 


I go with a multitude, many persons. 

We will go to the house, the foot of steps. 
We will fire musket and holloa. 

The people come with wives and children. 
Unsheath the spear, draw the sword, 
Smite the neck, spear the side 
Till blood flows purple. 


I go to war, I am employed. 

I go to fight, I am employed. 
Employer gave me whiskey to drink ; 
I drink tiU I am dizzy. 


We march in order, like white ants ; 
We cross a stream, and trample it dry : 
We anive at the foot of the house, 

We reach the foot of the ladder : 

We go up into the bed-rooms. 

Blood flows like a stream of water, 
The blood flows down under the house. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


235 


The mother cries herself to death. 

The great hawk flies over the house, 

Pounces down on the Chief’s red cock. 

The great hawk sweeps around the house, 

Carries ofl its prey at the foot of the steps, 

Seizes the Chief’s white cock. 

The great hawk flies away 
Leaving the Chief behind weeping. 

When the expedition reaches the house to be attacked a party rushes 
into the house killing all the men they meet, while the rest surround the 
house from below. These intercept all that endeavour to escape and receive 
in charge such women and children as they wish to bring away alive and bind 
them. If the inmates resist the house is fired and the people who leap 
out to escape the flames are killed or taken prisoners. They kill without 
regard to age or sex. Infants are always killed as they say they would die 
if carried away. Children are often massacred with the utmost barbarity. 
Their hands and feet are cut off and their bodies hacked into small pieces. 
Adults are often embowelled, split in two, ^eir ears cut oflP and put in their 
mouths and it is not uncommon to bring away the jaws of their victims as 
trophies, as the North American Indians bring away scalps. Sometimes, 
after the house has been burnt up, they sow the seeds of vegetables on the 
ashes to indicate the utter destruction they have wrought. 

On the return of the expedition with their captives, when they come 
within hearing of the village from which they were sent, they blow their 
war trumpets and the villagers know by the peculiar call that they are 
returning victors. On their arrival they place all the captives in the 
hands of the head of the war, who feasts his troops and then dismisses them 
to their several homes. 


The head of the war keeps the captives a considerable time when, if 
none of their friends come to redeem them, he sells them off to other districts, 
for oxen or buffaloes if practicable, that he may have an ox or a buffalo to 


give to each village that came to his aid. 

Captives, except those taken in satisfaction of a debt, are often illtreated, 
beaten, wounded and occasionally killed. When they are 
prisone^M brought in bound and fettered to the head of the war, he 

sometimes addresses them thus : I did not begin this war. 


You killed my father, you killed my mother ; you have cut off my bead, made 
“ my tongue to protrude. You have made the blood to flow to the handle of 
the cleaver, to the sheath of the spear ; you snapped the bow string, you 
" have broken the spear. You have made my father come to corruption, my 
mother to rottenness. You have exasperate me, you have made my anger 
to rise. I have not attacked you without reason ; there was a righteous 
cause. You have dried up the waters, you have made the land barren, the 


‘"grain unproductive, the barns empty. You have angered the God of heaven, 
“you have provoked the Lord of the earth. You have stopped the rains and 


"" made the dry season irregular. You must now redeem yourselves, you must 
“ pay money, you must give kyee-zee. If you do not furnish your price you 
“ must become slaves and die slaves.'* 


When part of a village attacked escapes they usually endeavour to redeem 
Redeeming caDtives the prisoners that have been taken before they are sold 
away to strangers. For this purpose an elder belonging 
to a neutral village is hired to go and buy off the captives. 


236 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


When the me?sengev comes to the head of the wav and explains his 
object the latter, it favourable, takes a hog* and cuts off its snout and with 
the blood that Hows from it he besmears the legs of* the messenger, which is 
the sign that he makes him his friend, and he says he will receive him as an 
ambassador of peace and he shall make peace between the belligerent parties 
and they will become brethren again. 

After being well entertained that day he Is dismissed the next morning 
with the legs and head of the hog that had been killed, and the sight of 
these, when he returns, is regarded as legal proof that his mission has been 
accepted in good faith and that definite arrangements may be made for the 
redemption of each captive, if they do not quarrel about the price, which 
they sometimes do. When everything has been arranged satisfactorily 
filings are made from a sword, a spear, a musket barrel and a stone, and a 
dog is killed, these filings are then mixed with a part of its blood and with 
the blood of a hog and a fowl and the whole is put into a cup of water. 
This is called the peace-makin^ water,” Then the skull of the dog is 
chopped in two and one takes thJWower jaw and suspends it with a string 
around his neck, the other party ’takes the part of the skull containing the 
upper jaw and hangs it around his neck in like manner. They next take in 
hand the cnp of peace-making water ” and say : We will now make an 
end of the feud. Hereafter, we will not attack each other ; we will not 
devour each other^s property any more, we will become brethren, we will 
marry into each other’s families. We will entertain no hatred, no malice ; 
we will not backbite each other, but we will be happy in each other down to 
the generations of our children and grandchildren ; and our children 
shall not quarrel, but live in harmony. If you agree to this,” says each 
party addressing the other, and will agree to live in accordance with this 
agreement for ever, into the generations of our children and grandchildren, 
then drink of the peace-making water.” 

After drinking they say : Now that we have made peace, if any one 
breaks the eugagement, if he does not act truly, but goes to war again and 
stirs up the feud again, may the spear eat his breast, the musket his bowels, 
the sword his head ; may the dog devour him, may the hog devour him, may 
“ the stone devour him ! When he drinks whiskey, may it become in him the 
water that oozes from a dead body. When he eats the flesh of a hog may 
that hog become the hog of his funeral rites.” 

After these imprecations they drink again and the captives are 
dismissed. 

As they go away a salute of muskets is fired and a shower of arrows is 
sent after them, typical of the power of the dismissing party. 

Sometimes when there have been feuds between different villages and 
the inhabitants have settled their difficulties both villages 
Treaty of peace. assemble together and enter into a treaty of peace. 

Having selected a large and durable tree for a witness, 
they assemble around it and each party cuts a deep notch in the tree. When 
the “ peace-making water ” is prepared and drunk and the imprecation 
spoken, two elders rise up, spear in hand, and address the people saying ; 
The cause of action is finished this day. Hereafter act in harmony, associate 
with each other as brethren. Hereafter if any one brings up a cause of 
“ contention, this tree is witness against him. If the elders die, the notches 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


237 


in this tree will remain as evidence against him ; and let this spear spear him. 
He shall be fined a chatty (pot-full) of silver and a cup of gold/* Beyond 
this notch in a tree no monuments of peace or war are known to exist. 

Slavery is common amongst all the tribes and a clan of the Bghai 
Slavery often sell their relations. Defaulting debtors, captives in 

forays, confirmed thieves, widows and widowers who 
cannot pay the price of the deceased, those who introduce or ai'e supposed to 
have introduced contagious diseases and possessors of poison, are all sold into 
slavery. The prices vary, elderly people find no buyer, men and women 
from 30 to 40 sometimes fetch as much as Es. 200 or Es. 300, but girls and 
boys between 12 and 15 Es. 400, whilst children of three or four sell for Es. 300 
or Es. 400 each. 


The Kareng having no written language, or rather having a language 
the various dialects of which were first reduced into 
writing by the American Missionaries, have no written 
laws nor have they any tradition of a lawgiver, their rules having gradually 
grown up and being passed down from elder to elder and believed to be so 
perfect as to require no change. Indolence, covetousness, partiality, backbiting, 
hatred, falsehood, quarrelling, oppression, theft (the punishment for which is 
being sold into slavery), adultery and fornication are forbidden; peace, love, 
charity to the poor and to widows and orphans, industry and respect and 
obedience to parents inculcated. Suicide is not prohibited but is looked 
upon, as indeed it is, a cowardly mode of escaping from difficulties or dangers, 
and yet it is very common and almost invariably b)^ hanging : a taunt or a 
headache are sufficient inducements to self-destruction. The precepts of the 
the elders are excellent but little attention is in reality paid to them ; forays 
are forbidden and yet were of weekly occurrence, lying is spoken against 
strongly yet Dr. Mason states " I have never yet met with a Kareng in the 
church or out of it, that, when he had committed a wrong, would not tell 
a falsehood to cover it;” notwithstanding their command of '' do not steal ” 
they will abstract any small article which they think will not be missed, but 
as theft amongst themselves is sevei’ely punished, they are in other respects 
honest. The general principle of their criminal law is the lex talionis and 
they are implacable and vindictive, Por a first theft a man is forgiven on 
making restoration, an habitual thief is sold into slavery. A suspected thief 
is tried by ordeal, the accuser and the accused trying which can keep his 
head longest under water, and the one who fails must pay a fine or is put to 
death ; another, but rarely used, method is to strip the bark from a sterculia 
tree which is then exceedingly slippery and which the suspected mau must 
attempt to ascend. In cases of adultery or fornication, the transgressor buys 
a hog, and the man and woman take hold each one of a foot with which 
they scrape furrows in the ground to receive the blood. If they are 
unmarried no other fine is paid, but if one or both parties are married, they 
must pay a fine to the injured husband or wife, or both, who is then ipso facto 
divorced and can marry again, the adulterers being allowed to live together 
if they choose. Eeputed witches and wizards are killed, as are poisoners, 
whilst the punishment for the mere possession of poison is slavery. 

The father’s property passes by will to his children and it is the custom to 
share it nearly equally among them, but always giving 
aw o n entance. eldest sou the largest share and sometimes giving a 



238 


BRITLSH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


little more to the youngest than to those between. Nothing is given to the 
widow, but she is entitled to the use of the property till her death. 

When a Kareng of property made his will, before letters were introduced, 
he killed an ox or a buffalo and made a feast at which every inhabitant of 
the village was invited to attend. At the feast he declared his wishes as to 
the disposal of his property and prayed that the disposition he had made 
might be carried. out after bis death. 

The mother has no property of her own. If she brought property at her 
marriage it became her husband'^s ; but at her husband’s death she takes 
his place, the Kareng say, and the property is hers to use till her death after 
which it goes to the children, according to the will of the father. She has 
no power to make any other disposition of it. 

In the event of a second marriage the children of a mature age take 
possession of the property their father left them : the second husband is not 
allowed to appropriate to himself any part of the property of the first husband, 
nor can the children of the second marriage share in it, though in the case 
of minors it may remain in the mother’s hands. 

Formerly, and occasionally even in the present day, when a Kareng, has 
been repeatedly to one that owes him money, without 

Civil Suit. obtaining it, and has perhaps been treated uncivilly, he 

calls out the posse comitatus, so far as his friends constitute it, and when a 
favourite opportunity occurs, they go and seize the debtor in his house or 
field and bring him off ; sometimes taking also one or two of his family or 
friends. When the debtor is set down bound before his creditor the latter 


will say to him : — I have no feud with* thee. On the contrary I compas- 
sionate thee. But thou borrowed st money of me, thou borrowedst kyee-zee 
of me. The money was in my wallet, and I took it out and gave it to thee ; 
my kyee-zee was in my room, and I tied a string to it, and slung it on thy 
^ head, and caused thee to bear it away. Therefore I went and asked thee for 
** the return of my money ; I went and requested thee the price of the kyee-zee. 
But thou wouldst not pay me ; thou wert abusive to me ; thou stirredst up 
strife. Thy language was contentious ; thy words were not peaceable. Thou 
didst not give me food to eat ; thou didst not give me water to drink. Thou 
wast angry with me, thou didst hate me. I went after thee ; and returned 
hungry and thirsty. I ascended mountains and descended into valleys; I 
suffered from heat, and I suffered from cold. Thou didst not repay me my 
" money; thou didst not pay me for my kyee-zee. Many years have elapsed ; 
many months have passed over. So now I have commenced an action against 
thee ; now I have made an attack on thee. Thou didst borrow one kyee-zee 
of me ; now thou must pay me two. Thou didst borrow one share of me ; 
now thou must pay me two. Thou didst borrow one hundred rupees of me ; 
‘^now thou must repay me two hundred. If thou dost not pay me I will sell 
"thee to repay me for my money to pay me for my kyee-zee. And when I 
" seli thee, I shall do that which is right and proper/’ Cases have been tried 
in our Courts in which the debtor prosecuted the creditor for his forcible 
seizure and exaction of the kyee-zee. 

The Kareng are remarkable for believing in one Eternal GOD, Creator 
Beligion. things, called by the Sgaw and Pwo Ywa and by 

the Bghai Ta-ywa, " who is like the air and lives in the 
"sky as does the wind and like the wind goes everywhere,^’ but who has no 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


239 


place in their paradise, and who originally dwelt amongst them and only left 
them after fruitless endeavours to draw them to himself. Though detesting 
idolatry and having the greatest contempt for Booddhism they yet credit the 
most childish myths regarding this Supi’eme Being, as that he had a brother 
called Shie-woo, who, according to one tribe had three eyes, with whom he 
fought and, proving the strongest, threw under the eax'th. The name Shie-woo 
• and the tradition of his having had three eyes would seem to point to Shiva, 
and, consequently, to a Hindu origin for this belief. 

It has been asserted that there is a considerable difference between the 
religion of the Kareng-nee and that of the rest of the race, the former 
having arrived at the monotheistic idea,’* whilst the latter are still 
struggling with the crude religious ideas connected with the primitive belief 
in ghosts or spirits/"* This is an error ; the Kareng-nee, a clan of the Sgaw 
family, do not differ at all from their brethren in religion, and but little 
in ceremonies. Excluding those who have been converted to Christianity, the 
whole race invokes the aid and deprecates the wrath of innumerable unseen 
spirits but never sacrifice or pray to the Supreme Being, whose existence is 
equally acknowledged by all. To a non-christian Kareng, be he Sgaw, Pwo 
or Bghai ; Pakoo, Kareng-nee or Hashwie, the world is filled with invisible 
spirits : every living being be it man or beast or creeping thing, has its La ; every 
mountain peak, tree, cataract and river has its lord, and every lord a 
number of attendants, agents to carry out his will, who are the La of those 
who have died violent deaths. These lords reside near the physical object 
which they protect, seated on the mossy crag, under the forest tree, or in the 
foaming torrent. Their attendants, the ghosts, smoking pipes with gold and 
silver stems and armed with swords and spears, lurk in every nook and 
ci’anny, and should a luckless Kareng ignorantly touch one of these powerful 
guardians or step upon their attendants* nnseen weapons they rise in anger 
and afflict him with sore diseases and must be propitiated with bloodless 
sacrifices. 


The principal lords are he of the earth and she of the rice crops, and to 
Lord of the earth. appropriate offerings are made at the proper times. 

Among the southern Sgaw the sacrifices to the first are 
offered annually in January, whilst amongst the Bghai the ceremony occurs 
once in three years in July : though ostensibly to the Lord of the earth 
the prayers and ceremonies shew that all the lords, and their attendants as 
well, are included. (See Bghai and Sgaw ) . 

The goddess of the harvest, called Bie-yaw, is invoked annually when the 


crops are sown. Two different accounts are given of the 
Goddess of the origin of the custom; according to one a poor man 
* surrounded by rich neighbours was much oppressed by 

them, and they would give him only three grains of rice from which to raise a 
crop. An old woman named Bie-yaw, who had been inhospitably treated by the 
opulent, was kindly received by the poor man ; she proved to be a goddess and 
in return for the treatment which she had received she caused a fall of 


rain to destroy the wealthy and their possessions, but the three grains of rice 
of her benefactor to produce a plentiful crop, and before leaving him, then the 
only man on earth from whom all are descended, she instructed him in the 


ceremonies to be performed to insure her favour. The second is, that Bie- 
yaw and her husband assuming the form of pythons wound themselves round 



240 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


the pile of unhusked rice which thereupon increased enormously, but the 
owner ignorantly killed the male snake on which the female escaped cursing 
him and eventually^ owing to the curse, he was sold as a slave. When the 
rice plants are a few inches high a small hut is built in the field, and in it 
are placed two ropes, whilst the following prayer is offered. Grand -mother 
thou guardest my field, thou watchest over my plantation. Look out for 
" men entering ; look sharp for people coming in. If they come, bind them • 
with this string, tie them with this rope, do not let them go. If they will 
pay fines of money, do not let them go ; if they will pay fines of silver, do 
not let them go ; but if they will pay fines in barns of rice, dismiss them. 
Eat, grand-mother, guard my field, watch over my plantation. Pour down 
thy children’s rice, grand-mother, or thy children’s fields will come to 
nought, sweep it off with thy hand, bring it down continually.” From 
the time of sowing until the completion of this ceremony Bie-yavv has been 
sitting on the chained stumps, so that unlike the other deities, she is su])posed 
to be ubiquitous. When the crop is gathered and being threshed Bie-yaw is 
again prayed to to give a good out-turn. 

The ghosts and their masters, the lords, are not the only enemies whom 
the Kareng dreads ; in former times they say that God made 
a mixture of the flesh of every animal and directed them 
to eat the whole, for if they omitted to eat any that animal would hereafter 
become invisible and eat them ; accidentally they neglected to eat of the flesh 
of the Na since which time it preys upon them causing sickness and death 
and is incarnate in tigers, serpents and other wild animals and reptiles, and 
must be driven away from their fields and their houses. But, perhaps, the most 
formidable danger to which he is exposed is that of the 
Adverse La. attacks of seven spirits who are always on the watch to kill 
him and who are pledged to destroy him : one by the mouth of a tiger, one by 
old age, one by sickness, one by drowning, one by the hand of man, one by 
a fall and the last by every other means. 

Though in continual fear of assaults which he can neither foresee nor resist, 
he is not left unprotected, his guai’dian spirit, his La, 
Protecting La. accompanies him seated on his neck or head, and as long 

as he so remains the Kareng is safe from all attacks ; but the La, may be 
enticed away by others, or may jump down, or wander away during the body^s 
sleep, and then follows sickness and death. If a man pines away his La is 
supposed to be wandering and must be called back with an oflering of food. 

The Kareng ideas of a future state ai*e confused and indefinite. Some 
believe that the next world will be precisely like this, but 
Future state. reversed. Day here will be night there, north here south 
there, and that its inhabitants will be employed precisely as now. Another 
belief is that at death when the La leaves the body, it is judged by a Minos ; 
those who have done good go to paradise, whence they exercise a watchful 
care over their descendants, presiding especially over births and marriages, and 
are worshipped by their descendants ; those who have done evil go to the 
place of punishment ; whilst those who have done neither good nor evil are 
sent to Hades ; those only being excluded from entering any of these three 
(a) whose bodies are unburied or unburned, these become ghosts ; {b) who have 
died violent d^ths, these become the invisible servants of the numerous earthly 
gods and (c) those who have been unjust rulers or who have been put to death 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


241 


Witchcraft. 


for their crimes who take the forms of birds and beasts and are propitiated with 
prayers and sacrifices. 

The belief in witchcraft is strong. Witches and wizards, unlike those of 
European countries, have made no compact with the devil, 
but are those who have obtained possession of a Na, already 
alluded to : they have the power of producing mortal diseases by introducing 
foreign substances into the bodies of others, however distant. Dr. Mason 
records a case which came under his own notice in Tavoy in which a Kareng 
died from water in the cavity of the viscera and having been supposed to 
be bewitched his friends were called in to witness the post mortem in order 
to convince them that he had died from natural causes. Very different was 
the effect produced, for the Kareng exclaimed ; “ Before we only suspected it, 
“ but now we know that he died from witchcraft, for there is the water that 
was put into him by enchantment.^^ In another case which, however, 
occurred more than 25 years ago, two Kareng appeared before a petty 
official, also a Kareng, accusing an individual of having a Na, The reply which 
they received was such that they, in open day, killed the unfortunate man 
whom they suspected. 

Almost all Kareng of the Bghai family and of the Par-koo clan of the Sgaw 
have in their houses stones to which they make offerings 
Stone wors ip. blood, because if they do not give it blood to eat, it 

will eat them.” Some of these stones are supposed to give good crops of rice, 
others to be the embodiment of beneficent spirits, which, however, sometimes 
turn out malevolent, and others to kill those whom their owners dislike. 
These stones have nothing peculiar in their appearance ; they are mere bits of 
rock crystal, chalcedony, or sometimes even bits of sandstone or stratifi.ed rock. 

The year is divided into twelve lunar months commencing with January 
and ending with December, whereas the Burmese, Shan, 
Divisions of the and Talaing years commence about March. As the English 
^ ninth month is called ‘ September,’ the tenth ^ October,*^ 

the eleventh ‘ November,’ and the twelfth ‘ December’, shewing that the 
months must have been named when the year began in March, so the Kareng 
eighth month is called seventh month,” and the ninth the " eighth month,” 
and must have been so called when the year commenced in December as it 
does at Asadakh in Thibet. February is the searching month” ^ when the 
Kareng go out to hunt for sites for their fields;] August, the month of gladness,^’ 
because the rice is in the ear ; April, the seed month,” when the rice is sown, 
and December the month of shades,” because then the annual offerings to 
the manes of their ancestors are made. There are some slight differences 
amongst the Kareng-nee ; June with them is the seventh month,” whilst 
August is not the month of gladness” but Ai-doo on account of a feast which 
is described suh-tit- Kareng-nee. 

Those Kareng who have settled in the plains have adopted the same 
method of cultivation as that followed by the Burmese and 
System of cultiva- Talaing but those living in the hills sow their crops 
in what are called toungya or hill gardens. In January 
or February the house-owner goes out to search for a site, and having found 
one which suits him he picks up a clod of earth and puts it under his pillow, 
if his dreams are favourable well and good, if unfavourable be must renew his 
search over and over again till he finds a spot the earth of which brings good 

31 



242 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


omens to him in his sleep. He then goes out with his family and cuts down 
the trees on the patch. The operation is commenced by cutting a slight 
note hin the largest trees at the bottom and proceeding upwards, leaving 
the smaller trees untouched but increasing the depth of the incision in 
the larger trees as the top of the patch, always on the side of a hill, is 
reached ; here the largest trees are cut quite through and thus fall on 
those below ; an impetus is created which increases as it moves steadily 
down the hill side, and with one lengthened crash prostrates the whole 
forest vegetation.”*^ All is then left till April when the accumulated mass 
is dry enough to burn, a new house of bamboos being built in the mean- 
while in some secluded spot close by : then the dry timber is lighted and the 
ashes serve as manure whilst the heat of the fire breaks up the ground to 
the depth of a few inches. In May, after the first rains, the rice is sown, 
holes being dibbled into the ground and the grains dropped in. When the 
rice is well up, cotton, capsicums and Indian-corn are planted between the 
ridges. Near the house are sugar-cane, yams (near dry logs over which their 
tendrils creep), and piper betel near some tall trees up which the plant can 
wind. A small hut is built in the patch in which a boy or a girl is placed 
to frighten away the birds and wild hogs, and, after two or three weedings, 
the crop is reaped in October and threshed by the men beating the ears 
against a beam or treading the grains out with their toes, for they have no 
buffaloes like their lowland neighbours. Whilst the plants are in the ground 
the men are employed in fishing and are aided by the women who go to the 
banks of streams with small hand nets. Animals are trapped, or shot with 
bows and arrows and food thus provided. In some places they have permanent 
gardens of the Areca palm, the nuts of which are chewed with the 
leaf of the piper betel, lime and tobacco, by all races, Burman, Talaing 
and Kareng. These gardens are generally on the margins of mountain 
streams and are irrigated by water conducted in artificial channels from 
the parent streams at spots above the level of the plantation. When 
the rice crops have been gathered the Kareng visit the villages in the plains 
bringing in betel- nuts, rice, fowls, wild honey, bees- wax, and in some places 
cardamoms (found growing wild), and thus obtain funds wherewith to support 
themselves and to pay their taxes. Often, however, they dispose of their 
produce to Burmans and others who at this season visit the hills taking with 
them cotton goods and other articles to exchange. 

Population. Kareng population according to the census in 

1872 numbered 331,255 souls. 

ELARENG-AYAING. — The Burmese name of a clan of Bghai Kareng. 
See Bghai-ka-hta. 

KARENG-NEE. — Called by themselves Ka-rajhy Shans Yang~aing,hjihe 
Gaikho Tke^pya, and Bghai-moo-hte or eastern Bghai by^ the rest of the family. 
They occupy the country north of the province but some have emigrated into 
British territory. They are divided into Eastern and Western Kareng-nee, of 
whom the former are by far the more numerous. They are the most civilized 
and at the same time the most ferocious of all the Kareng tribes, preying 
without mercy on their weaker southern neighbours, a practice which the 
western branch has, however, to a great extent given up. They belong to the 

*Bepon by Mr. O'Biley, Assistant Commissioner in the Toung-ngoo district, 1855. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


243 


Bghai tribe and, like the majority of that clan, wear trowsers. The men 
“ wear short red pants with perpendicular, very narrow, black or white stripes. 
" Sometimes the pants have a black ground and the stripes are red or white. 
Below the knee are black bands formed of twisted thread and varnished 
with the black varnish that abounds in this country obtained from the Melan- 
norrhcea usitatisshna. A wrapper of white with a few red or black stripes is 
** wrapped around the body, and many wear Shan jackets which seem to be an 
addition to the Kareng dress. A bright red turban is worn on the head and an 

ornamented bag is hung across the shoulder The female dress is 

peculiarly picturesque, though every garment is only a rectangular piece of 
" cloth. The head dress is a large red or black turban, wound up to form a 
“ small tower on the top of the head. There is no gown but a cloth like the 
" Roman toga, tied by two corners on the right shoulder, and the left arm 
is sometimes kept covered, but more often it is drawn out above the garment. 
A second piece of cloth, like the first, is kept on the hand like a loose shawl 
or tied around the waist. One of these garments is usually red and the 
“ other black, though occasionally both are red. For a petticoat another 
rectangular piece of cloth is wrapped two or three times around the person, 
and is kept in its place by a wampum belt, some half a dozen inches in 
diameter. Another enormous band of beads is worn below the knee and on 
the ankles large silver bangles. Both sexes wear bangles on the wrists, and 
" the women a profusion of silver necklaces formed of ingots of silver, or coins, 
to which are added a dozen or more strings of beads. Ear-drops are worn by 
both men and women, and the latter add silver ear-plugs an inch or more in 
diameter.'^* The men have the rising sun tattooed in red across the small 
of the back. 

The majority of their customs are the same as those of the rest of the 
Bghai family but in some points they diflPer. At the birth of a child, when 
the mother is able to move about, which is generally in about three days, a 
feast is given by the father to all who choose to come, and the mother, 
taking the child on her back, goes down out of the house and, digging the 
ground a little, pulls up a few weeds, thus symbolizing her undertaking to 
support her infant (for she is supposed to have gone to the rice field and 
worked therein) and then returns; after this presents are made to the 
child (of silver or of iron if a boy and of beads or of a fowl or of a pig if a girl) 
and it is named after some relation or after some one who has given large 
presents. 

They never betroth their children in infancy and their marriage ceremony 
is peculiar. The two young people having made up their minds to marry and 
the parents having given their consent (which they rarely refuse) the bride- 
groom makes a feast in his house to which the bride and some female 
companions come. During the feast the bridegroom presents a cup of 
spirits to the bride asking Is it agreeable This she takes, replying It is'’ 
^‘agreeable.*” She and her companions remain all night and returning home 
next morning prepare a feast to which the bridegroom and his friends come 
and the ceremony of presenting the cup of spirits is again gone through, 
this time the bride being the questioner ; occasionally the I'eply, given play- 
fully, is “ Not agreeable,” when the spirits must be offered and the question 


Burma, by Dr. Magon ; pp. 89,00. 



244 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


asked till a favourable answer is received. The feast in the bride’s house 
completes the whole ceremony. 

The names of their months are slightly different from those employed 
by other Kareng. Though their year commences in January, June is the 
seventh month,’^ but July is not called the eighth/^ and August instead 
of being called the month of gladness ” is named Ai-doo,” after a feast 
peculiar to themselves, the origin of which is unknown ; hogs, fowls and 
oxen are killed and all the villagers feast together and send food and spirits 
to their friends elsewhere. Drums are beaten, muskets loaded only with 
powder fired off, and the whole is a three days saturnalia during which 
accidents often happen and houses are set on fire. In another point are their 
customs different from those of the rest of the Bghai : they never offer a 
hog to the spirits of their ancestors. 

KA-EEE-THENG. — A small village, of 390 inhabitants in 1877, on the 
eastern bank of the Ka-rwa-dai river, the head-quarters of the Mek-ka-la-gya 
circle, Oo-rit-toung west township, Akyab district, 

KAEENG-LE-KHYENG. — A small village in the Toung-ngoo district 
on the bank of the Ee-nwe stream, at the foot of the western slopes of the 
Rek-kan-tseng spur, about seven miles due west of the Tsit-toung and five 
south of Upper Burma : there is here one of the frontier police posts. 

KA-ROOP-PEE. — A small river in the Amherst district, formed by the 
junction of numerous mountain streams which rise in the western slopes of 
the Toung-gnyo range. It falls into the sea nearly opposite Double Island. 

KA-ROOP-PEE. — Arevenue circle in the Wa-kha-roo township, Amherst 
district, situated between the Toung-gnyo hills on the east, the sea on the 
west, the Pa-nga circle on the north, and the Tsam-ba-ra circle on the south. 
The eastern portion is hilly, producing valuable timber such as Ka-gnyeng 
and Pyeng-gado. The remainder consists of sandy hillocks with intervening 
plains of considerable extent and the whole is intersected by tidal creeks of 
large size. Communication with other places is difficult except in the fine 
season, when boats can venture out of the creeks into the open sea. Salt is 
made near the sea coast. The population, who are principally Talaing, 
numbered 1,219 in 1868 and 1,844 in 1876, when the land revenue was 
Rs, 2,692 and the capitation tax Rs. 1,732. 

KA-ROOP-PEE. — A large village in the Wa-kha-roo township of the 
Amherst district, in the circle of the same name, on the left bank of the 
Ka-roop-pee stream near its mouth. In 1869, when an Assistant 
Commissioner was placed in charge of the sub-division, the Extra Assistant 
Commissioner in charge of the township was transferred hither from 
Amherst. A few years later, when the Assistant Commissioner was removed, 
Amherst again became the head-quarters of the township. In 1868 it 
had 865 and in 1877 1,297 inhabitants. The name is Talaing and is 
derived from a tradition of its having been originally founded by three 
Chinamen. 

KA-TA-WA.— A revenue circle in the Mro-houng township of the 
Akyab district on the Koo-Ia-dan river. In 1876 the population was 2,020, 
the land revenue Rs, 7,080, the capitation tax Rs. 2,464 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 9,898. The Thoogyee resides in a small village of the same 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


245 


name situated on the eastern bank of the Koo-la-dan, which had 252 
inhabitants in 1877. 

KA-THA-HPA-KAKENG. — A villag’e in the Kjaik-kaw circle, Tha-htoon 
township, Amherst district, at the foot of the western slopes of the Martaban 
hills. In 1877 the inhabitants numbered 529 souls. 

KATOO-BYENG. — A revenue circle in the Ka-ma township, Thayet 
district, to which have been added Tha-gnyan, Tsheng-tshway-myoung, Zee- 
daw, Kywai-goung, Goon-meng-myoung and Tsam-bay-khyoon. The Tha- 
gnyan Thoogyee resigned in 1863, when his circle was joined to Zee-daw, and 
the Zee-daw Thoo-gyee in 1872, and the united circles were added to Tsam- 
bay-khyoon. In 1870 the Goon-myeng-myoung Thoogyee resigned and the 
circle was added to Kywai-goung. Subsequently Tsam-bay-khyoon (with 
Tha-gnyan and Zee-daw) and Kywai-goung (with Goon-myeng-myoung) were 
joined to Katoo-byeng. In 1872 these circles had a population of 1,608 
souls and in 1876 of 1,626 : in 1872 the land revenue was Rs. 1,758 and in 
1876 lls. 2,425 ; in the latter year the capitation tax was Rs. 1,812 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 4,379. The Thoogyeeship of Katoo-byeng was held heredi- 
tarily, but in 1826, before the annexation of Pegu, the then Thoogyee, 
Moung Oung Tsee, sold his birthright to one Mouug Khat. The principal 
products are rice, sessamum, plantains, maize, thatch -grass and cutch, the 
last principally in the old Kywai-goung circle. In the Zee-daw circle was an 
irrigation reservoir known as the Zee-daw-kau’^ or Zee-daw tank, but the 
embankment gave way several years ago, 

KATOO-BYENG. — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Ka-ma township, Thayet district, on the left bank of the Ma-de stream, con- 
taining rather over fifty houses. 

KA-TSENG. — A circle in the Hmaw-bhee township, Rangoon district, 
added to it, with Htan-ta-beng, Pa-dan and Kyoon-oo, in 1874, from the 
Eng-ga-bhoo township which was then broken up. In shape it is an irregular 
triangle with the apex towards the west and the base formed by the Hlaing 
river. On the north it is separated from the Htan-ta-beng circle by the 
Hta-ka-loung creek, on the west from Kyoon-oo by Jhe Eng-ka-laing, and on 
the south from Pa-dan by the Tsoo-la-gan. The area comprised within these 
limits is about 20 square miles. The country is a vast flat plain, treeless, 
except near the villages which are thinly shrouded in bamboos of inferior 
growth and cocoanut trees, and highly intersected by tidal creeks, most of them 
navigable by large boats at the flood and in many cases spanned at the 
villages by high wooden foot bridges. The whole area is subject to inunda- 
tion during the rains and the soil is poor, producing only from 30 to 40 
baskets of unhusked rice per acre. 

In 1876 there were 17,788 acres of rice (excluding 1,579 acres left fallow), 
two acres of dhanee, five acres of garden and seven acres of miscellaneous 
cultivation. 

In 1877 the agricultural stock was : — 


Buffaloes . . 



1,006 

Oows, buUs and bullocks 



178 

Pigs 



106 

Ploughs . . 



502 

Carts 



129 

Boats . . ••ml 



186 



246 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


The buffaloes are owned principally by the Taking* and Kareng inhabit- 
ants, the cows, bulls and bullocks by the Taking and Barmans, and the pigs 
by the Burmans and Chinese. 

In the same year the inhabitants were : — 


Talaing 




1,436 

Burmans . , 




1,043 

Shan 




872 

Kareng 




44 

Chinese 




4 

Natives of India 

, , 



11 


3,410 

living in ten villages, of which the largest was Pouktan on the stream of the 
same name rather more than a mile from its mouth, with 604 inhabitants, 
and Rakhaing-yo, where the Thoogyee lives, on the Rakhaing-yo creek 
about a mile and a half south of Pouktan, with 611 inabitants. By far the 
larger portion of the population are agriculturists and coolies. 

In 1876 the land revenue was Es. 19,408, the capitation tax Rs 3,858 
and the gross revenue Rs. 23,371. 

;^-WA. — A large village in the Rangoon district, with 1,053 inhabit- 
ants in 1877, on the right bank of the Pegu river in 17° 4 30^^ N. and 
96° 31* 10' E,, inhabited principally by Taking agriculturists and petty 
traders. In 1878 a considerable portion of the village was burned down, the 
result of the spreading of a jungle fire. 

KA-WA. — A tidal creek in the Shwe-loung township, Bassein district, 
joining the Irrawaddy on the east to the Kyoon-pa-doot on the west, which at 
the floods can be traversed by boats fifty feet in length. In the rains it 
imites with the Moung-dee, another tidal creek running north and south. 

KA-WAI. — A small river which rises amongst the eastern slopes of the 
Arakan mountains and, flowing eastwards, falls into the Irrawaddy just above 
the town of Thayet. It is of no importance, is not navigable, and in the hot 
weather is almost dry. 

KAW-BHIEN. — A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran township, 
Amherst district, extending southwards from the left bank of the Gyaing 
east of Maulmain from which it is separated by the Kyaik-paran circle. In 
1876 the land revenue was Rs. 5,642, the capitation tax Rs. 1,878, the 
gross revenue Rs. 7,520 and the population 2,883. 

KAW-BHIEN. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Gyaing 
Attaran township of the Amherst district, on the east or right bank of the 
Attaran and south of the Kaw-bhien, one of its tributaries, a stream of little 
or no importance. In 1877 it had 1,400 inhabitants. 

KAW-BOUK.— A village in the Kaw-bhien circle, Gyaing Attaran 
township, Amherst district, to the north of and near Kaw-bhien. In 1877 
it had a population of 670 souls. 

KAW-DWON.— A revenue circle in the Gyaing Than-lweng township, 
Amherst district, formed of the islands opposite Maulmain on the south and 
Kado on the east, at the junction of the Salween, the Gyaing and the Attaran 
nvers. These islands are fertile and are well cultivated by their Taking 
mhahitants who in 1876 numbered 777 ; that year the land revenue was 
Es. 4,428 and the capitation tax Rs. 972.^ 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


247 


KAW-DWOT. — A village in the Ewa-lwot circle of the Bhee-loo-gywon 
tow'nship, Amherst district, east of Ka-law, In 1867^ this village had a 
population of 343 souls, principally Talaing, and in 1877 of 682. 

KAW-DWOT. — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Re La-maing township of the Amherst district, on the left bank of the La-maing 
river, near its mouth. In 1877 it had 975 inhabitants. The name is Talaing 
and means island village. 

KAW-DWOT. — A revenue circle on the sea coast in the Re La-maing 
township of the Amherst district, well cultivated by the inhabitants who are 
mostly Talaing and who in 1876 numbered 1,600 souls. The land revenue 
in that year was Rs. 4,820 and the capitation tax Rs. 1,653. 

KA-WEK, — A revenue circle, about 15 square miles in extent, in the 
Myoung-mya township, Bassein district, in the delta of the Irrawaddy, between 
the Poo -loo and the Tha-yaw-boon channels on the south, east and west, and 
bounded on the north by the small Ka-wek creek which flows between these 
two. The north-western and western portion of the circle only are cultivated. 
It has no roads. The only stream of any importance is the Poo -loo which 
is navigable by river steamers at all times ; the banks are densely wooded, 
but the timber is of no value. In 1876 the population was 2,211, the 

land revenue Rs. 4,778, the capitation tax Rs. 2,210 and the gross 

revenue Rs. 7,292. 

KA-WEK. — A tidal creek in the Than-lyeng township, Rangoon district, 
which falls into the Pegu five or six miles above Hpa -goo village. The 
banks are sandy and shelving and fringed in places with tree forest ; with the 
flood tide boats of 500 bushels burden can ascend for a considerable distance, 
as far as A-htoon village. In the rains, when the plains are flooded, boats 
can pass through from the pegu river to the sea. 

KAW-HLA. — A village in the Kado circle, Gyaing Than-lweng town- 
ship, Amherst district, on the right bank of the Gyaing a little to the 

north of Kado from which it is separated by a rice plain. In 1877 the 

inhabitants numbered 620 souls. 

KAW-HMOO. — A village in the Rangoon district, in 16° 31' 30" N. and 
96° 8' E. near the source of the Lek-khaik, divided into two or three parts. 
The inhabitants who are mainly Burmese and Kareng numbered 476 in 
1877 and are engaged principally in agriculture, but some are fishermen 
working the neighbouring A-twot lake and some are salt workers. 

KAW-HMOO. — A revenue circle in the centre of the lower half of the 
Angyee township, Rangoon district, lying between Pyaw-bhway, Ko-doung 
and Htan-ma-naing on the east, La-wa-dee on the south, Twan-te and len-da- 
poora on the west and Ma-hlaing and Pan-hlaing on the north. Its extreme 
length is about fifteen miles and its extreme breadth about nine. The western 
portion of the circle consists of high undulating ground covered with forest, 
whilst the eastern consists of low swampy ground or extensive sheets of 
water — the Bhoora-gyee, A-hpyouk and A-twot Eng. In the centre is a strip 
of rice land where most of the villages are found. During the last five 
years the population, area under cultivation and the revenue realized have 
been : — 



248 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Year. 

Popula- 

tion. 

Aeea, in acres, under 

Revenue, in rupees, from 

Bice. 

Garden 

1 

Total. 

Land. 

Capita- 

tion. 

Ail other 
sources. 

Total. 

1872-73 

; 5,216 

3,334 

44 

3,378 

13,375 

5,107 

1,990 

20,552 

1873-74 

4,554 

5,426 

51 

5,477 

15,521 

5,242 

2,000 

22,763 

1874-75 

5,660 

4,426 

52 

4,478 

12,021 

6,022 

2,500 

20,543 

1875-76 

6,045 

3,560 

63 

3,613 

13,040 

5,525 1 

2,520 

21,115 

1876-77 

7,012 

4,526 

61 

4,587 

11,420 

4,522 

2,600 

18,543 


and the agricultural stock during the same period was : — 


Year. 

Buffaloes. 

Cows, hulls 
and bullocks. 

Goats. 

1 

2P 

CQ 

Ploughs. 

Boats. 

1872-73 



723 

980 

20 

282 

375 

159 

135 

1873-74 

.. 


802 

990 

13 


425 

149 

124 

1874-75 

.. 


904 

804 

29 

425 

352 

156 

130 

1875-76 


.. 

742 

664 

35 

423 

424 

200 

160 

1876-77 

•• 


824 

724 

45 

282 

355 

190 

170 


Informer years the fisheries constituted the riches of the circle, but in 1876 
the land revenue was Rs. 16,550, the capitation tax Rs. 7,928 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 26,543. 

KAW-HNAT. — A village in the Kado circle of the Gyaing Than-lweng 
township, Amherst district, north of and close to Kado. In 1877 it had 
523 inhabitants. 

KAW-KA-DWOT. — A village in the Zoot-thoot circle, Bheeleng Kyaik- 
hto township, Shwe-gyeng district, on the high road from Bheeleng to Kyaik- 
hto where it crosses the Thai-hpyoo river at the elbow formed by its sudden 
bend westward. In 1877 it had 1,333 inhabitants ; agriculturists and fisher- 
men who work the numerous fisheries in the neighbourhood. There is a police 
station in this village and a cattle market is held twice a week in the dry season. 

KAW-KA-LEE. — A small, but high and remarkable, island inside the 
month of the Tavoy river, called Reef Island in the charts. 

EAW-KA-MAY. — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Tlait-toung sub-division of the Shwe-gyeng district, in the southern portion of 
the plains stretching southward to the sea from Kyaik-hto, and on the bank 
of the Thai-hpyoo, a tributary of the Tsit-toung, In 1877 it had 955 
inhabitants. 






BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


249 


KAW-KA-MAY. — A revenue circle in the Tsit-toung sub-division of the 
Shwe-gyeng district, about 112 square miles in area, which extends from 
Kyaik-hto southwards to the coast along both banks of the Thai-hpyoo creek. 
In 1876 it had a population of 4,723 souls, of whom the majority are Talaing 
and a few Kareng. The river and sea fisheries furnish a small proportion of 
the revenue. The land revenue in 1876 was Rs. 12,480, the capitation tax 
Ks. 4,455 and the gross revenue Rs. 19,787. 

KAW-KA-RIET. — A small stream in the Amherst district, which has its 
source in the western slopes of the Dawna spur and after a W.S.W. course 
of a few miles flows past the village^of Kaw-ka-riet and a mile or two lower down, 
where it receives from the eastward the waters of the Hlaing, another moun- 
tain torrent, it turns westward and with a winding but generally westerly 
course between high banks dotted here with long grass, there with open tree 
forest, with occasional clumps of feathery bamboos hanging over the dark 
waters, it falls into the Houng-tha-raw a few miles above Kya-eng village. 
In the rains it is navigable by boats as far as Kaw-ka-riet village, but in 
the dry season it is impracticable above the mouth of the Hlaing: even in 
September it is little else than a shallow mountain torrent, depositing 
pebbles, coarse sand and gravel at the salient angles of the banks. At Kaw- 
ka-riet it is spanned by a wooden bridge connecting the two quarters of the 
village. 

KAW-KA-RIET. — The head -quarters of the Houng-tha-raw township, 
Amherst district. It is a straggling village on both banks of the Kaw-ka-riet 
stream, which is here spanned by a wooden bridge. Kareng live on the left 
and Burmans and Toungthoo on the right bank where are the Court-house 
of the Extra Assistant Commissioner in charge of the township, the police 
station and the Government market. In 1876 the population numbered 
2,135 souls and the land revenue was Rs. 2,318. There is here a cattle market 
held once a week. 

KAW-KA-EIET. — A revenue circle in the Houng-tha-raw township, 
Amherst district, between the crest of the Dawna spur and the Houng-tha-raw 
river. It is inhabited mainly by Kareng and is not extensively cultivated. 
In 1876 the population was 3,240, the land revenue Rs. 2,803 and the 
capitation tax Rs. 3,700. 

KAW-KA-RIT. — A revenue circle in the extreme south of the Salween 
Hill Tracts on the Rwon-za-leng river, near its mouth in the Salween, and 
adjoining the Amherst district. In 1876 the number of inhabitants was 
3,601, the land revenue Rs. 1,483 and the capitation tax Rs. 1,539. 

KAW-KHA-NEE. — A revenue circle in the Zaya township, Amherst 
district, south of and adjoining Kyouk-tan, which separates it from Maulmain, 
cut off from the Salween by a narrow strip of land which separates it from the 
Kyouk-tan and Hpa-ouk circles. Its total area is about 4,260 acres of which 
about two-thirds are upland adapted for garden cultivation. The tracts just 
below the high land are very poor, some yielding not more than from 15 to 
20 baskets an acre ; the lands nearer the Salween are good. Its inhabitants 
are principally Talaing and in 1876 numbered 1,406 souls ; in that year the 
land revenue was Rs. 3,154 and the capitation tax Rs. 1,415. 

KAW-LEE-YA. — A revenue circle lately added to the Shwe-gyeng 

32 



250 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


township of the Shwe-gy eng district from Rangoon, 192 square miles, about, in 
extent, lying west of Thoo-yai-tha-mee, with a population, in 1876, of 8,812 
souls, mainly Talaing. At the end of the rains the inhabitants are largely 
engaged in working the numerous lake and pond fisheries in the circle, 
from which the State derives a large revenue. In 1876 the land revenue 
was Rs. 1,988, the capitation tax Rs. 8,510 and the gross revenue Rs. 17,562. 

KAW-LOO-DO. — A block-house and Police post in the Salween Hill Tracts, 
four marches north of Pa-pwon, constructed in 1861 for the protection of the 
surrounding wild and mountainous country. In 1878 it was attacked and 
burned down by a marauding party of Kareng-nee. 

KAW-LOO-DO. — A mountainous and forest-clad revenue circle in the north 
of the Salween hilltracts. In 1876 the population, Kareng, numbered 4,074 
souls, the land revenue was Rs. 905 and the capitation tax Rs. 1,878. 

KAW-LOON. — A revenue circle in the Thau-lweng Hlaing-bhwai town- 
ship, Amherst district. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 884, the capitation tax 
Rs. 1,784 and the population 2,215 souls. 

KAW-PA-EAN. — A revenue circle in the Zaya township of the Amherst 
district, which now includes Paing-ka-raa and extends from the Toung-gnyo 
spur westwards to the sea coast immediately south of the Moo-doon and 
north of the Kwon-te circles. The old Paing-ka-ma circle consisted of two 
portions, one at the foot of the Toung-gnyo hills and the other on the bank 
of the Salween, Kaw-pa-ran lying between them. Included within the 
limits of old Kaw-pa-ran is Bha-louk, once an independent circle, added to 
Kaw-pa-ran about 25 years ago. The inhabitants are chiefly Talaing 
agriculturists, who numbered 2,844 in 1876, when the land revenue was 
Rs. 6,095 and the capitation tax Rs. 2,462. 

KAW-EAN-GYEE. — A small island off the western coast of the Bassein 
district, near the mouth of the Nga-root-khoung river ; the Coringee ” of the 
old charts. Limestone is found on the island gnd is brought to the mainland 
and burned. 

KAW-THAT. — A village in the Ta-ra-na circle of the Gyaing Than-lweng 
township, Amherst district, on the left bank of the Gyaing, west of Ta-ra-na. 
In 1877 the inhabitants numbered 756 souls. 

KA-ZEE. — A revenue circle in the south-eastern township of the Tavoy 
district inhabited by a few Kareng and with very little cultivation, principally 
of sessamum and cardamoms. It now includes Tha-hpyoo-khyoung and Tsaw- 
bhoora. In 1876 there were only 845 inhabitants, the land revenue was 
Rs. 865, the capitation tax Rs. 782 and the gross revenue Rs. 1,115. 

KE-LA-THA. — The highest peak in the hills immediately north of 
Keng-rwa, the end of the mass of mountains between the Tsit-toung and the 
Bhee-leng rivers. A large and conspicuous pagoda caps the hill and was 
formerly much resorted to by pilgrims. The site is traditionally said to have 
been selected by Gaudama as the place in which to deposit one of his hairs 
which he had given to the hermit living on Ke-la-tha. At the foot of the 
pagc^ is a large slab of stone, unfortunately broken, with an inscription in 
Talaing the meaning of which is not known. Near the summit of the hill 
there is a noted well containing excellent water. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


261 


KE-LA-THA. — A revenue circle in the ReLa-raaing township, Amherst 
district, on the western slopes of the Toun^-gnyo chain. It is inhabited prin- 
cipally by Talaing and is to some extent under cultivation. In 1876 the 
population numbered 1,358 souls, the land revenue was Rs. 2,011 and the 
capitation tax Rs. 1,620. 

KE-LA-THA. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Re Lama- 
ing township of the Amherst district on the left bank of the La-maing river 
where a small Police force is stationed. In 1877 it had 826 inhabitants. 

KENG. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo district, lying in the south- 
west corner of the township of that name on the west coast of Ramree island, to 
the north of the mouth of the Ran-bouk stream. It has an area of seven square 
miles and in 1876 had a population of 3,668 souls. In that year the land 
revenue was Rs. 3,503, the capitation tax Rs. 3,979 and the gross revenue 
Rs, 7,767. This circle now includes Moo-reng, In addition to rice the 
principal products are coarse sugar and indigo. 

KENG-DAT. — A revenue circle in the Tha-boung township of the Basse! n 
•district, about 30 square miles in extent, occupying the corner formed by the 
junction of the Nga-won and Daga rivers. The country on the west is 
undulating but on the east it is flat and cultivated with rice. In 1876 the 
land revenue was Rs. 8,579, the capitation tax Rs, 4,477, the gross revenue 
Rs. 13,488 and the number of inhabitants 4,602. 

KENG-KHYOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Zaya township, Amherst 
district, extending from the Toung-gnyo hills on the east to the Salween on 
the west. It now includes Kwon-ta and a portion of Ka-ma-pa-tai. Towards 
the east is high forest-land, in the centre poor land and towards the west 
fertile soil with a fringe of dhanee plantations on the bank of the river. In 1868 
the population, who are principally Talaing agriculturists, numbered 979, the 
the land revenue was Rs. 3,212 and the capitation tax Rs. 985. In 1876 
these were 3,267, Rs. 7,215 and Rs. 3,177 respectively. 

KENG-RWA.— Alarge village in the Henzada district, with a population 
of about 800 souls in 1878, on the right bank of the Irrawaddy in 18° 25' 30"' N. 
and 95° 16' 40' E. near the northern frontier of the district. The inhabitants, 
who are mainly Burmese, are principally engaged in trading. 

KENG-RWA, — A revenue circle in the Tsit-toung sub-division of the 
Shwe-gyeng district between the town of Kyaik-hto and the upper course of 
the Thai-hpyoo. It has an area of about 220 square miles, and in 1876 had a 
population of 4,865 souls. It is but slightly cultivated and the revenue 
derived from leasing out the pond and lake fisheries is larger than that derived 
from the land which, in 1876, was Rs. 1,576; the capitation tax that year 
was Rs. 8,870 and the gross revenue Rs. 10,031. 

KENG-RWA, — A village in the circle of the same name, containing 1,349 
inhabitants in 1877, six miles to the south of Kyaik-hto, between that town and 
Kaw-ka^dwot, at the foot of the hills which bound to the north the plain country 
of the Tsit-toung sub-division and on the high road from Tsit-toung to 
Maulmain, There is here a Government rest-house and a small Police force. 
The inhabitants, many of whom are Toungthoo,are largely engaged in orchard 
cultivation, growing mangoes, oranges and doorians of notedly pure flavour. 



252 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER- 


During the Burmese time a small military force was stationed in this village, 
whence the name — Keng^^ a military post” and rwa a village.’^ 

KENG-THAN. — A village in the Prome district in 18° 26' 50'' N. and 
25° 27' 0" E. on the right bank of the Myit-ma-kha, seven miles from its source 
in the Engma lake : from this village a narrow tract of rice country extends 
southwards along the bank of the Myit-ma-kha into the Heuzada district. 

KENG-WA. — A tidal creek which traverses the united Zayat-hla and 
Kyoon-ta-nai circles of the Pan-ta-naw township, Thoon-khwa district, from 
north to south, nearly parallel to, and a few miles to the west of, the Irrawaddy 
into which it falls at Keng-wa; after this the river has taken a bend eastwards : 
at its northern end it communicates with numerous creeks, of which the principal 
is the Nga-ran ; its total length is from 18 to 20 miles. It is open for large 
boats with masts at all times and seasons. The banks are fringed with valu- 
able timber. 

KHA-BENG. — A village in the An-gyee township of the Rangoon district 
on the Moo-la-man creek with 125 inhabitants only in 1877, chiefly Talaingand 
Shan gardeners. It is the site of an ancient city where reigned the King ^ 
Tha-mien-htaw-byeeu-ran and his queen Mieu-da-de-wee, the founders of the 
Shwe Tshan-daw pagoda at Twan-te. The ruins of both the interior and 
exterior cities are still visible. On the opposite bank of the Moo-la-man is the 
Kyaik-keng pagoda ; to the south is a large ruined pagoda known as the 
Moung Tee, Moung Tee is said to have been the husband of a celebrated 
princess of Kha-beng, 

KHA-BOUNG. — A river in the Toung-gnoo district which rises in the 
Pegu Roma range and after a south-westerly course of 68 miles falls into the 
Tsit-toung about two miles south of Toung-gnoo. It is navigable for some 
25 miles. Rather more than twelve miles fi'om its mouth it flows past 
the ancient site of Toung-ngoo. Towards its source the banks are steep and 
its bed rocky. Teak, Theng-gan for boat-building, sessamum and a considerable 
quantity of betel-nut are brought down this stream for the Toung-ngoo maiket. 

KHA-BOUNG-GAN. — A village in the Prome district E, S, E. of the 
town of Prome from which it is about eight miles distant. 

KHA-DA. — A village in the Poung circle of the Martaban township, 
Amherst district, south of Poung the head-quarters of the township. In 1876 it 
had 823 inhabitants. 

KHA-LA. — A village in the Mergui district of the Tenasserim division, 
in 12° 0' 53^ N. Lat. and 98° 33' E. Long, with a small population of about 150 
souls. Before the conquest by Aloungbhoora it was a flourishing village. 
The American Baptist and a Roman Catholic Mission formerly had stations 
here but the former has been abandoned and a native catechist left in charge 
of the latter. The population is mixed Kareug and Barman. 

KHA-DAIK. — A village in the Kyaik-kaw circle, Tha-htoon township, 
Amherst district, on the bank of the Bhee-Ieng river not far from its mouth. 
In 1877 it had 539 inhabitants. 

KHA-DAING. — A highly -cultivated revenue circle in the southern portion 
of the Martaban township, Amherst district, on the west of the Martaban hills. 
In 1876 the land revenue, derived almost entirely from the rice land, was 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


253 


Rs. 13,907, tlie capitation tax Rs. 690 and the population 683. Some of the 
lands are owned and worked by inliabitaiits of the neighbouring circles. 

KHA-DAT-GYEE. — A revenue circle in the western township of the 
Tavoy district about 16 square miles in extent which in 1876 had a population 
of 1,175 souls, and a land revenue of Rs. 2,895 ; in that year the capitation tax 
was Rs. 902 and the gross revenue Rs. 4,049. The principal products are 
rice and salt. 

KHA-DAT-NGAY. — A revenue circle in the western township, Tavoy 
district, about 14 square miles in extent. In 1876 the laud revenue was 
Rs. 2,179, the capitation tax Rs. 1,604, the gross revenue Rs. 4,388 and the 
number of inhabitants 2,045. The principal products are rice, dhanee palms 
and salt. 

KHA-DWON. — A village in the Gaw circle, Martaban township, Amherst 
district. In 1867 the population of this village numbered 762 souls, and 646 
in 1877. 

KHA-LOUK-THAIK, — A village, of 659 inhabitants in 1877, in the 
Kyoon-ka-nee circle of the Myoung-mya township, Bassein district, on the 
eastern bank of the Kha-louk-thaik stream, about fifteen miles north-east of 
Myoung-mya. 

KHAMIE. — Sometimes written Khoomi, Koomi or Kummi. A hill- 
trlhe in Arakan, of the Toungtha class, inhabiting the hills bordering the 
Koo-la-dan and numbering about 7,000 souls. Of this race of people there 
are two divisions, called by themselves Khumie and Khamie but generally 
known under the common appellation of Khamie, They are the most warlike 
tribe living within the tribute-paying limits. It is probable that they have 
not been settled in their present seat for more than five or six generations but 
have been driven down from the distant hills by the more warlike and stronger 
Shandoo, and have in their turn driven the Mro to the foot of the hills and 
even to the plains. When questioned about the country occupied by their 
ancestors they point to the highest range of the Roma mountains and say 
that formerly their tribe was very numerous and had strongly stockaded 
villages in those hills, which are now occupied by Khyeng and Shandoo : 
indeed portions of the tribe have been driven out by the former within the 
memory of man. To this enforced immigration is probably due the gradual 
increase in their numbers. The language of the Khamie portion was reduced 
to writing by Mr. Stilson of the American Baptist Mission. They are 
divided into seventeen clans, each having a distinctive name viz., Rek-kha, 
Hteng-too-dza, Kray, Loon-loo, Tshit-too, Kan-1 we, Lien-kran, A-houng, 
Hpa-broo, Lien-khoop, Nhan-lay, Bha-leng, Kho-be, Loung-ta, Toung-too, 
Tsam-bale and Lee-loo. Each clan is under a separate Toung-meng, or Hill 
Chief.^^ Their religious system is very vague and consists in Nat, or spirit, 
worship. They adore the earth, the sun and every object that strikes their fancy, 
to each of which they accord a separate spirit. ‘‘Each peak in their native hills 
they hold to be the mountain watchtower of a god. Nothing could better 
illustrate this than the accompanying translation of part of a Kliamie’s prayer. 
Previous to an undertaking or an expedition, he lets loose a fowl, as an 
offering to the spirits, and utters the following : — ‘Oli spirit of the day-sun ; 
‘oh spirit of the rock-ledged gate ; oh spirit of the streams of the Iloo-tsa-loon ; 



254 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


^ oh spirit of the surges of the Kalak ; oh lords of the mountaiu peaks; 
‘‘^one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight times; take ye this my 
^ offering.’ 

Every object which is in motion they conceive to be so in virtue of a 
spirit. They have no religious superiors, but pay a certain amount of respect 
to those who pretend to be in communication with the spirits and the inter- 
preters of their will. Their only visible objects of worship are the trunks of 
three or four trees, which have been cut down in clearing a space for the 
village, and a similar number of pillar-like stones. These are fixed in the 
earth together, in the middle of a large shed, which is also used as the place 
of re-union and festivity of the village. 

They have no marriage ceremony : the bridegroom gives as much as he can 
to the father of the bride and takes her home. The women wear a short 
petticoat kept on by numerous brass rings round the waist ; the men are 
almost naked, but have a small cloth round the loins the ends hanging in 
front and behind, whence the Burmese corruption of the name into Khwe- 
myee or dog’s tail.” 

They have no regular cultivation but clear and plant toungya or hill- 
gardens with a species of indigenous rice called hill or red rice. As soon as 
the available soil near a village is exhausted, which on an average takes place 
in about three years, the whole village migrates to another spot and new 
houses are built. Wandering thus every three years and in continual dread 
of being massacred by their relentless foes, the Khamie do not know what 
comfort or security is and all their valuables are secreted in some hidden 
cave ; yet they are a merry and laughter-loving race and fond to a degree of 
beads with which they ornament everything they possess. 

They pay a tribute to the British Government and, since the appointment 
of a Superintendent of Hill Tracts, are gradually learning what peace and 
protection are. 

KHA-MOUNG-KHYOUN G. — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-hpyoo 
district, about 14 square miles in extent in the southern portion of Ramree 
island and on its eastern coast, in which sugarcane is largely cultivated. The 
population, who are mainly Arakanese, numbered 1,224 in 1876. In that 
year the land revenue was Rs. 1,741, the capitation tax Rs. 1,156 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 3,000. 

KHA-MOUNG-THWAY. — A revenue circle in the north-eastern town- 
ship of the Tavoy district, sparsely cultivated and inhabited by a few Kareug. 
Sessamum and cardamoms are the principal products, but the area under 
cultivation, entirely hill gardens, is very small. In 1876 the population was 
only 383 and the gross revenue Rs. 226, of which Rs. 48 was derived from the 
land and Rs. 176 from the capitation tax. 

KHA-NOUNG-TO. — A village in the Kha-noung-to circle, Angyeo 
township, Rangoon district, on the stream of the same name which flows 
between the Rangoon river and the Ka-ma-oung. It is divided into two portions 
distinguished as north"" and south.” In 1876 it had 1,882 inhabitants. 

jKHA-NOUNG-TO. — A revenue circle in the Angyee township, Rangoon 
district, west of and adjoining Dalla and north of the Ka-ma-oung stream. 
In 1876 the population numbered 5,844, the land revenue was Rs. 24,035, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


255 


the capitation tax Rs. 6,715 and the gross revenue Rs. 30,750. It was 
separated from Ma-hlaing in 1876. Since then the population has been : — 


Year. 

Talaing. 

Bunuans. 

Kareng. 

a 

c3 

OQ 

Chinese. 

Natives of 

India. 

Total. 

1875 

4,032 

792 

131 

106 

11 

! 

63 

1 

5,125 

1876 

1,633 

3,690 

103 

123 

16 

109 

6,674 

1877 

1,633 

3,710 

110 

129 

10 

136 

6,728 


and the area under cultivation and the stock were : — 


Year. 

Bice, including 
fallow. 

Garden. 

Miscellaneous. 

Total. 

Buffaloes. 

Cows, bulls and 
bullocks. 

Pigs. 

Carts. 

! 

to 

A 

.2 

Boats. 

1876 

, , 

11,641 


• , 

11,644 

629 

937 

70 

228 

671 

226 

1876 


12,554 

• • 

• • 

12,555 

641 

‘ 821 

115 

262 

640 

254 

1877 

•• 

12,501 


•• 

12,502 ' 

7991 

' 

799' 

1 

63 

253' 

596 

196 


KHA'NWAI-KHA-BHO. — A revenue circle in the south-west of the 
Pan-ta-uaw township, Thoon-khwa district, now including Myeng-ga-doung 
and extending along the left bank of the Irrawaddy southwards from the 
Pan-ta-naw river. The Re-baw-hlee, a shallow winding creek, traverses it in 
a general north and south direction. The face of the country is flat and 
covered, except where under cultivation, with grass and tree forest. In 1876 
the land revenue was Rs. 6,592, the capitation tax Rs. 5,923, the gross 
revenue, to a considerable extent derived from fisheries, Rs. 18,321 and 
the population 5,554. The principal village is Kha-nwai-kha-hbo. 

KHA-NWAI-KHA-HBO. — A village in the Pan-ta-naw township, Thoon- 
khwa district, in 16° 51' N. and 95° 25'E.,oa the left bank of the Irrawaddy. 
The inhabitants are principally fishermen. 

KHA'RAI. — A village on the right bank of the Hlaing at its junction 
with the Houug-tha-raw, in the Gyaing circle, Gyaing Than-lweng township, 
Amherst district, divided into two portions distinguished as North Kha-rai 
and South Kha-rai, In 1877 the two had 1,057 inhabitants. It lies on the 
edge of a small rice plain and is connected with the undulating ground 
behind it by a raised road constructed a few years ago by the inhabitants. 
It is one of the halting places for the Shan caravans which bring in cattle 
every year, and close by a cattle-market is regularly held. 

KHA-RAIK-THIT. — A highly populated and well cultivated revenue 
circle in the Amherst district, extending from the Salween on the east to the 













256 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Tsai-ba-la on the west across almost tlie whole of Bhee-loo-gywou. It has the 
Moo-rit-gyee and Weng-tsien circles on the north and Ka-hi-be on the 
south. Though one of the largest circles in Bhee-loo-gywon it was still larger 
in the Burmese time then comprising the present circle of Weng-tsien, which 
was cut off from it and divided into two called Weng-tsien and Moo-rit-gyee 
(since united by Captain Phayre, in 1848). The Heng-tha-ky won or Heng-tha 
Island in the Salween, which formerly belonged to the small circle of Nat-maw 
since abolished, has been added to it. In this circle there is a gap in the 
central line of hills where lies nestled amongst trees the village of Khyoung- 
tshoon, the head-quarters of the township. The lands on the west of the 
range are far more fertile than those on the east. A considerable area, 
between high and low water mark, is planted with Dhanee palms {Nipa 
fruticans). In 1876 the inhabitants of the united circles, who are principally 
Talaing, numbered 3,980^ the land revenue was Rs. 11,170 and the capitation 
tax Rs. 3,690. 

KHA-EAIK-THIT. — A village in the circle of the same name on Bhee- 
loo-gywon on a range of the hills which traverse the island, near the source 
of the Kha-raik-thit stream. It is the eastern suburb of Khyoung-tshoon and 
in 1876 contained 815 and in 1877 1,127 inhabitants. 

KHA-EAING. — A small village in the Sandoway district on an island 
of the same name in the Khoo circle of the Northern or Toung-goop township : 
in 1877 the inhabitants numbered 437 souls, 

KHA-EA-KYWON. — A very largely cultivated revenue circle in the 
Hpoung-leng township of the Rangoon district, extending from the Poo-zwon- 
doung to the Pegu river north of the Dha-bien creek, inhabited mainly by 
Talaing. The whole area consists almost entirely of rice land with but very 
little grass or tree forest. In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 86,241, the 
capitation tax Rs. 5,803, the gross revenue Rs. 42,558 and the population 
3,963. The largest village is Dha-bien in the south-east corner of the circle ; 
the inhabitants in 1877 numbered 1,321. 

KHA-EA-TSOO. — A small village in the Shwe-gyeng district, on the 
right bank of the Tsit-toung river at the mouth of the Kha-ra-tsoo creek 
which runs between the Tsit-toung and the Pegu rivers and was the old 
water route from Rangoon to Touug-ngoo and Shwe-gyeng, A small body 
of police is stationed here. 

KHA-EENG. — Two circles in the Amherst district. See Doo-tie-ya 
Kha-reng and Pa-ta-ma Kha-reng, 

KHA-EENG. — A village in the Doo-tie-ya Kha-reng circle, Gyaing 
Attaran township, Amherst district, about four miles from the mouth of the 
little Kha-reng streamlet. In 1877 it had 541 inhabitants. 

KHA-EWAL — A village in the Shwe-gyeng district, on the left bank of 
the Tsit-toung river a few miles above Tsit-toung, at the foot of some low 
pagoda- crowned laterite hills which give it an exceedingly picturesque 
appearance. It is noted for its kniv'es, choppers and swords. 

-^HA-TENG-MA-THA.— A small village in the Tham-boo-la circle, 

^ Mye-dai township, Thayet district, amongst the western spurs of the Pegu 
onaa lange. For some years after the close of the second Burmese war a 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


257 


small military force was stationed here ; this was subsequently replaced by 
a detachment of the local Pegu Light Infantry, and since 1861 it has been 
occupied by a small police force. 

KHAT-TEE-YA. — A village of 882 inhabitants in 1877 in the Thee- 
kweug circle of the Thee-kweng township, Basseia district, on the southern 
bank of the Pan-ma-wa-dee near its source, 

KHAT-TEE-YA. — A creek in the Bassein district, which rises on the 
eastern slopes of the Arakan mountains and falls into the Bassein river near 
Oo-tshit-kweng village. Boats 60 feet long can ascend at all seasons as far as 
Ka-dek-khyoung, a distance of about six miles. In the rains advantage is 
taken of the strong current downwards to float down rafts of bamboos cut in 
the hills amongst which the river has its source. 

KHAT-TOO. — A small river in the Bassein district which rises in the 
lower eastern slopes of the Arakan mountains and falls into the Bassein river 
at Le-myet-hna ; near its mouth it is about 30 feet wide and 12 feet deep, but 
higher up during the hot season there is little or no water in it ; the bed is 
sandy and gravelly : on its banks are found Pyengma (Lagerstroeinia regince) 
and Myouk-khyaw {Homalium tomentosum) in abundance and some 
teak. 

KHA-YA. — A revenue circle in the Gyalng Than-lweng township, 
Amherst district, on the right or northern bank of the Gyaing. In 1876 the 
land revenue was Rs, 3,035, the capitation tax Rs. 1,637 and the population 
1,684. 

KHA-YA. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Gyaing 
Than-lweng township, Amherst district, on the right bank of the Gyaing at 
the mouth of the Kha-ya streamlet. In 1877 it had 717 inhabitants. 

KHA-ZAING. — A revenue circle in the Than-lweng Hlaing-bhwai town- 
ship, Amherst district, in the angle formed by the junction of the Kha-zaing 
stream with the Hlaing-bhwai and extending northward to beyond the 
latitude of Hlaing village. The inhabitants, who are principally Kareng, 
numbered 1,373 in 1876, when the land revenue was Rs. 860 and the 
capitation tax Rs. 1,365. 

KHA-ZAING. — A small river in the Amherst district which rises in the 
lowlands between the Salween and the Hlaing-bhwai and flowing eastwards falls 
into the latter about half a mile below Kha-zaing village. It forms the 
boundary between the Than-lweng Hlaing-bhwai and the Gyaing Attaran 
townships towards the east, as the Hpa-an does towards the west, and in the 
rains the two communicate, when a small canoe can pass between the Hlaing- 
bhwai and the Salween. 

KHA-ZAING. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Than- 
lweng Hlaing-bhwai township, on the east bank of the Hlaing-bhwai river 
about half a mile north of the mouth of the Kha-zaing a western tributary of the 
Hlaing-bhwai. It contains a Police station and is the first halting place after 
leaving Gyaing on the route by water from Maulmain to Hlaing-bhwai. In 
1877 it bad 578 inhabitants. 

KHE-BOUNG. — A small village, of 551 inhabitants in 1877, in the 
Thoon-daik circle, in the Kyoon-pyaw township, Bassein district, on the 

33 



258 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


western bank of the Daga river,, opposite the town of Kyoon-pyaw. It was 
formerly known by its Talaing name of Kyaik-kha>nan, 

It is several times mentioned in Burmese and Talaing history during the 
reign of Badza-dhie-rit, king of Pegu. In A.D. 1406 (1410 according to 
Burmese history) the Burraans under Prince Meng-re-kyaw-tswa invaded 
Pegu but failed to take several towns in the south amongst which was 
Khe-boung. At the next invasion in A.D. 1418, however, Khe-boung was 
captured and remained in the possession of the Burmans until they were driven 
out in 1414. 

KHE-MAN. — A small revenue circle in the Poungday township, Prome 
district, east of the northern end of Poungday, well cultivated with rice but 
containing no large villages. Included in it are the formerly separate village 
tracts of Shwe-ban-daw and Kyoon-daing. In 1876 the land revenue was 
Bs. 992, the capitation tax Bs. 698 and the population 699. 

KHWA. — A small river forming a portion of the boundary between the 
Arakan and Pegu divisions. It takes its rise in the western slopes of the 
Arakan Roma range and after a S.S.W. course of about 20 miles it turns to 
the west for about 10 miles and then N.N.W. for 10 more when it disembogues 
in the Bay of Bengal in 17° 43' 54" N. Lat. and 94° 38' 9" E, Long,, a short 
distance below the village of the same name. Its mouth forms a good 
harbour but the entrance is rendered intricate and difficult by a bar of sand 
which stretches across its mouth and on which during the ebb there are not 
more than 2^ fathoms of water. It is affected by the tide as far as Than-ga- 
ta-rwa during neap and Pien-ne-goon-rwa during spring tides, and small boats 
can ascend as far as the former with the flood. Larger boats cannot go 
further up than Oon-mheng-rwa which can be reached in one tide. 

KHWA. — The head-quarters of the southern township of the Sandoway 
district, on the right bank of the Khwa river about a mile from its mouth. 
It has been much improved of late years and is well laid out with good broad, 
straight roads, crossing at right angles, one of which has been extended to 
the neighbouring village of Ta-man-goon. The one or two tidal creeks which 
run up into the village are crossed by wooden foot bridges, built principally 
by the people who, also, made the roads. The village is buried in a grove of 
fruit trees ; mango, tamarind, jack, coeoanut, &c. The houses are generally 
large and good, with timber posts, mat walls and thatched roofs. A little trade 
during the favouralde seasons of the year is carried on by sea with parts of the 
Bassein district further south and Chinese junks are occasionally seen 
at anchor off the village. The only public buildings are a Court-house and 
a police station. The population including that of the adjoining villages of 
Ta-man-goon, Alay-rwa and Khyeng-tsoo was 1,088 in 1875, of whom nearly 
all were Burmans, with a few Khyeng (52) and natives of India and only six 
Arakanese, and 1,303 in 1877. 

KHWA-LEK-YA. — A revenue circle in the Bassein district, on the left 
bank of the Khwa river, adjoining Sandoway on the north and lying between 
the Arakan Romas on the east and the Bay of Bengal on the west. It now 
includes Bhaw-mee and has, therefore, the Tsheng-ma circle on the south. 
The northern portion of the seacoast consists for the most part of a gently 
shelving sandy beach, backed by undulating ground covered with forest, with 
rooks appearing here and there ; below this the coast is rocky and abrupt 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


259 


for some distance ; this is succeeded by alternating sand and rock to the 
Oon stream where a rocky headland projects ; further south a sandy beach is 
again found, with forest-clad hills coming close do'wn to the water^s edge. 
The whole of the circle is a mountain tract covered with dense forest, with 
patches of rice cultivation, in fields towards the seacoast and elsewhere on the 
hill slopes. The principal tree is the Ka-gnyeng. In 1867 the population was 
1^769 and the land revenue Rs, 715. In 1876 the population was 2,460, 
the land revenue Rs. 1,010, the capitation tax Rs. 2,012 and the gross 
revenue Rs. 3,496. The name is derived from its position on the left 
{Burmanice right) bank of the Khwa. See Khwa-lek-ivai, 

KHWA-LEK-WAI. — A revenue circle in the extreme south of the 
southern township of the Sandoway district, with an area of 194 square 
miles, extending along the right bank of the Khwa river to the seacoast and 
including the once independent circle of Rahaing. To the south is the Basseia 
district and on the north the Loung-gyo circle. In 1875 the population 
numbered 2,319 souls, of whom 1,698 were in the old Khwa-lek-wai circle, 
almost entirely Burmans with 65 Khyengs, and 621, almost entirely 
Arakanese, in Rahaing : in the same year the capitation tax amounted to 
Rs. 2,160. In 1876 the population was 2,339, the land revenue Rs. 1,135, 
the capitation tax Rs. 2,214 and the gross revenue, largely derived from the 
net and fishery tax, Rs. 8,681. From Khwa, the principal village, a road 
leads via Rahaing-bya across the Romas to Henzada, used to some extent by 
Burmese traders. The meaning of the name is literally, Left hand 
Khwa,’"* that is the Khwa circle on the left bank of the Khwa, as Burmans 
call left^’ bank what the English call the right ” bank of a river. 

KHWA-TSHOON. — A village in the Kyoon-taw circle, Ra-thai-doung 
township, Akyab district, on the northern bank of the Ra-mouug-doon 
stream at its junction with the Lek-ya-dek and the Lek-wai streams. In 
1877 it had 682 inhabitants. 

KHWA-TSHOON. — A village in the Thai-gan circle, Ra-thai-doung 
township, Akyab district, on the western bank of the Ma-yoo river at the 
mouths of the Tsheng-deng-bwa and Koo-la-pan-zan. It is the residence of 
the Thoogyee of the circle and in 1877 had 748 inhabitants. 

KHYAN-THA-GYEE. — A pagoda at Ze-ta-won in Martaban founded in 
1299 A. D. by King Tsaw-theng-hmaing, and restored in 1785 by Moung 
Pathee, Governor of Martaban, with funds sent to him for this purpose from 
Ava by King Bhodaw Bhoora. The Talaing name ‘^Kha-ba^’ means the 
same as the Burmese, viz., cool, comfortable and is supposed to be derived 
from the coolness of the waters of a neighbouring tank. 

KHYA-RA-GOON. — A revenue circle in the Prome district, now 
including Tha-boung, a short distance south-east of Engma. The inhabit- 
ants, who in 1877 numbered 1,661 souls, are mainly agriculturists. In that 
year the land revenue was Rs, 2,586, the capitation tax Rs. 1,880 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 4,522. 

KHYAW. — A very small tribe of about 100 souls living in one village 
in the Arakan hills on the banks of the Koo-la-dan. They are a fine strong 
race said to be braver than any of the others. Though living amongst the 
Kha-mie there is a marked dissimilarity in feature and dress : they can hardly 



260 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


be distingiiised from the lower class of Bengali peasantry of Chittagong : 
they are dark with large features and the men wear their hair in a knot at 
the back of the head, like the Khyoung-tha, but shave a few inches from the 
forehead and wear no head dress : they most probably belong to the Kookie 
family but they have no traditions regarding their origin nor of how they came 
amongst the Kha-mie in Arakan. They worship upright stones which they 
erect in different parts of their villages and consecrate to the Nat. Their 
language is unwritten ; it is monosyllabic and presents marked similarities 
with the other dialects of Chin- India. 

KH YENG*. — A race of mountaineers scattered over all the hilly 
country between Eastern Bengal, the western provinces of China and the 
borders of Anuam and Cambodia but inhabiting more especially the chain 
of hills which stretches southwards from the Himalayas to Cape Negrais. In 
the north they are said to be wild and fierce, and those on the western slopes 
of the Arakan mountains are described as the least civilised of the wild tribes 
living in the Hill Tracts. In British territory they are quiet and harmless. 
They have developed no form of government higher than the patriarchal and 
have no written language. Almost their only occupation is agriculture of the 
kind called toungya, the cultivation of patches on the mountain slopes aban- 
doned after the crop is gathered, but under British rule they are gradually 
taking to ordinary rice cultivation and, with the acquisition of fields in the 
plains, lose much of their propensity for roving. The number of this tribe in 
British Burma according to the census of 1872 was 51,117 souls, spread gener- 
ally all over the Pegu division, but most numerous in the northern portion of 
the valley of the Irrawaddy ; a few inhabit the southern and western slopes of 
the Arakan mountains and the eastern slopes of the Pegu Romas. Symes, 
who visited Ava at the end of the last century, describes them as “ children 
"‘of nature, delighting in their wild and native freedom, for the most part 
‘"insuperably averse to hold any communication with the people of the 
plains.^ 

Colonel Yule describes them as of Indo-Chinese race and related to the 
^ . . Kookies, Nagas, &c. ; Sir Arthur Phayre appears to con- 

sider that their own tradition of their origin — that they are 
of the same lineage as the Arakanese and Burmese the stragglers from armies 
or moving hordes left in the mountains — is correct, whilst Dr. Mason would 
class them with the Kareng. They call themselves Shyoo. The Burmese 
name for the Pwo Kareng Myit-khyencf or river Khyeng, which would seem 
to support Dr. Mason's view, more especially as the Pwo Kareng call themselves 
Sho and as the alphabet made by the Baptist Missionaries for the Pwo Kareng 
language can, with very slight modifications, be employed to express most of 
the Khyeng sounds. By this means a version of the Gospel, according to 
S. John, has been prepared which, though not without defects, can be under- 
stood by Khyeng who have been taught to read, A few hymns also have 
been translated and printed. 

The Khyeng tradition as to the origin of the various races of man is that 
in the beginning of the world, after the sun and moon had been created, the 
earth by its own powers of productiveness brought forth a woman who was 

* Extracted mainly from Lieutenant -Colonel Horace Browne’s account of the Thavet- 
myo distnct, published at Rangoon in 1874. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


261 


called Hlee-neu. Hlee-neu laid one hundred eggs* which she hatched in cotton- 
wool and from which sprang one hundred human beings^ the progenitors of 
the different races of man. She then laid another egg which was beautifully 
coloui’ed as if by the hand of some skilful artist. In her affection for this egg 
she placed it in a metal vessel instead of in cotton wool. As it failed to hatch 
she thought that it was addled and throwing it on to tlie roof of her house 
she exclaimed if it is destined to be hatched let it go and take its chance of 
finding a protector.^’ The egg fell from the roof on to some rubbish in the 
gutter and with it was carried away by the waters of a stream down which it 
floated till lodged in a Yan-laik tree. Here it was seen by a bird called Asha-eum 
{Cuculiis paradisceicus i Linn-), who sat upon it and hatched it. It produced a 
male and a female, who from the moment of their birth were separated. When 
the girl had grown up she was carried off by a bear who kept her confined 
in a tree. From this captivity she was delivered by a bee who directed 
her to tie a piece of cotton to his tail and by this means guided her to 
the male who, the bee informed her, was her brother, then living in the 
valley of the Khyeng-dweng, a tributary of the Irrawaddy. In commemoration 
of this a piece of cotton is tied to the hand of new-born infants. The male 
had taken to himself a dog as wife, but he now wished to marry his sister, to 
which she objected on the ground of their affinity. Hlee-neu was appealed to 
and she decided that the dog-wife should be sacrificed and the young man 
and maiden should marry ; that their sons and daughters should intermarry, 
but that after that the brother's daughters should marry the si sterns sons. 
From this marriage sprang the Khyeng race, who still offer up a dog as a 
sacrifice to the household spirits and give the daughters of brothers in 
marriage to the sister's sons. Hlee-neu loved her youngest born son, but 
before she found him she had already partitioned off the world among her other 
children and had nothing left but inhospitable mountain ranges; these she 
gave him and added elephants, horses, cattle, goats, pigs and fowls, and 
directed his Burman brother to look after his education. The Burman turned 
out to be a very wicked and unscrupulous guardian, he pretended to educate 
the Khyeng but he shewed him only the blank side of his slate, so that he 
never learnt a single letter. Before he put him on an elephant he rubbed the 
animal's back with cowhage, which so sorely tickled the poor Khyeng’s bare 
skin that he refused to have anything more to do with such animals and gave 
them all to the Burmans, The buffalo too the Burman managed to deprive 
him of : when he tried to ride it the Burman^s wife got in the way and was 
knocked down ; the Burman complained to Hlee-neu who decided that the 
buffalo should be given to the Burman in compensation for the injury done. 
Ultimately of all the animals which had been given to him, goats, pigs and 
fowls alone remained in his possession. The grasping Burman did not even 
allow the Khyeng to remain in undisturbed occupation of his mountains ; 
when the boundaries of the different countries were marked out the Burman 
took care to mark his with permanent objects but the Khyeng set up no 
marks save tufts of twisted grass which were burned up by the jungle fires, 
on which the Khyeng had to live wherever the Burman told him. Thus his 

* The tradition of Hlee-neu having laid 101 eggs from which all human races have sprung 
corresponds with the Burman idea of the existence of 101 races of men in the world, amougst 
whom the Khyeng and Koo-la are included ; under the latter designation are grouped all Euro- 
peans and natives of India. 



262 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


Beligion. 


race has never had a country of its own but wanders over the mountain ranges 
of Burma. These traditions point clearly to long-continued and systematic 
oppression on the part of the Burmese, 

The origin of every law and custom is religiously assigned to Hlee-neu, 
who is said to have laid down a complete code of laws for the guidance of her 
Khyeng descendants before she died and departed to the happy land where she 
still lives in eternal happiness. 

If a Khyeng is able to speak a little Burmese and is asked as to his 
religion, he will probably answer that, following the cus- 
tom of his ancestors, he worships the most excellent lord 
Gaudama, but in saying this he is only repeating the formula that he 
has often heard from his Burmese neighbours. All he means is that he 
chiefly venerates the pagodas, and on certain occasions, such as the annual 
pagoda festivals, follows the multitude and conforms somewhat to the 
Burmese customs. They acknowledge one God, a spirit, the Creator 
and Ruler of the universe, who is so good that they have nothing to 
fear from him and so need not worship him, but they worship, with propitia- 
tory offerings of khoung and sacrificial meats, the demons or nat who are 
looked upon as the authors of all evil, and of whom there is an innumerable 
body — of the trees, of the streams, of the hills, of the houses — and the 
worship of two of these, the Oo-yoo-khoon and Mo-goung nat (nat of the 
heavens) was specially ordered by Hlee-neu, The offerings to the latter of 
these two consist of cotton tassels, stones and the flowers of the Tha-bye tree 
(Eugenia ap.), in obedience to the precept of Hlee-neu who said Tlarth is the 
"flesh and s^nes are the bones of the world. Let the nat of heaven be 
worshipped with the flowers of the Tha-bye tree and with a stone.*’ These 
sacrifices and offerings are made not only to ensure safety in this world but 
to ensure admission into heaven after death ; to the happy land called Nga- 
thien, where the spirits of good Khyeng join those of their ancestors and live 
in perpetual enjoyment of the khoung and baked meats which they have 
offered during life. 

This Khoung”* is a fermented drink, an essential in Khyeng nat 
Khoung. oblation and indeed of Khyeng life generally, the excessive 

drinking of which converts their feasts into scenes of dis- 
gusting drunkenness. For their knowledge of khoung they consider themselves 
indebted to their great mother Hlee-neu. During the infancy of her numerous 
progeny Hlee-neu made a tank of milk for their sustenance, near which lived a 
porcupine who drank some of the milk and, as a result, became covered with 
quills instead of hairs. When the contents of the tank were exhausted there 
sprang up the rice plant, pepper, brinjal {Solanum melongena) ^ garlic, the pai- 
tek-nee (a gigantic bean with red seeds) and the thit-khyo plant. The Khyeng, 
fearing that the strength which they had derived from the milk would now 
decre^e, applied to Hlee-neu who directed them to prepare from the plants 
growing in the tank a decoction to resemble the milk it had contained. Take 
** the bark of the thit-kbyo, the root of the brinjal, the bean of the pai-tek-nee, 
corns, garlic and the entrails of a porcupine, mix them up in rice flour 

* -^^oung is aUo made by the Ka-khyeng north and east of Bha-maw in Upper Burma 
of a better quahty. It has been described as like creaming champagne and was drunk by the 
Ei^peans of the Mission to Yunan under Colonel Horace Browne in 1874-76. Probably it was 
not prepared in precisely the same way as that supposed to resemble Hlee-neu’s milk. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


263 


and make balls. Cover these up for three days and then expose them to the 
sun until they become wort ; mix the wort with parboiled rice, put it into a 
'' pot and bury it for several days in a heap of unhusked rice ; then add water 
according to taste and the divine khoung is ready to be sucked up through 
“ tubes. In taste it resembles Hlee-neu's milk and by it is man’s strength 
increased. On account of its excellence it must always be offered to the nat/’ 
Khyeng girls are given in marriage by their brothers not by their 
Marriage parents. When a girl is born she is especially assigned to 

one of her brothers or, if she has none, to one of her 
father’s sister’s sons whose consent has to be obtained by any one who aspires 
to her hand and who, after lier marriage, must be treated with the greatest 
respect by her husband. If the husband visits the brother he must take with 
him a present of khoung, and should the brother visit him he must present to 
him khoung and pork, or, if his circumstances are such that he cannot do 
this, be must make profound apologies. As a rule girls are affianced early to 
one of their cousins, but the match is not seldom broken off and in such a case 
the defaulter, if the man, has to give to the girl five pots of khoung, a bullock 
worth Es. 30, a pig three feet in girth, a spear, a fork, a bag and 
a piece of ornamented cloth ; if the girl, she has to give to the man a brass 
dish worth about Rs, 15, a silk cloth and a silk belt each worth about Rs. 5 
and a silk turban worth about eight annas. 

When a marriage is contemplated, whether the parties have been pre- 
viously affianced or not, their friends are invited to drink khoung at the man’s 
house. A pig is slaughtered and the liver placed on a brass dish for inspection 
by the wise men.* If there are any marks upon the liver the marriage is post- 
poned and the ceremony has to be repeated on a subsequent occasion ; if the 
signs are unpropitious on three successive occasions the match is finally broken 
off and the intended bridegroom receives from the girl’s parents a present 
of a turban, a dress and a girdle to wipe away tears.” Marriages are cele- 
brated in the bride’s house : the bridegroom provides the pot of khoung over 
which the ceremony takes place and his friends bring pork, the bride’s friends 
producing fowls. A bamboo is neatly peeled and slit at the top, a cross 
stick is inserted and the whole fastened into the pot of khoung, on each side 
of which sit, and must remain, the party, the bridegroom and his friends on 
one side and the bride and her friends on the other. Should any one cross 
from one side to the other he has to provide a pot of khoung. An elder on 
the bridegroom’s side rises and proposes that the marriage ceremony be per- 
formed according to the commands of Hlee-neu. An elder on the bride’s side 
then recites Hlee-neu’s decision on the application made to her by the first 
parents of the tribe. The bridegroom makes presents to the bride’s brother 
and receives his consent to the marriage (if the brother is not satisfied the 
points in dispute are then and there decided by the elders) and the brother 
signifies his assent by eating of the bridegroom’s pork ; the celebration 
of the marriage is then complete and the bride belongs to the bridegroom. 
The marriage presents are then given. None of the bride’s party are allowed 
to touch the pork, nor of the bridegroom’s to touch the fowls ; if this rule is 
broken more khoung has to be given and pork if the offender is of the bride- 
groom’s party and fowls if of the bride’s. 


’ Cf. Kareng customs, pafje 230, line 40 et stpq. 



264 


BRITISH BURIVIA GAZETTEER. 


Some days later the newly married pair give security that they will 
behave properly to each other and in evidence of the compact a notch is cut 
in a tree*. The man’s agreement is that he will not beat his wife immoderately 
or so severely as to break a bamboo over her, to draw blood or to maim her, 
nor will he cut off her hair ; the woman’s, that she will behave to her husband 
as a wife should do. If she misbehaves the husband can chastize her moder- 
ately, but should he do so immoderately he has to make peace with her 
brother, who can take her away if he is not satisfied. If the wife deserts her 
husband her sureties have to find him another wife. If she commits adultery 
she forfeits the whole of her property to her husband and has also to give two 
gongs, a bullock, a brass dish, a dha-lway or sword and a piece of blue cloth. 
If a man wishes to take a second wife he must obtain the consent of his first 
wife’s brother who, if not satisfied, can deprive him of his first wife. When 
a man dies his widow belongs to his brotberf ; she can marry no one else unless 
they refuse to marry her in which case her brother can give her 
to anyone else ; she can refuse to remarry only on taking a vow to remain 
unmarried and to worship her husband’s household nat. If after this vow she 
marries she has to pay Rs, 30 and her husband forfeits three bullocks and a 
cow. Divorces are obtainable and the sentence is pronounced by the elders, 
but they are rarely sought, 

A death is made an occasion for much feasting. Bullocks, buffaloes, pigs 
Death. fowls are slaughtered, according to the means of the 

family, to entertain the guests and to propitiate the nat 
so that the deceased may safely reach the happy land, Nga-thien. The corpse, 
with a fowl tied to one of its big toes, is carried on a stretcher to the burnino 
place and, together with the fowl, is burned. The bones of the deceased^ 
plucked from the embers, are washed in khoung, rubbed with turmeric and 
placed in a pot, where they remain for a year or more till they can be taken 
to the family burying ground where they are finally deposited. These burial 
places are few in number and considerable reserve is shewn by the Khyeng 
with regard to their position : there is a very extensive one in Upper Burma 
to which are carried the relics of many Khyeng who die in British Burma. 
The ceremony of depositing the bones in the family place of burial is some- 
what similar to an Irish wake ; there is much eating and drinking and 
boisterous behaviour. One custom on such occasions is peculiar and would 
seem to shew that there is amongst the Khyeng some sense of a god as a 
present disposer of events, whether prosperous or untoward. A man, standing 
at the grave, brandishes a sword and raises the insolent cry Art thou 
satisfied now with the accomplishment of thy purpose in the death of this 
*‘one of thy creatures ?” 

The chief peculiarities of the Khyeng law of inheritance are that as soon 
Inheritance. ^ woman is married she loses all claim to inherit her 

parents’ property, provided that her parents have other 
children, and that when parents have several children the last married or the 
one who remains single cannot leave his or her parents’ house, but is bound 
to remain with, work for, and feed them : on the parents’ death this child is 
entitled to three-fifths of the property. 


• Cf. Kareng custom, page 236, line 7 from bottom, 
t Cf. Deuteronomy, chapter XXT. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


265 


In obedience to the commands of Hlee-neu Khyeng swear on the flower 
of the Tha-bye tree and on a stone : when disputes^^ 
arise and oaths have to be taken let the swearer hold a^^ 
Tha-bye flower and let him take up a stone. Let him who ventures to’^ 
swear in this way gain his cause. ” 

It has hitherto been the custom with Khyeng young women, soon after 

Tattooing arrive at years of puberty, to tattoo the whole of 

their faces with vertical and closely adjoining narrow black 
lines which, as Symes very correctly observes, gives a most extraordinary 
appearance.^’ The origin of the custom is not known ; according to some it 
was prescribed by Hlee-neu with the object of preventing the young men of 
other tribes from falling in love with Khyeng maidens ; according to others 
it was adopted with a view of preventing the Barmans from depriving them, 
as they once did, of their most comely females ; and according to others the 
object was that they might be able to trace their women when carried away 
by other tribes. The custom was lately universal but in British territory it 
is slowly dying out. 

The Khyeng in appearance resemble the Burmans much more than any 

Dress their cognate tribes, the Kareng for instance, A 

Khyeng man, when he abandons his natural dress which 
is nothing but a narrow strip of cloth and adopts the Burman kilt or waist- 
cloth, is indistinguishable from a Burman save by the absence of tattooing 
on the legs and now that the custom of so marking the limbs is by no means 
universally followed amongst the Burmese this distinguishing mark is not a 
safe one : the women are naturally pretty and seem far less willing than the 
men to adopt the Burmese costume, generally wearing a dark blouse orna- 
mented with red and with white thread. 

Many centuries of oppression have made the Khyeng a timid and a retir- 

Character. ing race though, perhaps, less so than the Kareng: they 
are seldom genial and communicative unless visited in 
their villages or under the influence of kboung. A Khyeng rarely takes to 
violent crime but when he does he becomes and remains a most dangerous 
character, vindictive, wantonly and brutally cruel and merciless, exhibiting 
great boldness in attack and great skill in evading capture. 

KHYENG-GOON. — A village in 19° 7' 10" N. Lat. and 95° 25' 15" E. 
Long., containing about eighty houses, in the Tsheng-doop circle, Myedai town- 
ship, Thayefc district. It is close to Tsheng-doop, which gives its name to the 
circle, in a rice plain on one of the affluents of the Bhwot-lay. The inhabitants 
are chiefly engaged in agriculture. 

KHYIET-TOUNG. — A village of 473 inhabitants in 1877, in the Kyien 
circle, Meng-bra township, Akyab district, on the western bank of the Thai-dan. 


KHYOUK-EWA. — A revenue circle in the Oot-hpo township of the 
Henzada district, west of the Irrawaddy and bordering on the Le-myet-hna 
township of the Bassein district, on the right bank of the Bassein river. 
Towards the west the country is hilly but elsewhere it is well suited for rice 
cultivation of which there is a good deal. In 1876 the land revenue was 
Bs, 7,615, the capitation tax Rs. 6,657, the gross revenue Rs. 15,525 and the 
population 7,776 souls. 


84 



266 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KHY0UK-T8HAY.— A revenue circle in the Le-myet-hna township, 
Bassein district^ 30 square miles in extent, occupying the south-eastern corner 
of the township, between the Bassein river on the east and the Hlaw-ga-ta, 
its affluent, on the south-east. It is only partially cultivated the ground 
being generally low and subject to inundation. The inhabitants are employed 
mainly in cultivation, fishing and forestry. In 1876 the laud revenue was 
Rs. 1,051, the capitation tax Rs. 2,720, the gross revenue Rs. 5,362 and the 
population 2,485 souls, 

KHYOTJNG-BYA. — A small village in the Tha-loo circle, Khyouk-hpyoo 
township, Khyouk-hpyoo district, the head-quarters of the thoo-gyee, locally 
noted for its pottery manufacture. 

KHYOUNG-BYA. — A large revenue circle in the north of the Kyouk- 
gyee township of the Shwe-gyeng district, lying along the western slopes 
of the low range running pardlel to the Tsit-toung river, about 265 square 
miles in extent. In 1876 the population, composed mainly of Kareng, 
numbered 2,062, the capitation tax was Rs. 837, the land revenue Rs. 1,083 
and the gross revenue Rs. 2,155. 

KHYOUNG-DOUNG-GYEE. — A village in the Shwe-doung township, 
Prome district, in 18° 38' 0^' N. and 95° 16' 40 *' E,, on the left bank of the 
Irrawaddy, immediately to the north of Kyee-thay and at the lower eud of the 
Theng-byoo fen. 

KBYOUNG-DOUNG-SHAN. — A village in the Shwe-doung township^ 
Prome district, on the left bank of the Irrawaddy above and adjoining Kyee-thay^ 

KHYOUNG-GOUNG-GYEE.— A river which rises in the western slopes 
of the Pegu mountains and, flowing through the Thayet district in a westerly 
direction, unites with the Pa-de and other streams to form the Bhwot-lay 

KHYOUNG-GYEE.— A revenue circle in the Central township of the 
Sandoway district, east of Sandoway, on the upper course of the Sandoway 
river, with the Kyien-ta-lee-bya circle on the east, the Lek-wai-a-she circle 
on the north and the Tsa-wa and Ka-myit circles on the south, separated from 
the last by the Pa-hoon spur of the main range. The principal villages, all on the 
banks of the Sandoway river, are Shan-toung, A-gnyit, Daing-baing and 
Kyoung-toung. The greater portion of the circle is hilly and a great deal of it 
is unculturable. The most important product is tobacco. In 1876 the land 
revenue was Rs. 1,087, the capitation tax Rs. 898, the gross revenue Rs. 1,985 
and the population 1,072 souls. 

KHYOUNG-KHWA. — A revenue circle in the Kyan-kheng township 
of the Henzada district, having the Rwa-thit circle on the west and north and 
the Eng-lat circle of the Kyan-kheng and the Pa-daw circle of the Myanoung 
township on the south and east, containing a good deal of land under rice. 
In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 2,590, the capitation tax Rs. 1,352, the 
gross revenue Rs. 8,962 and the population 1,326. 

KHYOTJNG-THA. — Literally children of the stream a tribe of 
which in the hill tracts of Arakan there were 1,261 souls in 1876 ; 
they found only on the banks of the Koo-la-dan river. They are the least 
uncivilized of all the hill tribes and dress better; some of them are able to 
read and write the old Burmese or Arakanese character. The men wear a 
cotton, or sometimes silk, cloth reaching from the hips to below the knee, a 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


267 


sliort jacket with sleeves, fastening at the throat, and a turban : the hair hangs 
coiled into a knot towards the back of the head. The women wear the Bur- 
mese hta-mien or petticoat, open in front but covering the breast and leaving 
the arms and shoulders exposed. The men tattoo themselves, but not so 
much as the Burmans, and the name of God is usually tattooed on the shoulder. 
They carry on most of the traffic amongst the hill tribes, which is usually 
done by barter, and are the only tribe which understands the use of medicines. 
They appear to be a portion of the original inhabitants of Arakan driven up 
the river at the time of the occupation of the country by the Burmese, They 
are nominally Booddhists but their religion is mixed up with spirit worship. 
Their parent stream is looked upon with a holy love, not only as affording 
them sustenance but likewise a ready passage by which to flee from the 
attacks of their foes. At the northern outskirts of each village, from which 
quarter alone they dread the advent of any danger (all to the south being 
in possession of the English), in the direction of the forest, and under 
the shade of the comeliest tree, may be seen the shrine of their two Ndts, 
the one male the other female. They are represented by two pebbles 
picked from the banks of the river.* The female is considered the most 
powerful, and is meant to represent the Mayoo Nat, or spirit which pre- 
sides over the mouth of the Myoo river ; she is believed to be a most 
powerful spirit, the guardian of Arracan from all the dangers of the 

sea The other, or male spirit, is called Rwatsoung Nat or ‘ the village ' 

^ guardian ^ to whom, as his name implies, is entrusted the care of the village. 
They believe, to use their identical words, that ‘ should he withdraw his 
^ favour the evil eye would glare upon their children ; sickness would 
‘ devastate their healths ; the floods would sweep away the foundations of 
^ their homes ; and their most favourite haunts would become the prowl of 
^ the tiger and wild cat o’mount,’ Whenever a new shrine is to be erected 
fresh stones are chosen, the village is tabooed for seven days, sentinels are 
placed on all the surrounding heights to prevent the ingress or egress of 
any person, and sacrifices of fowls and pigs are made. Around each stone 
is wound some cotton thread coloured yellow with turmeric.! Befom 
marriage intercourse between the sexes is unrestricted but after marriage 
chastity is insisted on : girls marry when about fifteen or sixteen, and the 
boys as young as nineteen. As might be expected from their greater 
civilization and Burmanised manners the marriage ceremony is not so simple 
as amongst the other hill tribes. If the man has not selected his wife his 
parents choose one for him. A relation is sent to the parents of the girl and 
if they consent a day is fixed on which they meet in the house of the bride’s 
father and arrange the preliminaries ; that night the bridegroom’s father and 
mother remain in the house of the woman’s parents. A favourable day is then 
fixed on and on that day the bridegroom and his relations go to the bride^s 
village and stay in a temporary shed built for them, receiving the visits of 
the villagers, the bride doing the same in her father’s house. At sunset the 
bridegroom goes to his future father-in-law’s house and the religious ceremony 
is performed. Rice, mango leaves and pots of water are placed on the floor 

• They are placed lying down in a flat position each having a sort of baby house erected to 
receive it. 

t A note on some hill tribes on the Kooda-dau river by Lieut. T. Latter, Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society: Vol. XV. (1810) pp. 61, 62, 




268 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


between the bride and bridegroom, who face each other, and a newly-spun 
cotton thread is wound round the whole. A Booddhist priest then reads 
some sentences in Pali and taking cooked rice in each hand he feeds the 
couple seven times, alternately, crossing and recrossing his arms. Finally he 
hooks the little finger of the bridegroom^s right hand into that of the bride’s 
left hand, repeats some more Pali sentences and the ceremony is complete.* 

Their funerals, also, are conducted more like those of the Burmese. The 
body is carried to the burning ground and, if of a man, laid on a pile of three 
layers, if of a woman of four ; a priest repeats some Pali phrases and the pile 
is fired by the nearest relative, male or female ; the ashes are afterwards 
collected and buried on the spot. 

Three times a year they feast the dead, but simply by putting aside food 
and drink for them which after a few days are thrown away. 

KHYOUNG-THA. — A small river in the Bassein district, which rises in 
the western slopes of the Arakan mountains and falls into the Bay of Bengal 
near the village of Khyoung-tha : at the springs the tide reaches nearly to the 
source of the river. About five miles from the mouth there are five feet of 
water and boats of 500 baskets burden can ascend thus far. 

KHYOUNG-TSHOON. — A long village on Bhee-loo-gywon in the 
Amherst district, stretching in two fines of houses, one on each side of the 
road, to and beyond a pass through the low hills which form the backbone, 
as it were, of the island. The western portion is called Weng-tsien and the 
eastern Kha-raik-thit. The village lies on the edge of the low hills and in the 
pa^, partly in the plains and partly on the slightly and almost imperceptibly 
rising ground. On the west a valley extends up northwards between Weng- 
tsien and the rest of the village and advantage has been taken of this to form 
an artificial reservoir of water by throwing an embankment across the valley. 
This embankment is traversed by a road and is lined on the north or reservoir 
side by a line of trees, the handsome purple-flowering Lagerstrosmia regin<z 
predominating, with the Khyee-beng, with its insignificant bottle-brush- 
looking, brick-red flowers, and other kinds interspersed. This embankment, 
on the south of the eastern approach to which is a handsome Thien newly 
repaired and ornamented with scarlet and gold, retains a large volume of 
water ; in the hot season the area is about one square mile and the depth ten 
feet and in the rains very nearly double this both in area and in depth. 
This most useful work was constructed entirely by the people, urged thereto 
by a Booddhist priest whose monastery is in the neighbourhood, and is kept 
in repair by them. The State has made a bridged opening at the western 
end as an escape to prevent the water from overflowing the road. 

The village is connected with Nat-maw on the Salween, about four miles 
off, by a good road across the rice plains, commenced by Major Broadfoot, 
which is in repair. This road is much used and has done a great deal to attract 
population to the neighbourhood. The only public buildings are a Court- 
house and a Police station. The number of inhabitants of the group of 
villages was 1,857 in 1868 and 1,958 in 1877. 


* The intervention of the Booddhiat priest and his manual acts, so contrary to pure Bood- 
djmt practice, mwk strongly, both as regards the people and the priesthood, the influence of 
the customs and habits of the inhabitants of Chittagong. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


269 


KHYOUNG-TSOUK. — A village iu the Prome district, in 18*^ 68^ 40^ 
N. and 19° 37' 45"" E., amongst the hills in the northern portion of the 
district, on the bank of the Khyoung-tsouk stream, inhabited chiefly by 
hill garden cultivators. 

KHYOUNG-TSOUK. — A river in the Prome district, formed by the 
junction of two mountain- torrents both rising in the southern slopes of the 
Padouk spur four or five miles west of the main chain of the Pegu Roma 
mountains, a subsidiary ofishoot from which separates them from each other 
for the first six or seven miles of their course north-westward. After their 
junction the river turns south-west and, receiving numerous small and unim- 
portant tributaries on its way down, falls into the south Na-weng near the 
village of Khyoung-khwa, where the Eng-goon and the Gway meet it, all 
three discharging their waters by the same mouth. In the short portion of 
its course which lies in the valley of the south Na-weng the bed is sandy and 
muddy and the steep banks are lined with elephant grass and bamboos, but 
higher up the bed is rocky. The hills amongst which it winds are covered 
with teak and other large forest trees which, when felled, are, in the rains, 
floated down it to the south Na-weng and to the Irrawaddy. The river is not 
navigable by boats at any season. At Ka-deng-hnit-tohay, well up amongst the 
hills, is a magnificent waterfall whicli in the dry season appears as an insuper- 
able obstruction to the floating down of timber but where, in the height of 
the rains, to give the expression of the Burmese foresters of that district, it 
is awful to see how one log after the other takes the leap over the rocks 
into the abyss below and then quietly floats on in the smooth waters 
beneath.'’* 

KING ISLAND. — An island of the Mergui Archipelago forming a por- 
tion of the Mergui district of the Tenasserim division, between 12° 19' and 
12° 42' N. Lat. and 98° 9' and 98° 21' W. Long, about ten miles from the 
coast, west of the mouths of the Tenasserim river. Its length from north to 
south is twenty-six miles and its breadth from east to west ten miles, A 
high range of hills runs along its western side, leaving on the eastern side a 
rich alluvial plain twenty miles long and five broad. At the north end there 
is a fine bay forming an excellent well-sheltered harbour, and on the island at 
this spot is to be found plenty of good water. The bay is called French Bay^ 
from having been used by the French ships of war during the wars between 
England and France, from whence they issued to capture British merchant 
vessels : the existence of this harbour was then unknown to the British. The 
island produces the largest timber found in the district, well fitted for masts 
and spars. It is sparsely inhabited by Burmese and Kareng. 

KISSEEING. — An island in the Mergui Archipelago attached to the 
Mergui district of the Tenasserim division, and situated between 11° 32' and 
11 ° 47 ' N. Lat. and 98° 15' and 98° 25' E. Long, off the mouth of the Le-gnya 
river. It is one of the most fertile and picturesque islands in the group, com- 
posed of undulating land of the richest description but now covered with 
dense forest. During the Siamese rule it was well cultivated, and there was 
on it a large town of the same name, of which only large heaps of bricks remain 
to attest that it must have been a place of some size. The town and island 


Dr. Brandis’ report on the Pegu Forests. 



270 


BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


were deserted by the inhabitants when the country was conquered by the 
Burmese in the time of Aloung-bhoora {Alompra), 

KO-BENG. — A rising village of the Shwe-tshan-daw circle, Mye-dai town- 
ship, Thayet district, situated on the Pa-de stream. Ten years ago it was 
entered in the returns as containing thirteen houses : it now has nearly one 
hundred. 

KO-DOUNG.— A revenue circle in the Angyee township, Rangoon district, 
separated on the north by the Khanoung and the A-gat creeks from Pyaw- 
bhway. On the east it is bounded by the Rangoon river, on the south by the 
Tha-khwot-peng and the A-hparoon rivers, the former separating it from Moot- 
kywon and the latter from Htan-ma-naing. On the west is the Kaw-hmoo 
circle from which it is separated by a stream which forms a portion of the 
Lweng-gyee Eng, The greatest length from east to west is about nine miles 
and the greatest breadth about eight. In 1876 it had a population of 5,389 
souls, or about 103 to the square mile, the greater portion being Kareng and 
almost the whole agricultural. The soil generally is exceedingly fertile. In 
1876 the land revenue was Rs. 46,728 the capitation tax Rs. 7^490 and the 
gross revenue Rs. 54,868. 

KO-GYEE-LOOP. — A small revenue circle in the Prome district to the 
east of the Zay stream and west of the Tseedaing circle. In 1876 it had a popu- 
lation of 251 souls, a land revenue of Rs. 281, capitation tax Rs, 273 and a 
gross revenue of Rs. 554. 

KO-KAING. — A small village of 377 inhabitants in 1877, north of and 
a few miles from Rangoon. During the first Burmese war this village 
was the scene of some severe fighting. The Barman general having erected 
entrenchments, Major-General Campbell moved out against him on the 15th 
December 1854 in two columns, the right, under Brigadier-General Cotton, 
of 540 men from the 13th, 18th and the 34th regiment M. N. I. with 60 of the 
Governor-GeneraFs body guard, the left, under General Campbell himself, 800 
strong and composed of detachments of the 38tb, 39th, and 41st regiments, 
and of the 9th 13th 28th and 30th regiments N, I. with 100 men of the body 
guard. The works were found to consist of two large stockades connected by 
a central entrenchment ; each wing was about 400 yards long by 200 broad 
and projected considerably beyond the centre. The right column attacked 
the centre whilst the left, forming into two divisions, attacked the flanking stock- 
ades. In fifteen minutes the whole of the works were in the possession of the 
assailants. The total number of killed was eighteen, including Lieutenants 
Darby, Petsy and Jones of the 13th and O’Hanlon of the Bengal Artillery, who 
died of his wounds, and the wounded to one hundred and fourteen, including 
seven officers of the 13th. 

KOO-BHYOO. — A revenue circle in the Ta-pwon township, in the northern 
portion of the Henzada district, to the east of the Irrawaddy, to which is now 
omted Goon-gnyeng-dan, The circle contains a good deal of tree forest in which 
are found Eng {Dipterocarpus tuber eulatus), Pyeng-ma {Lagerstrcernia regince), 
Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolahrifomm) and Reng-daik {Dalhergia cultrata). In 1876 
the united circles had a population of 8,740 souls, and produced a gross revenue 
of Rs. 16,439, of which Rs. 7,654 were derived from the land, Rs. 8,235 from 
the capitation tax and the rest from other sources. 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


271 


KOO-BHYOO. — A revenue circle in the Meng^-doon township, Thayet- 
myo district, having an area of thirty-five square miles, a population in 1876 
of 3,345 souls of whom about some 200 are Khyeng and furnishing a revenue 
in that 3 ^ear of Rs. 5,410, of which Rs. 2,841 were derived from land and Rs. 
2,361 from capitation tax. Rather more than eight square miles are cultur- 
able, and about half are actually cultivated. Eight of the old village tracts are 
now included within the limits of this circle, of which Koo-hbyoo, Tha-dwon- 
ngay, Pan-gnyo and Moo were united to it at the annexation and the 
others have been subsequently added ; Doo in 1856, and Oo-yeen-bo and 
Pazwon-myoung in 1858. The products are rice, sessamum, cotton,, plantains, 
maize, tobacco, chillies, onions, cutch, and thatch grass, and in the Burmese time 
salt, extracted from a brine spring in Pan-gnyo near the village of Tsan-gyee. 

KOOK-KO. — A tidal creek in the Myoug-mya township, navigable by 
river steamers, and flowing between the Ewe and Pya-ma-law rivers; its western 
mouth is about three miles below La-bwot-ta. 

KOOK-KO. — A revenue circle in the Myeboon township, Kyoub-hpyoo 
trict, on the shore of Combermere Bay, composed of islands separated by tidal 
creeks. It has an area of 21 square miles and a population of 2,006 souls. 
In 1876 the land revenue was Rs. 2,040, the capitation taxRs. 2,193 and the 
gross revenue Es. 4,535. 

KOOK-KO. — A village of 600 inhabitants in the revenue circle of the same 
name in the Mye-boon township, Khyouk-hpyoo district, 

KOOK-KO-BENG. — A revenue circle in the Prome district, now formed of 
several united village tracts, about four miles south-west of Poungday. It has 
no large villages ; the most populous one is Gnyoung-bhyoo-gyee, containing 
somewhat over three hundred inhabitants. 

KOO-LA-DAN. — A river in Arakan which has its sources in the moun- 
tainous country in the north, somewhere, it is supposed, in the neighbourhood 
of the Blue Mountain, and with a general N. and S. direction falls into the 
Bay of Bengal at Akyab, where it is called by Europeans the Arakan river 
but by the inhabitants of the country Ga-tsha-bha. Before it leaves the 
hills it is fed by numerous streams, the two largest of which are the Mee 
from the east and the Pee from the west, and its banks are inhabited by 
hillmen. It is navigable by vessels of from 300 to 400 tons burden for 
nearly fifty miles from its mouth, which forms a large harbour with good 
holding ground, protected from the violence of the S. W. monsoon by the 
Borongo islands and at its entrance by a rocky islet, called Savage Island, 
on which stands a light-house erected in 1842 and supplied with more per 
feet reflecting apparatus in 1871. The entrance is, however, somewhat dan- 
gerous and difl5cult and very shallow at low tide, there being then barely 3^ 
fathoms, necessarily much reduced when a rolling swell sets in. 

KOO-LA-DAN. — A township in the north of the Akyab district, adjoin- 
ing the Hill Tracts and having Mro-houng on the south and east and Oo-rit- 
toung West on the west. It is divided into eight revenue circles. Except 
to the south, on the banks of the Koo-Ia-dan and of its tributary the Pee, 
the country is hilly and forest-clad. The township contains no large towns 
and not much cultivation. The head-quarters are on the right bank of 
the Koo-Ia-dan river not far from the Maha-moo-nee temple : q, v. The name 
Koo-la-dan” is derived from Koo-la,^' a western foreigner, and ‘^dan’^ 



272 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


or which, when used in this connection, means a locality or 

quarter, because the captives made by the Arakanese in their raids in 
Chittagong were settled here : to the present day the tract contains many 
Musulmans of mixed descent, especially along the right bank of the Koo-la- 
dan. In 1876 the land revenue was Es. 47,536, the capitation tax Es. 18,392 
the gross revenue Es. 68,408 and the population 15,406 souls. 

KOO-LA-PAN-ZENG. — A revenue circle in the north of the Ea-thai- 
doung township, Akyab district, to which has been added Tsaing-dan, In 
1874-75 7,199 acres of land were under cultivation and the land revenue 
re^zed was Es. 10,644. The population in 1876-77 numbered 12,648 
souls, the capitation tax amotmted to Es. 8,215, the land revenue to 
Es. 10,983 and the gross revenue to Es. 19,806. 

KOON-DAN. — A revenue circle in the Hmaw-bhee township, Eangoon 
district, lying to the west of the low terminal ridge of the Eoma mountains, 
adjoining and north of the town of Eangoon and stretching eastwards to 
the Poo-zwon-doung river which separates it from the Kyouk-khyoung and 
Tsit-peng circles of the same township. To the west is the Meng-ga-la- 
doon circle and to the north Ee-tho. The eastern portion of the circle is hilly 
and unfitted for rice cultivation. Skirting the rice plains on the western side 
is the Meng-lan or old ‘‘ Eoyal road.” The circle is traversed by the road 
from Eangoon towards Prome, running northward ; the principal ^ages are 
Pouk-taw with 755 inhabitants in 1876, Kam-bai, where there is a police 
guard, with 877 inhabitants, Ee-goo with 448, and Ta-da-ga-le on the Poo- 
zwon-doung river with 626. In that year the population of the whole circle 
was 8,253, the land revenue Es. 18,117 and the amount of the capitation 
tax Es. 7,308. 

KOON-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Mye-dai township, Thayet 
district, within the limits of which are what were, at the preparation ofilhe 
great register nearly one hundred years ago, the two registered village 
circles of Kook-ko-hla and Kyet-roon-gyee. It has an area of 30,720 acres 
of which about 27,000 are unculturable and about 1,900 are cultivated. 
The principal villages are Goon-daw about a mile and a half inland from 
the Irrawaddy and Kyet-roon-gyee, on the stream of the same name which 
unites with other rivulets to form the Eetshoon a tributary of the Kye-nee. 
The principal products are rice, sessamum, cotton, plantains, custard apples 
and maize. In 1876 the population numbered 2,174 souls, the land 
revenue was Es. 1,160, the capitation tax Es. 2,260 and the gross revenue 
Es. 3,503. 

KOON-LAY. — A village of seventy houses in the Tham-boo-la circle, 
Mye-dai township, Thayet district. 

KOON-PYENG . — A revenue circle in the Kyouk-khyoung-gale township 
~now joined to Le-myet-hna — Bassein district, 101 square miles in extent 
and stretching eastward from the Arakan mountains on the north of the Kwon 
stream with the Thoung-dan circle on the west and the Kan-nee circle on the 
south. In the eastern part there is a fair amount of rice cultivation, but 
towards the west the country is a mass of forest-covered hills gradually rising 
into the Arakan mountains. The inhabitants of the circle are engaged 
in agncnltmral pursuits and in forestry. In 1876 the population was 6,513 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


273 


souls, the land revenue Es. 9,737, the capitation tax Es. 7,312 and the 
gross revenue Es. 17,541. 

KOON-EO. — A village in the Prome district six miles east of the town 
of Prome in a large rice tract and within the limits of Ya-thay-myo, or 
Tha-re-khet-tara, the ruined capital of the ancient Prome kingdom. 

KOON-EWA-LENG. — A revenue circle in the Prome district extending 
along the left bank of the Irrawaddy northwards from the Naweng river 
and including five of the old village tracts, viz,, Koon-rwa-leng, Hpo-goung, 
Lek-khoop-peng, Mya-rwa, and Nga-pat. In 1876 it had a population of 
1,858, the land revenue was Es. 1,361, the capitation tax Es. 1,948 and 
the gross revenue Es. 4,253. 

KOON-TA-LOON. — A revenue circle in the Kan-oung township of the 
Henzada district westward of Kan-oung, now forming a portion of the 
Kan-oung Myoma circle, well cultivated towards the north and east. 

KOON-TENG-NGAY. — A village in the Prome district inhabited mainly 
by agriculturists engaged in rice ciiltivation and situated about two miles 
west of the village of Loung-gyee. 

KOON-TSENG . — K revenue circle of the Prome district about eleven 
miles east of Prome ; the major portion is tmder rice cultivation. It is now 
united to Gaw-ta-maw. 

KOOT-THIEN-NA-EOON. — A pagoda in the Shwe-gyeng district at the 
village of Ayek-thai-ma, about six miles to the north of the town of Bhee- 
leng. According to the local traditions two brothers, princes, the elder of 
whom was married, settled in the neighbouriiood. The wife of the elder 
died in giving birth to a daughter and subsequently the elder brother him- 
self died. On his deathbed he gave his brother his deceased wife’s ring 
with an injunction to marry no one whose finger it would not fit. After 
much search it was found that the ring fitted the orphan niece. She 
besought her uncle to allow her to build a pagoda before the dreaded marriage 
took place md so arranged that she was immured in it and escaped the 
incestuous intercourse at the expense of her life. 

KO-TOUNG. — A village in the Peng-ga-daw circle, Mye-dai township, 
T^ayet district, on one of the small feeders of the !^young-goung-gyee 
river. About ten yesurs ago the viQage, which is now of sixty-five houses, 
was returned as ccmtaining only twelve, 

KOUK-GWAI. — ^A river in the Prome district which rises in the un- 
dulating ground north of Wet-htee-gan and, after receiving the waters brought 
down by the Eng-roon, falls into the Na-weng near Tha-pan-khyo. In the 
rains small boats can ascend as far as the viQage of Kam-bhee-la : the banks 
are moderately steep and the bed sandy ; towards the source they are 
fringed with tree-forest but from the viQage of Zee-goon to the Na-weng 
this stream runs through a smaQ tract of cultivated land. 

KOUNG-TSEE. — A revenue circle in the Prome district north-east of 
Prome, south of the Teng-gyee and Na-weng rivers and occupying the angle 
formed by the junction of the Kywai river and the Nee-pa-tshe spur of the 
Pegu Eoma mountains. The viQages are few in number and, generaUy, 
small ; the inhabitants cultivate rice and cotton. The Oot-hpo village 

35 



274 


BKITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


tract is now joined to it and in 1876 the land revenue raised in the two 
was Es. 576, the capitation tax Es. 637 and the gross revenue Es. 1,768. 
In that year the population numbered 1,280 souls. 

KOUNG'TSEE. — A village in the Prome district on the Keng-poon rivu- 
let, which falls into the Teng-gyee near 0-htien-goon. It is situated in a 
patch of rice cultivation in 18° 49' 30' N., and 95° 46' E. 

KWE. — A tidal creek in the Nga-poo-taw township, Bassein district, 
running between the Bassein and the Thek-ngay-thoung mouths of the Nga- 
won river, varying from 100 to 300 yards in breadth and from two to six 
fathoms in depth at low water. Near its eastern end a bed of limestone 
passes imder the creek on which there are three fathoms at low tide. 

KWE -DAN - SHE . — A village in the Zaing-ga-naing circle, Pegu 
township, Eangoon district, a few miles below Pegu but on the right bank 
of the Pegu river. In 1877 it had 582 inhabitants. 

KWENG-BOUK-GYEE. — A revenue circle in the Myoung-mya town- 
ship, Bassein district, having an estimated area of 350 square miles and 
comprising that portion of the delta of the Irrawaddy lying between the 
Ewe and the Pya-ma-law rivers which is bounded by the Pan-ma-myit-ta and 
the Poo-loo natural canals on the north and by the seacoast on the south. 
The coastline consists of a flat and sandy beach with narrow plains, from 
^ to ^ a mile in width and covered with grass jungle, running along its 
margin. The country as far north as the Kook-ko channel is low and inter- 
sected by tidal creeks the banks of which have a deep fringe of heavy tree 
forest. From the Kook-ko to the northern boimdary the country gradually 
rises, the intricacy of the creeks diminishes, and the plains and habitable spots 
increase. No hUl or stone of any sort has been discovered and the whole 
circle may be considered as formed of pure alluvial deposit. There are no 
roads of any sort but excellent water communication. The inhabitants, 
who in 1876 numbered 2,432, are mainly fishermen and net and trap 
makers though a few are engaged in cultivation. In that year the land 
revenue was Es. 6,648, the capitation tax Es. 2,855 and the gross revenue, 
of which about one-quarter was the produce of the fishery and net tax, 
Es. 13,380. 

KWENG-DA-LA, — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Shwe-gyeng township, Shwe-gyeng district, on the Tsit-toung river just 
below Pooz-won-myoung, with 524 inhabitants in 1877. 

KWENG-DA-LA . — A revenue circle in the Shwe-gyeng district occupy- 
ing both banks ofthe river just north of the town of Shwe-gyeng and on the west 
bank stretching down opposite to that town. It has an area of about 80 
square miles and a population (in 1876) of 7,793 souls who are principaUy 
Burmese. There are several fisheries worked by inhabitants of this circle. 
At Poo-zwon-myoung pots are largely manufactured for export down the 
river to the Eangoon district and inland to the hiQs and elsewhere. In 
1876 the land revenue was Es. 1,853, the capitation tax Es. 7,082 and the 
gros s reven ue Es. 12,252. 

KWENG-GOUK.— A revenue circle in the Oot-hpo township of the 
Ueil^ada district, having the Bassein district on the south and the Gnyoung- 
rwa-ngay circle on the north, and extending eastward from the Arakan 



BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


275 


mountains to the Oot-hpo Myoma circle. To the west the country is 
hilly and covered with tree forest, where are found Teak {Tectona grandis), 
Eng {Diptero carpus tuberculatus) , Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolahriformis) and 
Sha {Acacia catechu) ; through these forests roam elephants, bison, tiger and 
deer. Towards the west the country is open and exceedingly fertile. In 
1876 the population numbered 13,731 souls and the gross revenue was 
Es. 27,598, of which Es. 12,353 were from the land revenue and Es. 12,347 
from the capitation tax. 

KWENG-HLA. — A revenue circle in the Pa-doung township of the 
Prome district, to the west of Pyeng-gyee, now joined to the Toung-ngoo 
circle. 

KWENG-HLA. — A revenue circle in the Tha-boung township, Bassein 
district, lying between the crest of the Arakan hills on the west and the 
Bassein river on the east, and extending northwards from the Thaboung 
circle, from which it is separated bytheThien stream, to the Kan-nee circle 
of the Le-myet-hna township. In the eastern part of the circle there is a good 
deal of rice cultivation but towards the west the ground rises and the sur- 
face of the country is occupied by the well-wooded spurs and eastern slopes 
of the Arakan Eoma. There is a fairly good road through the plains about 
two miles west of the Bassein river. In 1876 the population numbered 
4,564 souls, the land revenue was Es. 4,339, the capitation tax Es. 4,795 
and the gross revenue Es. 11,119. 

KWENG-LYA. — A village in the Kwon-khyoung circle, Ee-gyee town- 
ship, Bassein district, 12 miles south-west of Nga-thaing-khyoung, on the 
right bank of the Bassein river, at the southern mouth of the Kwon river, 
which separates it from the viUage of Tsha-daw, and a few miles below Nga-pee- 
tshiep. The inhabitants of the united villages, who are mainly Kareng, are 
engaged chiefly in agriculture and numbered 1,012 in 1877. 

KWON. — A river in the Bassein district which rises in the Arakan 
hills and falls into the Than-dwe at the shoulder of the bend eastward which 
that river makes about six miles from its mouth. It is navigable by boats 
of 30 to 40 feet in length as far as the village of Kwon-khyoung, that is 
for about two miles, and small boats can ascend two miles fiirther with the 
flood. 

KWON. — A river in the Bassein district which rises in the Arakan 
mountains and empties itself into the Bassein river between the two adjoin- 
ing villages of Kweng-lya and Tsha-daw. During the rains it is naviga- 
ble for boats of fifty or sixty baskets burden as far as Hpan-kha-beng but 
in the dry weather only as far as the village of Kweng-khyoung and then 
only at flood tide. About seven miles from its source it is joined by a 
noi4hem tributary which rises in the Tsheng-ro peak of the Arakan moun- 
tains, about 1,400 feet above the sea level. Pyengma {Lagerstrcemia regince)^ 
Pyeng-gado {Xylia dolahriformis) and Eengdaik {Dalbergia cultrata) are found 
on its banks, as well as some teak near its source. 

KWON. — A river forming the boundary between the Toung-ngoo and 
the Shwe-gyeng districts on the west of the Tsit-toung river. It rises in the 
Pegu Eoma range and after an easterly course of 60 miles falls into the 
Tsit-toung about 50 miles south of Toung-ngoo. Owing to the rockiness of 



276 


BEITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


of its bed it is not navigable by boats but large quantities of teak and of the 
produce of the country, of which raw silk forms a large part, are brought 
down on rafts. About 20 miles from its mouth, near the village of 
Tsan-gyee, it is for several miles obstructed by rapids with narrow 
passages between the rocks. 

KWON. — A small river in the Henzada district which rises in the Ara- 
kan mountains and, flowing eastward through a valley separated from that 
of the A-loon on the north by a spur of the Eoma, falls into that river a 
few miles above Bhet-rai village. In the rains large boats can ascend far 
about four miles but no further on account of the rocky natme of the bed 
and other obstructions, such as trees and bamboos which are then washed 
down. The banks are steep in some places and flat in others and the bed 
is sandy, muddy and rocky. Teak is the most important tree growing on 
its banks. 


KWON-DAW. — ^A revenue circle in the Henzada district, now includ- 
ing Eeng-daw and Ee-dweng-hla, lying on the southern border of the Myan- 
oung township between Thien-goon on the west and Htan-thoon-beng on the 
east. The cultivation is carried on chiefly in the centre and towards the 
south-east of these combined circles the west and north being undulating 
ground unsuited for rice : about half of Eeng-daw is under rice cultivation. 
In 1876 the population numbered 3,851 souls, the capitation tax produced 
Bs. 4,250, the land revenue was Es. 4,879 and the gross revenue was 
Es. 9,662. 


KWON-GIEE.— A revenue circle in the Gyaing Attaran township of 
the Amherst district, to which Poon-kawis now joined. In 1876 the popu- 
lation numbered 868 souls, the land revenue was Es. 209 and the capita- 
tion tax produced Es. 822. 


KWON-HLA.— (ProBOMwced Kwan-hla). A viEage of the Ka-ma-ke 
circle in the Amh erst district, north-east of and near Ka-ma-ke, in the south 
of Bhee-loo-gywon. When this township was re-peopled after the annexa- 
tion a Thoogyee and his foEowers settled in this village which gave its 
name to a circle which was united to Ka-ma-ke in 1848. In 1868 the 
population, principally Talaing, ntunbered 559 souls and in 1876 705. 

KWON-HLA. {Pronounced Kwan-hla). A revenue circle in the Zaya 
township, Amherst district, prided into two portions by the Htoon-man 
circle. One portion of it, which is nearly aE highland, adjoins the Toung- 
myo range between Htoon-man on the north and the Wa-kha-roo river on 
the south ; the other, aE plain land, is on the bank of the Salween at the 
muth of the Wa-kha-roo. The total area of the circle is 14,215 acres. 
The inhabitots, who in 1868 numbered 732 and in 1876 1,094 souls, are 
prmcipaEy Taking with a few Kareng and Chinese. The principal vElagea 
1 Nee-pa-daw. In the former there were 369 inhabitants 
m 1868 and under 500 m 1876 and in the latter 363 in 1868 and 790 in 
1876. in the latter year the land revenue was Es. 4,767 (a good many of 
the inhabitants of toe coratry on the other side of toe Wa-kha-roo own and 
emta vate land here) and toe capitation tax produced Es. 1,027. 

™ La-wa-dee circle, Angyee 
township, Kangoon distnct, which, with the adjacent viEage of Taw-pa-lwai 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER, 


277 


had, in 1877, 1,233 inhabitants, chiefly Talaing. It does not appear 
to have increased in size to any considerable extent for in 1858 it contain- 
ed 200 houses, which represent a population of about 1,000 souls, and in 
1868 there were 1,076 inhabitants. It is situated on the Thoon-khwa or 
Taw-pa-lwai stream, about five miles from its mouth in the To river. The 
inhabitants are largely occupied in the manufacture of the pots in which 
brine is boiled down for the extraction of salt. The clay is found in the 
Taw-gyee near the A-twot lake, or swamp, a few miles north of the village. 
The pot makers pay no special tax ; in the Burmese time each potter's wheel 
was charged, 

KWON-KHYOUNG. — A revenue circle in the Ee-gyee township, Bassein 
district, about 18 square miles in extent. Its largest village is Bhoora-goon. 
In 1876 the population numbered 2,049 souls, the land revenue was 
Es. 1,637, the capitation tax Es. 2,330 and the gross revenue Es. 4,754. 

KWON-LOUNG. — A village of nearly one hundred and twenty houses 
on the left bank of the Irrawaddy in the Nga-pyeng circle, Mye-dai township, 
Thayet district, opposite Kywon-gale island. In the same narrow tract 
of rice country are the villages of Pyee-beng-hla on the north and Nga- 
pyeng to the south. 

KWON-NEE . — {Pronounced Kwan-nee), A village in the Hmaw-won 
circle, Than-lyeng township, Eangoon district, on a stream of the same name 
about four miles from its junction with the Ka-ma-ka-root, the united streams 
falling into the Hmaw-won a little below Kyouk-tan. In 1877 the popula- 
tion numbered 611 souls. A number of Talaing families have been 
established here ever since the first Anglo Burmese war, attracted to the spot 
by the fertility of the neighbouring lands and by the convenience of the situa- 
tion, the stream being broad and navigable by boats of considerable burden 
as far as the village. 

KWON-OON. — A revenue circle in the Thayet township, Thayet 
district, covering an area of about eight square miles, of which about 600 
acres are cultivated at present and some thousand more are culturable ; in 
1876 the population numbered 5,727 and the gross revenue was Es. 6,761, 
of which Es. 2,313 were derived from the land revenue and Es. 4,276 from 
the capitation tax. Formerly this circle formed a portion of Taw-daw- 
khyoung but was erected into a separate circle in 1855 : in 1861 Taw-daw- 
khyoiing was absorbed in Ban-byeng ; in 1871 the Ee-byoo circle was 
placed under the Thoogyee of Kwon-oon, who had hereditary rights, as was 
Mya-tsa-gaing in 1871 on the resignation of the Thoogyee. Still later Ban- 
byeng with the included Taw-daw-khyoung was added to it. The products 
are cotton, sessamum, rice, maize and cutch. 

KWON-OON . — k village in the Kwon-oon circle, Thayet township, 
Thayet district, containing about fifty houses, situated on the Pwon stream. 
Before 1855 it was one of the viEages of Taw-daw-khyoung ; it was then, 
together with two* other villages, formed into a new circle. 

KWON-OON. — ^A revenue circle in the Tha-ga-ra township of the 
Toung-ngoo district, east of the Tsit-toung river, near which the coimtry is 
level but eastwards it is hilly and forest-clad, producingteakandbamboos. In 
1876 the land revenue was Es. 1,257, the capitation tax Es. 2,274, the gross 
revenue Es. 4,181 and the population 3,711. 



278 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KWON-EAIK . — {Pronounced Kivan-raik). A revenue circle in the 
Amherst district on the western side of Bhee-loo-gywon and in the central por- 
tion of what was the old Daray “ Myo*' or township, having the sea on the 
west, the present circle of Daray on the north, Rwa-lwot on the east and 
Taw-ka-ma on the south. The whole of its surface is an extensive alluvial 
plain with a total area of 6,452 acres. This is the only cii’cle in the town- 
ship in which the boundaries fixed by Captain Phayre in 1848 have been 
changed. When the circle was first established the Kyoon-ka-mee and the 
Kyoon-tha streams were declared to form the boundary between this circle and 
Taw-ka-ma but the Kyoon-ka-mee having silted up disputes arose between 
the two Thoogyee and a portion of what was formerly in Kwon-raik is now 
included in Taw-ka-ma. The principal village is Kwon-raik, near the stream 
of the same name : in 1876 it had 978 inhabitants- In 1868 the population 
was 934, the land revenue Es. 5,237 and the capitation tax Es. 905 : in 1876 
these had increased to 1,116, Es. 5,430 and Es. 1,160 respectively. The 
principal occupation of the inhabitants is cultivation but a little salt is 
made and a small revenue is derived from the taxon nets. 

KWON-EAIK . — (Pronounced Kwan-raik), A village in the circle of the 
same name in the Amherst district on Bhee-loo-gywon near the little Kwon- 
raik stream. In 1867 this and the adjoining viflage of Taw-ka-ma had 904 
inhabitants, almost all Talaing with a fewBurmans and one or two Chinese, 
and in 1877 978. 


KWON-TAW . — (Pronounced Kwan-taw). A revenue circle in the 
Amh erst district in the south of Bhee-loo-gywon, having Ka-la-be on the 
north, Ka-ina-ke on the east, Taw-ka-ma on the west and the sea on the south. 
Its surface is an unbroken level of swampy plains, parts of which are occa- 
sionally damaged by salt water. In the Burmese time it formed a portion 
of the Ka-ma-ke circle from which it was separated by Captain Phayre in 1848- 
It has a total area of 4,891 acres. Of late years the sea has made consider- 
able encroachment and the sites of Kwon-taw and other villages have been 
swept away since 1848. The land is generally good for rice when not 
swamped with salt-water and there is little room for any increase in the 
area so cultivated unless reclamation schemes are undertaken. There is no 
ground fit for gardens, that is above the usual inundation level. In 1868 
the population numbered about 120, the land revenue was Es. 4,915 and the 
capitation tax Es. 127. In 1876 these had increased to 228, Es. 5,282 and 
Es. 230 respectively . The paucity of the population as compared with the 
land revenue is due to the inhabitants, when their villages were washed away 
having removed into neighbouring circles but still working the land. ' 


?^0N-THAL— (ProMOMwcecZ Kwan-thai). A village in the Kharaik- 
tnit circle of the Bhee-loo-gywon township of the Amherst district, on the 
• u . Salween at the mouth of the Kharaik-thit stream. The 
inhabitants numbered 565 in 1867 and 875 in 1877. 

XT revenue circle in the north of the Kyan-kheng township, 

^nzada district, south of Akouk-toung, now included in the Tshoon-lai 


intheGyaingAttaran township, Amherst 
difltnct, occupymg the country on both banks of the Za-mee river, just south 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


279 


of the Hpa-thien circle. Hilly and covered with forest the few Kareng who 
inhabit it do not cultivate largely. In 1876 the population was 1,017, the 
land revenue Es. 331 and the capitation tax Es. 982. The principal village 
is Kya-eng. 

KYA-ENG. — A revenue circle in the north-eastern township of the 
Tavoy district, about 24 square miles in extent, of which about one-sixth is 
cultivated. The main products are rice and doorians. In 1876 the inhabit- 
ants numbered 2,703, the land revenue was Es. 4,386, the capitation tax 
Es. 2,222 and the gross revenue Es. 6,827- 

KYA-ENG,— A village in the circle of the same name in the Gyaing 
Attaran township, Amherst district, about four miles east of the bank of the 
Za-mee, the houses surrounded with orange and other fruit gardens. A small 
and unimportant little stream of the same name runs through the village 
which is laid out without any attempt at regularity and with no roads but 
narrow footpaths through the gardens from house to house. The inhabit- 
ants, who are Kareng and are nearly, if not quite, all Christians, numbered 
707 in 1877. 

KYA-ENG. — A village in the circle of the same name in the Tavoy 
district which in 1877 had a population of 685 souls. 

KYA-GAN. — A revenue circle in the Moung-mya township, Bassein 
district, with an area of about 111 square miles, on the right bank of the 
Ewe, north of the La-bwot-ta-loot channel. An outcrop of limestone, rising 
into small hills, occupies the whole of the northern and central portion of 
the circle. The inhabitants are principally fishermen and nga-pee makers, 
though a few are cultivators, and in 1876 numbered 4,833 souls. La-bwot-ta 
is the principal place. During the fishing season the majority of the inhabi- 
tants go south and establish temporary fishing hamlets. In 1876 the land 
revenue was Es. 2,762, the capitation tax Es. 6,365, the other taxes, 
principally net and trap, Es. 5,847 and the gross revenue, including the 
five per cent cess on the land revenue and net tax, Es. 15,363. 

KYA-GAN. — A revenue circle in the Meng-doon township, Thayet 
district, now joined to Ta-goung-nek. 

KYA-GAN. — ^A village of over one hundred houses in the circle of the 
same name in the Meng-doon township, Thayet district, close to the northern 
frontier and about a mile from the 8th boundary pillar, counting westwards 
from the river. 

KYAIK-ATHOOT. — A pagoda in the plains west of the Maulmain hHls 
said to contain a hair of Gaudama and to have been built by King Maha- 
nee-zee-na. It was restored about thirty-five years ago and is now 135 feet 
high and 360 feet in circumference at the base. 

KYAIK-HPA-NAY. — A pagoda in the extreme north of the town of Maul- 
main standing on the bank of the Salween river.^ According to the current 
tradition it was built by a Talaing — one of the original mythical dynasty which 
reigned before the foundation of Pegu — to commemorate a victory over the 
Siamese. It was repaired in 1863 by an inhabitant of Maulmain at his own 
expense and has now a height of 45 feet. 



280 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


EYAIK-HPYENG-KOO. — A pagoda in the Martaban township of the 
Amherst district, founded in 1288 a.d. by King Wa-rie-yoo. The name is 
supposed to be a corruption of the Talaing ‘‘Kyaik-hpyeng-boo” or ‘Tagoda 
of the large assembly” from having been built on a spot on which Gaudama 
had preached to and converted a large assembly of Bhee-loo*. 

KYAIK-HTEE-YO. — A peak on the crest of the main dividing range 
between the Tsit-toung and the Salween just to the east of Tsittoung, 
between that town and Kyaikhto, which rises to a height of 3,650 feet. The 
ascent is made in one day from the south-east and in two from Tsit-toung. 
The pagodas on the top are annually resorted to by crowds of Booddhists, 
especially Talaing, in February of each year. The view from the summit 
is exceedingly fine : to the eastward are seen the Martaban mountains, 
to the south the sea and to the west the great Shwe Hmaw-daw Pagoda of 
Pegu. The most remarkable features of this hill are the many granitoid 
boulders scattered about its summit, some of them balanced in the strangest 
manner on the most prominent rocks. On all the most striking of these 
boulders small pagodas have been built ; of these the two principal are the 
Kyaik-htee-yo-ga-le (a barbarous word, three-fifths Talaing and two-fifths 
Burmese) and the Kyaik-htee-yo (whence is derived the name of the 
hill). This latter, about^ fifteen feet high, is built on a huge, almost 
egg-shaped, rounded, granitoid boulder perched on the very summit of a 
projecting and shelving tabular rock, which itself is separated several feet 
from the mountain by a rent or chasm, now spanned by a small bamboo 
footbridge and on the further side drops down perpendicularly into a valley 
below. On the extreme verge of this sloping rock table, and actually 
overhanging it by nearly half, is perched this wonderful boulder, thirty feet 
high and surmounted by the pagoda, reached by a bamboo moveable ladder. 
The mass appears as if the additional weight of a few pounds, or indeed 
a strong wind, would send it sliding down from the place it has occupied 
for unknown centuries crashing into the sloping valley beneath and pious 
Booddhists believe that it is retained in its position solely by the power of 
the rehc enshrined in the pagoda. This relic is a hair of Gaudama given 
to a hermit residing on the mountain by the Booddha himself as he was 
returning from the second heaven of the Nat whither he had gone to preach 
the law to his mother. 


KYAIK-HTO. A revenue circle in the Tsit-toung sub-division of the 
bhwe-^eng distnct, surrounding the town of Kyaik-hto, about 70 square 
miles m extent and with a population in 1876 of 7,329 souls. The area 
jmder cmtiration is small but the fisheries afford a large revenue to the 
T 1 to the north cardamoms are produced to some extent. 

^ 187b the land revenue was Es. 703, the capitation tax Es. 5,623 and 
the gross revenue Es. 21,335. 


town in the Kyaik-hto Bhee-lenc 
district, about half way between Tsit-toung and 
the Ka-dat mer, which is here spanned by a wooden 
MT®®! ® to Maulmaia, and lying at the foot of the 

country which stretches down southward to 
tne coast. It has a population of 2,040 souls. For some years it was the 


* Of. Bhee-loo-gywou” and note to page 128. 



BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


281 


head-quarter station of the Kyaik-hto township and later of the united 
townships of Kyaik-hto and Bhee-leng. A few years ago the Extra 
Assistant Commissioner in charge of these two townships was transferred 
to Bhee-leng, and Kyaik-hto, lying in about the centre, was made the head- 
quarter station of the Tsit-toung sub-division, the Assistant Commissioner 
in charge being transferred hither from Tsit-toung. The town consists 
principally of one long street at right angles to and crossing the Kadat, that 
portion which lies to the eastward being the largest and most important ; 
here there are cross streets and a few others parallel to the main road. 
The houses are well and substantially built and the town throughout the 
year is a centre of trade in cattle, rice in the husk, betelnuts, fish, salt, 
piece-goods, cotton twist and hardware. The proposed canal to connect 
the Bhee-leng and Tsit-toung rivers will pass close by Kyaik-hto. At the 
extreme eastern end, near a group of pagodas and monasteries, is the 
circuit-house, The town contains a Court-house, a Police Station and a 
good market. In 1876 the local revenue, in addition to the Imperial taxes, 
was Es. 2,443. 

KYAIK-KA-LO. — This pagoda, which at present is undergoing 
repair, is situated about 800 yards west of the Prome road and 1^ miles N. 
of the village of Tsan-^ee-wa. It stands on the summit of a short spur * 
stretching from the ridge along which runs the high road. There is a 
small zayat at the junction of the footpath leading to the pagoda and the 
Prome road. The whole of the ridge is covered with short shrub-growth 
and long grass. 

The footpath leads up to the platform, which is about 60 yards square, 
entering it by a few steps placed in the centre of the side facing the E. 
Immediately inside the entrance is a sitting figure of Gaudama Booddha, 
imder a roofed building ; behind this is another figure, also of the last 
Booddha, let into the basement of the ‘‘ bell,” and again on the S. side of 
the beU there is also another figure similarly let in. From the platform an 
excellent view is obtained of the undulating ground stretching westwards 
and southwards, and of the broad expanse of rice-fields eastwards towards 
the Poo-zwon-doung creek. In the S. E. comer of the platform stands 
another roofed building containing one large and two small figures of 
Gaudama. 

The basement of the pagoda is octagonal, each side being about 14 
yards in length, and is raised some 6 J feet above the level of the platform. 
On the basement stand 24 small pagodas, some of which are undergoing 
repair, and from their midst rises the ** beU ” of the large pagoda, the 
height of the whole being about 90 feet. On the N. side a portion of the 
modem brick-facing of the basement has fallen into decay, exposing the 
large blocks of laterite of which the pagoda is built. A small winding road • 
leads from the S. E. comer of the platform and, skirting the neighbouring 
monastery grounds, descends into a dell lying between the edge of the platform 
and the Prome road. In this dell is a small tank, surrormded by a low brick 
waU, with four small ornamental archways over the steps leading down 
to the well. The path then winds up the opposite side of the dell and 
joins the Prome road about 50 yards S. of the point from whence the 
main path strikes off to the pagoda. There is here an annual festival in 
the month of Taboung (about March) attended by vast numbers of people. 

36 



282 


BBITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KYAIK-KA-LWON-BWON. — A pagoda in Martaban supposed to have 
been founded in the sixth century B.C. by the Bheeloo, who then inhabited 
the country, to commemorate a miracle performed by Gaudama, who came 
to preach to and convert them, and to enshrine one of his hairs- 

KYAIK-EA.-LWON-BWON. — A pagoda standing on a massive laterite 
base on the hill above the town of Tsit-toung within the old fort walls, sup- 
posed to have been built to commemorate an interview between Gaudama and 
100 Bheeloo. 

EYAIK-KA-MAN-LAI. — A pagoda on Bheeloo island, supposed to have 
been founded during the reign of a Talaing l^g named Nan-da-thee-ha- 
ra-ga. 

KYAIK-KA-MAW. — A group of villages in the Than-lyeng township of 
the Rangoon district, inhabit^ed by Pwo Kareng agriculturists and situat- 
ed some in the plains and some on the Koondan or undulating ground. 
There formerly existed here a Talaing city of which no traces remain save 
a cluster of pagodas on an eminence near which is a conspicuous clump of 
teak trees. 

KYAIK-KA-THA. — A very ancient pagoda in the Shwe-gyeng district 
‘between Tsit-toung and Kyaik-hto, about seven miles from the former, built, 
according to local tradition, by Prince Ka-tha Koom-ma-ra. This Prince, 
who was the son of one of the minor Queens, was, by order of the Chief Queen, 
thrown, when an infant, on to the bank of the Tsit-toung river at Kha-ra- 
tshoo. He was saved and brought to Kyaik-ka-tha where, in after years, he 
built this pagoda and founded a town, the remains of which are stiU in 
existence. Leadingup to this pagoda is a curious avenue of other and smaller 
ones all built, as the Kyaik-ka-tha itseK is, of laterite and generally known to 
the Burmese as “ Bhoora-ta-htoung ” or the thousand pagodas. Kyaik-ka- 
tha is the Talaing name. 

KYAIK-KA-THA. — A small village of 617 inhabitants in the Tsit- 
toung sub-division of the Shwe-gyeng district eight miles south-east of Tsit- 
toung, on the high road, during the rains, from Tsit-toung to Maulmaia. 
Near it is a celebrated pagoda supposed to have been founded by a Prince 
named Ka-tha Koom-ma-ra who founded a town here, whence the name, 
Kyaik meaning pagoda in Talaing. The inhabitants live principally by 
working the neighbouring fisheries. 

KYAIK-KAW. — A revenue circle in the Tha-htoon township of the 
Amherst district, north of Tha-htoon, stretching from the crest of the 
Martaban lulls westward to the Bhee-Ieng river, with the Dha-noo circle 
on the north and east (on the other side of the hills) and the Mye-nee-goon 
circle on the south. The alluvial plains are fertile but are still too much 
flooded by the spill from the Bhee-leng and by the rain water, which does 
not flow off rapidly, to be available for much cultivation notwithstanding 
the protection afforded by the Ka-ma-thaing embankment and the drainage 
ways which have been cut of late years. These works have done undoubted 
good for whereas the land revenue in 1868 was Es. 6,644 it was Es. 10,618 
in 1876. The increase, however, is partly due to the reduction in the 
rate which was Es. 2-4 per acre before 1868 and has since been Es. 1-12, 
Re. 1, and twelve annas, according to the situation and fertility of the soil. 



BBITISH BUBMA GAZETTEER. 


283 


In 1878 the population, composed mainly of Talaing and Kareng, was 
3,336 and the capitation tax Rs. 3,430 ; in 1876 4,969 and Es. 5,072 
respectively. The principal villages are Ka-tha-ba-kareng and Kha-daik ; 
in 1868 the inhabitants numbered 823 and 350 and in 1876 529 and 539 
respectively. The latter of these two was formerly on the bank of the 
Bhee-leng, but owing to that river having changed its channel it is now 
some distance inland. 

KYAIK-KA-TSHAN. — A pagoda of great sanctity in the Rangoon 
district, about three miles north-east of the Shwe-dagon pagoda in Rangoon, 
about 90 feet high and 70 feet in diameter at the base. It was erected, 
according to Talaing history, about two centuries B. C. by Baw-ga-the-na 
over one of the relics of Gaudama brought by eight Eahanda. It was 
partially destroyed in 1733 but was repaired and has been occasionally 
repaired since. A large assemblage of* people takes place at the annual 
festival in February. 

KYAIK-KHA-MEE . — A small circle in the Wa-kha-roo township, 
Amherst district, oftriangularshape, having the Salween and the Wa-kha-roo 
rivers on one side and the sea on the other and the circle of Hnit-kaing on 
the east for its base. The total area is 3,996 acres. The principal rice 
fields are in the alluvial plain near the bank of the Wa-kha-roo, the rest 
of the circle isuplandwithalateritesoil and well adapted for gardens. There 
was formerly a good deal of sugar cultivation but as the land became 
impoverished the cultivators moved eastwards into other circles. The 
population is almost entirely congregated in the town of Amherst. It is 
composed principally of Talaing, with Bmmans, Natives of India, Chinese 
and a few Europeans and Indo-Europeans : in 1868 it numbered 3,085 
souls and 3,436 in 1876. In the latter year the land revenue was Es. 1,852 
and the capitation tax Es, 3,182. 

KYAIK-KHA-MEE. — A name sometimes given to the Wa-kha-roo 
township of the Amherst district. $. v. 

KYAIK-KHA-PAN. — ^A pagoda in Martaban founded in 1199 A.D. by 
King A-lien-ma. 

KYAIK-KOUK. — A handsome pagoda standing on the Than-lyeng 
Koon-dan, or stretch of low laterite l^s which extend from Than-lyeng to 
Kyouk-tan, just above the village of Ka-gnyeng-goon, four or five miles 
from Than-lyeng or Syriam, and built almost entirely of large laterite 
blocks. It is one hundred and thirty one feet in height and twelve 
hundred feet in circumference at the base. The platform from which it 
rises is paved with slabs of a reddish stone brought from Upper Burma. 
The upper part of the structure is ornamented by alternate bands of white 
yellow and pale greenish-blue metal, which glitter in the sun and to one 
at a little distance give the pagoda the appearance of being gilded like the 
Shwe-dagon in Eangoon, the Shwe-Hmaw-daw in Pegu and many others. 
According to the history of the pagoda, Gaudama, a few years after attaining 
Booddha-hood, visited Burma and whilst staying on the Martaban hills 
presented two of his hairs to a resident hermit. In 580 B.C. the hermit 
came to Than-lyeng and presented the hairs to Ze-ya-the-na the king, who 
enshrined them in this pagoda which he built for that purpose. T^ee 



284 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


hundred and fifty years later, in 223 B.C., eight Eahanda or Booddhist monks 
visited Than-lyeng and presented Baw-ga4he-na, the last independent 
sovereign, with aboneof Gaudama’s forehead and one of his teeth, one of which 
the pious monarch enshrined in the east side of the pagoda and the other 
in the Kyaik-ka-tshan pagoda. In 1781 it had partially fallen into ruin 
and was repaired by King Bho-daw^bhoora, the third son of Aloung-bhoora, 
who ascended the throne in that year. It has since been considerably 
embellished by Moung Tha-dwon-oung, an Extra Assistant Commissioner 
and son of Moung Tsat who headed our Talaing allies in the first Anglo- 
Burmese war and subsequently escaped with many followers to the Amherst 
district. The building is now in the charge of a committee of elders of 
which the present Extra Assistant Commissioner of the township, Moung 
Bha-gyaw, son of Moung Tha-dwon-oung, is the President. 

KYAIK-MA-EAW. — An extensive revenue circle in the Amherst district 
lying between the Attaran river on the east and the Toung-gnyo chain on 
the west. It was at first included in the Attaran township, was sub- 
sequently transfen ed to Zaya, and has again of late years been retransferred^ 
to Gyaing Attaran. The total area is 28,723 acres. It has a considerable 
extent of upland but consists chiefly of large plains, intersected by water 
courses and deeply flooded in the rains when, after a heavy fall, almost the 
whole circle is covered to a depth of several feet and a small inland sea is 
formed, across which, when the wind is high, small boats dare not venture. 
These floods are caused by the volume of water brought down by the 
Attaran river banking up the streams which flow from the Toung-gnyo 
chain. The only village of any importance is Kyaik-ma-raw. In 1868 the 
population, who are principally" Talaing, with some Kareng and a few Shan 
and Chinese, numbered 1,384, the land revenue was Ks. 1,921 and the 
capitation tax Es. 1,375. In 1876 these were 2,043, Es. 3,160 and 
Es. 2,087 respectively. ^ 

KYAIK-MA-EAW. — A village in the circle of the same name in the 
Gyaing Attaran township of the Amherst district, about a mile to the west 
of the Attaran rivei and not far east of the Toung-gnyo hills. A good road 
runs from the river bank to the village. In 1877 it had a population of 
822 souls. 

KYAIK-MA-TAW. — A small pagoda on the hiUs in the town of Maul- 
main supposed to contain one of Gaudama’s hairs. Of its early history 
nothing is known. 

KYAIK-PA-DAING. — ^A village in the Pegu circle of the Pegu township, 
Bangoon district, on the northern bank of the Paing-kywon cutting, which, 
with the Myit-kyo, canal, forms the water-route between the Pegu and the 
Tsit-toung. It is the head-quarters of the Executive Engineer of the 
Tsit-toung Embankment and Canal Division. Jn 1877 it had 877 inhabi- 
tonts. 

KYAIK-PA-NAY. — A pagoda in Maulmain close to the waters' edge 
on the north point of the land on which the town stands built in the 
ei^th century by the Peguan king Bha-nai-tsiep-tsaw to commemorate a 
victory over the Shans or Siamese. It was enlarged in 1863 by Moung 
Shwe Boo and is now 45 feet high. 



BBITISH BUBMA GAZETTEEB. 


285 


KYAIK-PA-EAN. — A revenue circle in the Amherst district, occupjdng 
a tract of country in the Gyaing Attaran township on the right bank of 
the Attaran river, and stretching south-east from the Gnyoung-beng-tshiep 
circle. It is inhabited principally by Talaing. In this circle is found the 
earth from which the pots for salt boiling are manufactured in Gnyoung-beng- 
tshiep. In 1876 the population was 2,057, the land revenue Es. 4,229 and 
the capitation tax Es. 1,877. 

KYAIK-TAW, — A large village, divided into north and south Kyaik-taw, 
in the len-da-poo-ra circle, Angyee township, Eangoon district, on the bank 
of the To river, at the mouth of the Doo-reng Kyaik-taw stream, situated in 
an extensive and fertile plain. In 1877 the united villages had a population 
of 1,047 souls. 

KYAIK-THAN-LAN. — The principal pagoda in the town of Maulmain, 
occupying a commanding position on the northern spur of the hiU over 
against Martaban, supposed to contain one of Gaudama’s hairs. It was 
founded in 875 A.D. by a hermit named Tha-gnya or Thee-la, It was sub- 
sequently enlarged by Pan-noo-rat, ruler of Maulmain, and again circa 1538 
A.I). by Wa-rie-yoo king of Martaban. When the country was ceded to the 
British this pagoda was in ruins but it was repaired in 1831 by Moung 
Taw-lay, an Extra Assistant Commissioner, with funds collected by public 
subscription. It measures 152 feet in height and 377 feet in circumference 
at the base. The name Kyaik-than-lan is supposed to be a corruption of 
Kyaik-shan-lan or the pagoda of the Shan defeat, and to be so named from 
the Shan or Siamese having been here defeated by the Peguans or Talaing. 

KYAIK-TOUNG-HPO. — A revenue circle, inhabited by Kareng and 
but httle cultivated, lying in the hilly and forest -clad country east of the 
Dawna range and just south of Mya-pa-daing, in the Houng-tha-raw township 
of the Amherst district. It contains some valuable teak localities. In 
1876 it had a population of 2,349 souls and a land revenue of Es. 749 whilst 
the capitation tax produced Es. 1,126. 

KYAI-LET. — A township in the Akyab distiict, on the right bank of 
the Koo-la-dan or Ga-tsha-ba river at its mouth, surrounding the town of 
Akyab. It is an island, generally low and flat, some parts being below 
high tide. 

KYAN. — A revenue circle in the Meng-doon township, Thayet district, 
amongst the spurs of the Arakan mountains, ninety-one square miles in 
extent, eighty-three being uncultuiable mountain waste and about three 
under cultivation. The population in 1876 numbered 2,284 souls, of whom 
a fifth were Khyeng. Owing to its situation the patches of hill 
clearing are numerous. In 1872 Es. 1,060 were drawn from the circle as 
land revenue and Es. 1,460 as capitation tax. In 1876 the figures were 
Es. 1,528 and Es. 1,529 respectively. Six of the old registered villages are 
included with the hmits of the circle but none of them had any Thoogyee 
in 1853 when Pegu became British territory. The products are rice, 
sessamum, cotton, maize, tobacco, onions, chillies and cutch. 

KYAN-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Shwe-doung township, Prome 
district, which now includes Ewa-hteng, Thoon-rwa-boung, Shwe-dien- 
hgnyeng, Kyee-wek, Kyee-daing and Zhe-ma. It is traversed from south to 



286 


BBITISH BUEMA GAZETTEER. 


north by the Kyoon stream east of which there is a good deal of rice 
cultivation. In 1876 there were 816 inhabitants, the land revenue was Es. 
1,800 and the capitation tax Rs. 873. 

KYAN-KHENG. — A township occupying the extreme north of the 
Henzada district, west of the Irrawaddy, adjoining the Prome district on 
the north and the Myanoung township on the south, and extending west- 
ward from the Irrawaddy to the crest of the Arakan Eoma mountains which 
separates it from the Sandoway district of Arakan. The greater portion of 
the country, especially in the north and west, is hiUy and indeed mountainous 
and covered with dense forest. An embankment extends along the bank of 
the Irrawaddy southwards from the spur which ends in the Akouk-toung 
c liff and protects the country inside from inundation on the annual rise of 
the river. The township is divided into seven revenue circles and in 1876 
had a gross population of 31,903 souls and a gross revenue (including the 
local revenue raised in Kyan-kheng the principal town) of Es. 73,678, of 
which Es. 29,185 were derived from the land, Es. 32,068 from the capitation 
tax, Es. 9,689 from local cesses and rates and Es. 2,736 from fisheries and 
other miscellaneous sources. 

In 1876 the area under cultivation and the agricultural stock were : — 


Area, in acres, under 


O 




Stock. 


Ah 


p:) 


1 




e® 


o 


a 


pp 


17,016 


1,724 


1,526 


20,266j 


108 


3,670 


7,116 


136 


718 


3,437 


2,851 


33 


325 


KYAN-KHENG. — ^A town in the Henzada district extending for some 
distance along the right bank of the Irrawaddy about six miles north of 
Myanoung, with a population in 1874 of 8,744 inhabitants and in 1876 of 
It is the head-quarters of an Extra Assistant Commissioner and has 
a fine market, a police station and a Public Works Department inspection 
bungalow. It now contains Eng-Iat, Ewa-thit and Myo-ma, the last 
of which was founded by the Talaing circa 1250 A.D., and Eng-lat in 
1753 by one Moung Khyeng, a Burman who came with a number of 
followers from the village of Eng-lat in Upper Burma. Ewa-thit was founded 
in the same year. ^ The inhabitants are principaEy merchants, cultivators 
-and fishermen. A' large trade is done in this town, a great deal of unhusked 
rice being sent down the river. The local revenue in 1876-77 was Es. 7,500. 
Long. Lat. 95^20' 10'" E. 

KYAN-KHENGMYOMA. — A revenue circle in the Henzada district 
siOTotinding and including part of the town of Kyan-kheng, with the Tshoon- 
lu circle on the north, the Bhet-rai circle on the west, the Ewa-thit circle on 
the south and the Irrawaddy on the east, and includbig Pyaw-bhway island, 



BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


287 


separated from the mainland by a channel of that river. In the south and 
east the country is under rice with some vegetable gardens but there is not 
much cultivation in the north, whilst towards the west the country is hilly 
and forest-clad. In 1867 the land revenue was Ks. 2, 584, the capitation 
tax Es. 4,965 and the population 4,312. In 1876 these were Es. 3,577, 
Es. 5,012 and 4,972 respectively; adding the sums collected on account 
of local cesses (including the amount collected in Kyan-kheng town) and 
fisheries the gross revenue was Es, 18,458. 

KYA-0. — A revenue circle in the Prome district in the southern part of 
the Pa-doung township. The eastern portion, near the village of Kya-o, con- 
tains some rice cultivation but the western consists of forest-covered hills, 
nowhere perhaps over 100 feet in height ; the principal is the Kyouk- 
tan hill whence a good supply of limestone is obtained and carried to 
Htoon-bho to be burned. The inhabitants — ^Burmese and Khyeng — ^are 
largely engaged in hill side cultivation and in the manufacture of cutch. 
In 1876 the population was 892, the land revenue Es. 1,050, the capitation 
tax Es. 1,037 and the gross revenue Es. 2,117. 

KYA-O. — A village in the Pa-doung township of the Prome district, in 
18®26'45" N. and 95°8^20^ E., on the bank of the Kha-wa stream about 
five miles from its mouth at Koon-bho. The inhabitants are chiefly culti- 
vators. 

KYAT . — See Toung-gnyo river. 

KYAT. — A river in the Bassein district which has its source in the 
Arakan mountains and falls in to the Bassein river opposite Le-myet-hna. In 
the hot weather it is dry. The bed is gravelly to within a short distance of the 
mouth. In the rains it is connected by several channels with the Tan-daw 
lake. In a portion of its course it is called the Tha-khwot and lower down 
the Ta-da. 

KYAT. — A revenue circle in the Meng-doon township, Thayet dis- 
trict, on the left bank of the Ma-htoon stream, about twenty-one square 
miles in extent, of which rather less than five are culturable the remain- 
ing sixteen being mountainous and covered with forest. Shut in be- 
tween the Ma-htoon river on the west and a range of hills on the east, the 
western spurs of which stretch down to the Ma-htoon, there is but small 
space for regular cultivation and consequently hiU clearings are numerous. 
The population numbered 1,319 in 1876, almost aU of whom were Burmans. 
The revenue in 1872 amounted to Es. 1,260, viz.y land revenue Es. 560 and 
capitation tax Es. 700, andin 1876 to Es. 1,631 viz., land revenue 702, capi- 
tation tax Es. 852 and other taxes and rates Es. 77. The products are 
rice, cotton, onions, sessamum and plantains. 

KYA-THE. — A village of about fifty houses in the Tham-hoo-la circle, 
Mye-dai township, Thayet district. 

KYAT-TSENG. — A revenue circle in the Mye-boon township, Kyouk- 
hpyoo district, between the Le-mro and the Kyat-tseng rivers north of 
Daingboon, about 20 square miles in extent and with a population of 2,319 
souls in 1876. In that year the land revenue was Es. 3,695, the capitation 
tax Es. 2,851, the receipts from the tax on nets and from local cesses &c., 
Es. 571 and the gross revenue Es. 7,117. 



288 


BRITISH BURMA GAZETTEER. 


KYA-WA. — A village in the Shwe-doung circle, Meng-doon township, 
Thayet district, containing about seventy houses. 

KYA-WENG. — A village in the Ewon East circle, Than-lyeng township, 
Eangoon district, on the left bank of the Pyeng-ma-gan stream about a mile 
from its mouth. The inhabitants, who are principally Shan agriculttu'ists, 
numbered 549 in 1877. 

KYAW-KAING. — A small village in the La-moo Lek-wai circle of the 
northerner Toung-goop township of the Sandoway district, on the right bank 
of the La-moo and about seven miles from its mouth. In 1877 the inhabit- 
ants numbered 473 souls. 

KYE-DAING. — A village of sixty houses in the Ee-byoo circle, Thayet 
township, Thayet district, adjoining Khyeng-tsouk (which contains fifty 
houses), about seven miles north-west of the town of Thayet. Both of 
these villages are near the centre of a long narrow stretch of rice cultiva- 
tion exten^g from Ewa-toung to Oot-shit-goon. 

KYEE-GAN-EAI. — A village in the Toung-ma-gyee circle of the 
Central or Sandoway township of the Sandoway district, on the seacoast 
three or four miles south of Toung-ma-gyee point. In 1877 the inhabitants 
numbered 823 souls. 

KYEE-GOON, — A village in the Meng-doon Myoma circle, Meng-doon 
township, Thayet district, close to the right bank of the Ma-htoon river, a 
short distance south-east of the town of Meng-doon. 

KYEE-MA-NO. — A village in the Prome district in 18°28'0" N. and 
95° 37' 20'' E. a mile and a half north of the Kyat river and not quite 
three miles east of the lower end of Poung-day, on the eastern edge of the 
Poimg-day rice plain. 

KYEE-MA-NO. — A revenue circle in the Prome district to the eastward 
of Poung-day between the Nwa-dat and the Kyat streams, now joined to Ma- 
gyee-beng. 

KYEE-MYENG-DAING. — A suburb of Eangoon : q, v. 

KYEE-THAI, — A large village in the Prome district on the left bank 
of the Irrawaddy in 18° 37' 33' N. and 95° 11' 30" E. and, measured along 
the river bank, about ten miles below Shwe-doimg. To the north of this 
village is the Theng-byoo lake and to the south of it the Eng-bya. In the 
rains these two unite behind the village and form an extensive tract of fen 
extending for nearly ten miles north and south and navigable by boa